United States: New York State Has Adopted Amendments To Existing Minimum Wage Orders

Last Updated: January 6 2017
Article by Bruce Millman

The New York State Department of Labor (NYSDOL) has adopted the proposed amendments to its Wage Orders – ending weeks of speculation about whether and when increases in the minimum salaries for employees to be exempt from overtime will come into force.1 This article summarizes the changes, which will take effect on December 31, 2016.

Schedule of NYS Minimum Salaries for Overtime Exemption 

The amendments are significant. Notably, the exemption thresholds for executive and administrative employees2 will increase depending on employer size, location, and year.3 

The schedule of minimum salaries for exemption4 is as follows:

New York City

Large Employers of 11 or more employees

12/31/2016

$825.00 per week

12/31/2017

$975.00 per week

12/31/2018

$1,125.00 per week

Small Employers of 10 or fewer employees

12/31/2016

$787.00 per week

12/31/2017

$900.00 per week

12/31/2018

$1,012.50 per week

12/31/2019

$1,125.00 per week

 

Nassau, Suffolk, and  Westchester Counties

12/31/2016

$750.00 per week

12/31/2017

$825.00 per week

12/31/2018

$900.00 per week

12/31/2019

$975.00 per week

12/31/2020

$1,050.00 per week

12/31/2021

$1,125.00 per week

Outside of Nassau, Suffolk, and  Westchester Counties

12/31/2016

$727.50 per week

12/31/2017

$780.00 per week

12/31/2018

$832.00 per week

12/31/2019

$885.00 per week

12/31/2020

$937.50 per week

Employers should be aware that a close reading of the Wage Order for Miscellaneous Occupations might support an argument that employees covered by that wage order who are exempt under the Fair Labor Standards Act and who meet the lower federal salary threshold but do not meet the higher New York threshold may nonetheless be exempt so long as their salary is sufficient to pay them time and one-half New York's minimum rate for all overtime hours.5 However, we have found no direct DOL interpretation or application of that Wage Order provision to the salary level of "white collar" employees.  Further, reliance on that provision may require an employer to track the hours of such exempt employees, to demonstrate that their salaries were sufficient to cover the overtime requirement.  Therefore employers are cautioned to consult with counsel before relying on that provision to pay exempt white collar employees a salary less than the state threshold.     

NYSDOL Clarifies Legislation and Proposed Wage Orders in Recent FAQs

On December 27, 2016, the NYSDOL published new frequently asked questions ("FAQs") on its minimum wage website that clarify many aspects of the recent minimum wage legislation and its wage orders.6

First, the website makes clear that the NYSDOL intends the new minimum salary thresholds to be effective immediately – that is, December 31, 2016, because of state law.

Second, the FAQs announce that, for purposes of the higher minimum wage and salary thresholds, a "large" employer is defined as "any business that 1) employs one or more employees in New York City and 2) has employed more than 10 employees at any time during the current or prior calendar year and among all worksites."7  [emphasis added].  This size is based on the highest total number of employees at any given time during the current or prior calendar year and among worksites.  Thus, an employer with only one employee in New York City could be considered a large New York City employer for purposes of the minimum wage and salary requirements.  The FAQs also indicate that each part-time employee will count towards the total number of employees needed to reach the threshold.8

The FAQs emphasize that the minimum wage rate that applies is the one where an employee performs the work, regardless of where the employer is located. If employees work in two minimum wage regions (e.g., they perform work in Westchester and New York City), an employer must either pay these employees the highest rate for all hours worked, or pay them for each hour worked in every region at the applicable minimum wage rate for that region. Thus, employers must keep track of employee hours worked, rates paid, and wages earned for hours worked in different regions.

Additionally, employees must be made aware of the pay rate applicable to the work they perform. Therefore, according to the NYSDOL, employers may either provide separate Wage Theft Prevention Act notices for each region, job site, job title, and pay rate or they may provide a listing of all rates on a single employee pay notice. The Wage Theft Prevention Act requires, and the FAQs remind employers, that increases in the employee's wage rate must also be reflected in the wage statement provided with their paycheck. Employers in the hospitality industry, however, must also provide their employees with written notice prior to any change in hourly rates of pay, and all employers must provide written notice of any decrease in employees' hourly wage or reclassification from exempt to non-exempt prior to performance of work at the lower rate.  

Lastly, should an employer's workforce drop to below 11 employees at any given time, the employer must wait a full calendar year before becoming subject to the "small" employer rate. For example, a New York City employer that employed more than 20 employees at any time in 2016, but does not employ more than 10 persons throughout 2017, will be considered a small employer in 2018 as long as it continues to employ no more than 10 people.

Texas Injunction Does NOT Affect NYSDOL Increases

On November 22, 2016, a federal judge in the Eastern District of Texas issued a preliminary injunction enjoining the United States Department of Labor from implementing its changes to regulations under the federal Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA), which would have more than doubled the salary threshold for administrative, executive, and professional employees, and was due to take effect on December 1.9 The judge in Texas found that the proposed changes in FLSA regulations were contrary to the requirements of the FLSA itself.

This injunction does not affect the increases in New York's minimum salary thresholds.  In fact, New York state law required that the salary thresholds be increased in proportion to the statutory increases in minimum wages adopted by the legislature and approved by the Governor in April.

Although the NYSDOL regulations create salary thresholds for 2017 that are below the now-enjoined federal thresholds, some New York employers will soon see minimum salaries for exemption leapfrog the proposed federal requirements on December 31, 2017. For example, employers with 11 or more employees will see the minimum salary level for exempt employees working in New York City exceed the federal requirements a year from now.

Tip Credits: Hospitality Industry

Hospitality Service Employees

Employers should note that the NYSDOL's amendment introduces a "tip threshold" into the tip credit landscape for hospitality industry service employees. Previously, employers were permitted to take a tip credit—up to a certain amount—provided that the employer paid a minimum cash wage and that the total cash wage plus tip exceeded the minimum rate. Under the amendment, the employer may now only claim the tip credit if¸ in addition to the above, the employee earns the hourly "tip threshold," which exceeds the amount of tip credit itself. The good news is that this tip threshold applies only to "service" employees, and does not apply to "food service" employees. Thus, employers need not be concerned about food servers, bussers, runners, bartenders and captains, for example, but do need to be wary about delivery employees, coat check employees, bellhops and doormen, for example, who are "service" employees but not considered "food service" employees.10

Table 1: Service Employees11

 

Effective Date

 

Tipped Employees in New York City, 11 or More Employees

Tipped Employees in New York City, Fewer Than 11 Employees

Employees in Nassau, Suffolk, and Westchester Counties

Employees in the Remainder of New York State

 

December 31, 2016

--

Min. hourly rate: $11

Cash Wage: $9.15

Tip Credit Rate: $1.85

Tip Threshold: $2.40

Cash Wage: $8.75

Tip Credit Rate: $1.75

Tip Threshold: $2.30

Cash Wage: $8.35

Tip Credit Rate: $1.65

Tip Threshold: $2.15

Cash Wage: $8.10

Tip Credit Rate: $1.60

Tip Threshold: $2.10

 

December 31, 2017

--

Min. hourly rate: $13

Cash Wage: $10.85

Tip Credit Rate: $2.15

Tip Threshold: $2.80

Cash Wage: $10.00

Tip Credit Rate: $2.00

Tip Threshold: $2.60

Cash Wage: $9.15

Tip Credit Rate: $1.85

Tip Threshold: $2.40

Cash Wage: $8.65

Tip Credit Rate: $1.75

Tip Threshold: $2.25

 

December 31, 2018

--

Min. hourly rate: $15

Cash Wage: $12.50

Tip Credit Rate: $2.50

Tip Threshold: $3.25

Cash Wage: $11.25

Tip Credit Rate: $2.25

Tip Threshold: $2.95

Cash Wage: $10.00

Tip Credit Rate: $2.00

Tip Threshold: $2.60

Cash Wage: $9.25

Tip Credit Rate: $1.85

Tip Threshold: $2.40

 

December 31, 2019

--

Min. hourly rate: $15

 

Cash Wage: $12.50

Tip Credit Rate: $2.50

Tip Threshold: $3.25

Cash Wage: $10.85

Tip Credit Rate: $2.15

Tip Threshold: $2.80

Cash Wage: $9.85

Tip Credit Rate: $1.95

Tip Threshold: $2.55

December 31, 2020

--

Min. hourly rate: $15

 

 

Cash Wage: $11.65

Tip Credit Rate: $2.35

Tip Threshold: $3.05

Cash Wage: $10.40

Tip Credit Rate: $2.10

Tip Threshold: $2.70

 

December 31, 2021

--

Min. hourly rate: $15

 

 

Cash Wage: $12.50

Tip Credit Rate: $2.50

Tip Threshold: $3.25

 

Food Service Workers

The amendments increase the required "cash wage" rate (i.e., hourly wage paid before tips) and "tip credit" rate, on a yearly basis, and now require that an employee's total tips received plus wages equals or is greater than the hourly "total" rate.12

Table 2: Food Service Employees13 (excluding Fast Food Employees)14

 

Effective Date

 

Tipped Employees in New York City, 11 or More Employees

Tipped Employees in New York City, Fewer Than 11 Employees

Employees in Nassau, Suffolk, and Westchester Counties

Employees in the Remainder of New York State

 

December 31, 2016

 

Cash Wage: $7.50

Tip Credit Rate: $3.50

Total: $11.00

Cash Wage: $7.50

Tip Credit Rate: $3.00

Total: $10.50

Cash Wage: $7.50

Tip Credit Rate: $2.50

Total: $10.00

Cash Wage: $7.50

Tip Credit Rate: $2.20

Total: $9.70

 

December 31, 2017

 

Cash Wage: $8.65

Tip Credit Rate: $4.35

Total: $13.00

Cash Wage: $8.00

Tip Credit Rate: $4.00

Total: $12.00

Cash Wage: $7.50

Tip Credit Rate: $3.50

Total: $11.00

Cash Wage: $7.50

Tip Credit Rate: $2.90

Total: $10.40

 

December 31, 2018

 

Cash Wage: $10.00

Tip Credit Rate: $5.00

Total: $15.00

Cash Wage: $9.00

Tip Credit Rate: $4.50

Total: $13.50

Cash Wage: $8.00

Tip Credit Rate: $4.00

Total: $12.00

Cash Wage: $7.50

Tip Credit Rate: $3.60

Total: $11.10

 

December 31, 2019

 

 

Cash Wage: $10.00

Tip Credit Rate: $5.00

Total: $15.00

Cash Wage: $8.65

Tip Credit Rate: $4.35

Total: $13.00

Cash Wage: $7.85

Tip Credit Rate: $3.95

Total: $11.80

 

December 31, 2020

 

 

 

Cash Wage: $9.35

Tip Credit Rate: $4.65

Total: $14.00

Cash Wage: $8.35

Tip Credit Rate: $4.15

Total: $12.50

December 31, 2021

 

 

 

Cash Wage: $10.00

Tip Credit Rate: $5.00

Total: $15.00

 

Uniform Maintenance Pay

The Hospitality Wage Order amendment implements new yearly increases to the uniform maintenance allowance, based on total weekly hours worked, as well as size and location of employer.15 In the case where an employee works in two minimum wage regions (e.g., New York City and Nassau), employers may either pay the higher uniform maintenance allowance for the week or prorate the allowance for the number of hours worked in each region. Employers should immediately plan and budget for these yearly increases.

Table 3: Uniform Maintenance Allowance16

New York City

Large Employers of 11 or more employees

 

 

On or after December 31

High Rate

(Paid, in addition to minimum wage, to employees who work in excess of 30 hours per week)

Medium Rate

(Paid, in addition to minimum wage, to employees who work 20 -- 30 hours per week)

Low Rate

(Paid, in addition to minimum wage, to employees who work fewer than 20 hours per week)

2016

$13.70

$10.80

$6.55

2017

$16.20

$12.80

$7.75

2018

$18.65

$14.75

$8.90

Small Employers of 11 or more employees

2016

$13.05

$10.35

$6.25

2017

$14.95

$11.80

$7.15

2018

$16.80

$13.30

$8.05

2019

$18.65

$14.75

$8.90

 

Nassau, Suffolk, and  Westchester Counties

On or after December 31

High Rate

 

(Paid, in addition to minimum wage, to employees who work in excess of 30 hours per week)

Medium Rate

 

(Paid, in addition to minimum wage, to employees who work 20 -- 30 hours per week)

Low Rate

 

(Paid, in addition to minimum wage, to employees who work fewer than 20 hours per week)

2016

$12.45

$9.85

$5.95

2017

$13.70

$10.80

$6.55

2018

$14.95

$11.80

$7.15

2019

$16.20

$12.80

$7.75

2020

$17.40

$13.75

$8.30

2021

$18.65

$14.75

$8.90

Outside of Nassau, Suffolk, and  Westchester Counties

On or after December 31

High Rate

(Paid, in addition to minimum wage, to employees who work in excess of 30 hours per week)

Medium Rate

(Paid, in addition to minimum wage, to employees who work 20 -- 30 hours per week)

Low Rate

(Paid, in addition to minimum wage, to employees who work fewer than 20 hours per week)

2016

$12.05

$9.55

$5.75

2017

$12.95

$10.25

$6.20

2018

$13.80

$10.90

$6.60

2019

$14.70

$11.60

$7.00

2020

$15.55

$12.30

$7.45

Meal Credits 

Employers may take a "meal credit" for meals provided to the employee (including: "Food Service," Hospitality "Service," and "Other" employees). Meal credits may be considered part of the employee's wages so long as each meal credit's value does not exceed the following rates:

Table 4: Meal Credits in Restaurants and All-Year Hotels17

 

Effective Date

 

Tipped Employees in New York City, 11 or More Employees

Tipped Employees in New York City, Fewer Than 11 Employees

Employees in Nassau, Suffolk, and Westchester Counties

Employees in the Remainder of New York State

 

December 31, 2016

 

Food Service: $2.85

Service: $3.05

Other: $3.80

Food Service: $2.80

Service: $2.90

Other: $3.60

Food Service: $2.70

Service: $2.80

Other: $3.45

Food Service: $2.65

Service: $2.70

Other: $3.35

 

December 31, 2017

 

Food Service: $3.25

Service: $3.60

Other: $4.50

Food Service: $3.05

Service: $3.35

Other: $4.15

Food Service: $2.85

Service: $3.05

Other: $3.80

Food Service: $2.75

Service: $2.90

Other: $3.60

 

December 31, 2018

 

Food Service: $3.60

Service: $4.15

Other: $5.15

Food Service: $3.35

Service: $3.75

Other: $4.65

Food Service: $3.05

Service: $3.35

Other: $4.15

Food Service: $2.90

Service: $3.10

Other: $3.80

 

December 31, 2019

 

 

Food Service: $3.60

Service: $4.15

Other: $5.15

Food Service: $3.25

Service: $3.60

Other: $4.50

Food Service: $3.00

Service: $3.30

Other: $4.05

 

December 31, 2020

 

 

 

Food Service: $3.45

Service: $3.90

Other: $4.80

Food Service: $3.15

Service: $3.45

Other: $4.30

 

December 31, 2021

 

 

Food Service: $3.60

Service: $4.15

Other: $5.15

 

Lodging Credits

Employers may take "lodging credits" for lodging provided to the employee (including: "Food Service," "Hospitality Service," and "Other" employees). These credits may be considered as part of the employee's wages so long as they do not exceed the hourly, daily or weekly amounts listed below:

Table 5: Lodging Credits in Restaurants18

 

Effective Date

 

Tipped Employees in New York City, 11 or More Employees

Tipped Employees in New York City, Fewer Than 11 Employees

Employees in Nassau, Suffolk, and Westchester Counties

Employees in the Remainder of New York State

December 31, 2016

 

Food Service:

$1.70/day or $11.00/week

Service:

$2.15/day or $13.80/week

Other:

$2.70/day or $17.10/week

Food Service:

$1.65/day or $10.65/week

Service:

$2.05/day or $13.20/week

Other:

$2.55/day or $16.35/week

Food Service:

$1.60/day or  $10.30/week

Service:

$1.95/day or $12.55/day

Other:

$2.45/day or $15.55/week

Food Service:

$1.60/day or $10.10/week

Service:

$1.90/day or $12.20/week

Other:

$2.35/day or $15.10/week

December 31, 2017

 

Food Service:

$1.95/day or $12.45/week

Service:

$2.55/day or $16.30/week

Other:

$3.20/day or $20.20/week

Food Service:

$1.85/day or  $11.75/week

Service:

$2.35/day or  $15.05/week

Other:

$2.95/day or $18.65/week

Food Service:

$1.70/day or $11.00/week

Service:

$2.15/day or $13.80/week

Other:

$2.70/day or $17.10/week

Food Service:

$1.65/day or $10.60/week

Service:

$2.00/day or $13.05/week

Other:

$2.55/day or $16.20/week

December 31, 2018

 

Food Service:

$2.15/day or $13.85/week

Service:

$2.90/day or $18.85/week

Other:

$3.65/day or $23.35/week

Food Service:

$2.00/day or $12.80/week

Service:

$2.65/day or $16.95/week

Other:

$3.30/day or $21.00/week

Food Service:

$1.85/day or $11.75/week

Service:

$2.35/day or $15.05/week

Other:

$2.95/day or $18.65/week

Food Service:

$1.75/day or $11.10/week

Service:

$2.15/day or $13.95/week

Other:

$2.70/day or $17.25/week

December 31, 2019

 

 

Food Service:

$2.15/day or $13.85/week

Service:

$2.90/day or $18.85/week

Other:

$3.65/day or $23.35/week

Food Service:

$1.95/day or $12.45/week

Service:

$2.55/day or $16.30/week

Other:

$3.20/day or $20.20/week

Food Service:

$1.80/day or $11.60/week

Service:

$2.30/day or $14.80/week

Other:

$2.90/day or $18.35/week

December 31, 2020

 

 

 

Food Service:

$2.05/day or $13.15/week

Service:

$2.70/day or $17.60/week

Other:

$3.40/day or $21.80/week

Food Service:

$1.90/day or $12.10/week

Service:

$2.45/day or $15.70/week

Other:

$3.05/day or $19.45/week

December 31, 2021

 

 

 

Food Service:

$2.15/day or $13.85

Service:

$2.90/day or $18.85/week

Other:

$3.65/day or $23.35/week

 

Table 6: Hourly Lodging Credits in All-Year Hotels19

 

Effective Date

Tipped Employees in New York City, 11 or More Employees

Tipped Employees in New York City, Fewer Than 11 Employees

Employees in Nassau, Suffolk, and Westchester Counties

Employees in the Remainder of New York State

 

December 31, 2016

 

Food Service: $0.40

Service: $0.45

Other: $0.55

Food Service: $0.40

Service: $0.40

Other: $0.55

Food Service: $0.40

Service: $0.40

Other: $0.50

Food Service: $0.35

Service: $0.40

Other: $0.50

 

December 31, 2017

 

Food Service: $0.45

Service: $0.50

Other: $0.65

Food Service: $0.45

Service: $0.45

Other: $0.60

Food Service: $0.40

Service: $0.45

Other: $0.55

Food Service: $0.40

Service: $0.40

Other: $0.50

 

December 31, 2018

 

Food Service: $0.50

Service: $0.60

Other: $0.75

Food Service: $0.45

Service: $0.55

Other: $0.70

Food Service: $0.45

Service: $0.45

Other: $0.60

Food Service: $0.40

Service: $0.45

Other: $0.55

 

December 31, 2019

 

 

Food Service: $0.50

Service: $0.60

Other: $0.75

Food Service: $0.45

Service: $0.50

Other: $0.65

Food Service: $0.40

Service: $0.45

Other: $0.60

 

December 31, 2020

 

 

 

Food Service: $0.50

Service: $0.55

Other: $0.70

Food Service: $0.45

Service: $0.50

Other: $0.65

 

December 31, 2021

 

 

Food Service: $0.50

Service: $0.60

Other: $0.75

 

What Employers Should Do Now

Now that the amendments have been adopted, employers should immediately review all categories of employees who may be affected by the new NYSDOL regulation and make any necessary changes to ensure compliance. Employers should also ensure that, where required, advance written notice is provided as soon as possible (given the lateness of the NYDOL's announcements), and that wage rate increases are reflected on employee paystubs.  Employers may also need to update relevant policies and/or provide training to reclassified employees or their managers to ensure that all employee time is accurately accounted for.  For further questions, employers are encouraged to consult with counsel.

Footnotes

1 Although there was speculation about whether   the proposed wage order would be adopted, Section 652.2 of the New York Labor Law required that the previous wage orders be modified to provide increases proportional to the increases in the minimum wage that were adopted on April 4, 2016.  In addition, on December 27, 2016, the Department of Labor posted FAQs on its website stating that the new minimum salaries were to be effective December 31, 2016.

2 Note that in contrast to federal regulations governing the exemption of professional employees under the Fair Labor Standards Act, (29 C.F.R. § 541.300), New York does not impose a minimum salary requirement for exemption of professional employees.

3 See Emma Fursland and Bruce Millman,  Proposed Amendment to New York State Wage Orders Set to Substantially Raise Salary Requirements For Exempt Employees, Littler Insight (Nov. 1, 2016).

4 In April 2016, the New York State legislature announced increases to minimum wages for non-exempt employees, effective on December 31, 2016. For more information and analysis, see Stephen Fuchs,  Minimum Wage Increases in New York: What Employers Should Know¸ Littler Insight (Apr. 18, 2016).

5 12 N.Y.C.R.R. § 142-2.2.  The Wage Order for Miscellaneous Industries does not cover employees in the Building Service or Hospitality Industries.  Therefore the possible exception discussed in this paragraph would not apply to employees in those industries.

6 See Department of Labor, Minimum Wage: FAQs (Dec. 27, 2016), available at https://labor.ny.gov/workerprotection/laborstandards/workprot/minwage.shtm.

7 The FAQs are not clear whether the reference to "all worksites" includes worksites outside of New York State.  However, confirming our expectations, an unofficial spokesperson for the the NYSDOL has advised that the Department is referencing worksites nationwide, and not just those in New York State.  

8 For example, 16 part-time employees will now count as 16 employees, requiring the employer to pay the NYC "large" employer minimum wage rate.

9 See Daniel Thieme,  The DOL Overtime Salary Regulation is Temporarily Enjoined – Now What?Littler  ASAP (Nov. 28, 2016).  

10 12 N.Y.C.R.R. § 146-1.3.

11 12 N.Y.C.R.R. § 146-1.3(a).

12 For further explanation and analysis, see   Minimum Wage Increases in New York: What Employers Should Know¸ supra  note 4.

13 12 N.Y.C.R.R. § 146-1.3(b).

14 Note: No tip credit is permitted for fast food employees.

15 For further explanation and analysis, see  Proposed Amendment to New York State Wage Orders Set to Substantially Raise Salary Requirements For Exempt Employees, supra note 3. 

16 12 N.Y.C.R.R. § 146-1.7.

17 12 N.Y.C.R.R. § 146-1.9(a).

18 12 N.Y.C.R.R. § 146-1.9(b).

19 12 N.Y.C.R.R. § 146-1.9(c).

The content of this article is intended to provide a general guide to the subject matter. Specialist advice should be sought about your specific circumstances.

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You may use the Website but are required to register as a user if you wish to read the full text of the content and articles available (the Content). You may not modify, publish, transmit, transfer or sell, reproduce, create derivative works from, distribute, perform, link, display, or in any way exploit any of the Content, in whole or in part, except as expressly permitted in these terms & conditions or with the prior written consent of Mondaq Ltd. You may not use electronic or other means to extract details or information about Mondaq.com’s content, users or contributors in order to offer them any services or products which compete directly or indirectly with Mondaq Ltd’s services and products.

Disclaimer

Mondaq Ltd and/or its respective suppliers make no representations about the suitability of the information contained in the documents and related graphics published on this server for any purpose. All such documents and related graphics are provided "as is" without warranty of any kind. Mondaq Ltd and/or its respective suppliers hereby disclaim all warranties and conditions with regard to this information, including all implied warranties and conditions of merchantability, fitness for a particular purpose, title and non-infringement. In no event shall Mondaq Ltd and/or its respective suppliers be liable for any special, indirect or consequential damages or any damages whatsoever resulting from loss of use, data or profits, whether in an action of contract, negligence or other tortious action, arising out of or in connection with the use or performance of information available from this server.

The documents and related graphics published on this server could include technical inaccuracies or typographical errors. Changes are periodically added to the information herein. Mondaq Ltd and/or its respective suppliers may make improvements and/or changes in the product(s) and/or the program(s) described herein at any time.

Registration

Mondaq Ltd requires you to register and provide information that personally identifies you, including what sort of information you are interested in, for three primary purposes:

  • To allow you to personalize the Mondaq websites you are visiting.
  • To enable features such as password reminder, newsletter alerts, email a colleague, and linking from Mondaq (and its affiliate sites) to your website.
  • To produce demographic feedback for our information providers who provide information free for your use.

Mondaq (and its affiliate sites) do not sell or provide your details to third parties other than information providers. The reason we provide our information providers with this information is so that they can measure the response their articles are receiving and provide you with information about their products and services.

If you do not want us to provide your name and email address you may opt out by clicking here .

If you do not wish to receive any future announcements of products and services offered by Mondaq by clicking here .

Information Collection and Use

We require site users to register with Mondaq (and its affiliate sites) to view the free information on the site. We also collect information from our users at several different points on the websites: this is so that we can customise the sites according to individual usage, provide 'session-aware' functionality, and ensure that content is acquired and developed appropriately. This gives us an overall picture of our user profiles, which in turn shows to our Editorial Contributors the type of person they are reaching by posting articles on Mondaq (and its affiliate sites) – meaning more free content for registered users.

We are only able to provide the material on the Mondaq (and its affiliate sites) site free to site visitors because we can pass on information about the pages that users are viewing and the personal information users provide to us (e.g. email addresses) to reputable contributing firms such as law firms who author those pages. We do not sell or rent information to anyone else other than the authors of those pages, who may change from time to time. Should you wish us not to disclose your details to any of these parties, please tick the box above or tick the box marked "Opt out of Registration Information Disclosure" on the Your Profile page. We and our author organisations may only contact you via email or other means if you allow us to do so. Users can opt out of contact when they register on the site, or send an email to unsubscribe@mondaq.com with “no disclosure” in the subject heading

Mondaq News Alerts

In order to receive Mondaq News Alerts, users have to complete a separate registration form. This is a personalised service where users choose regions and topics of interest and we send it only to those users who have requested it. Users can stop receiving these Alerts by going to the Mondaq News Alerts page and deselecting all interest areas. In the same way users can amend their personal preferences to add or remove subject areas.

Cookies

A cookie is a small text file written to a user’s hard drive that contains an identifying user number. The cookies do not contain any personal information about users. We use the cookie so users do not have to log in every time they use the service and the cookie will automatically expire if you do not visit the Mondaq website (or its affiliate sites) for 12 months. We also use the cookie to personalise a user's experience of the site (for example to show information specific to a user's region). As the Mondaq sites are fully personalised and cookies are essential to its core technology the site will function unpredictably with browsers that do not support cookies - or where cookies are disabled (in these circumstances we advise you to attempt to locate the information you require elsewhere on the web). However if you are concerned about the presence of a Mondaq cookie on your machine you can also choose to expire the cookie immediately (remove it) by selecting the 'Log Off' menu option as the last thing you do when you use the site.

Some of our business partners may use cookies on our site (for example, advertisers). However, we have no access to or control over these cookies and we are not aware of any at present that do so.

Log Files

We use IP addresses to analyse trends, administer the site, track movement, and gather broad demographic information for aggregate use. IP addresses are not linked to personally identifiable information.

Links

This web site contains links to other sites. Please be aware that Mondaq (or its affiliate sites) are not responsible for the privacy practices of such other sites. We encourage our users to be aware when they leave our site and to read the privacy statements of these third party sites. This privacy statement applies solely to information collected by this Web site.

Surveys & Contests

From time-to-time our site requests information from users via surveys or contests. Participation in these surveys or contests is completely voluntary and the user therefore has a choice whether or not to disclose any information requested. Information requested may include contact information (such as name and delivery address), and demographic information (such as postcode, age level). Contact information will be used to notify the winners and award prizes. Survey information will be used for purposes of monitoring or improving the functionality of the site.

Mail-A-Friend

If a user elects to use our referral service for informing a friend about our site, we ask them for the friend’s name and email address. Mondaq stores this information and may contact the friend to invite them to register with Mondaq, but they will not be contacted more than once. The friend may contact Mondaq to request the removal of this information from our database.

Security

This website takes every reasonable precaution to protect our users’ information. When users submit sensitive information via the website, your information is protected using firewalls and other security technology. If you have any questions about the security at our website, you can send an email to webmaster@mondaq.com.

Correcting/Updating Personal Information

If a user’s personally identifiable information changes (such as postcode), or if a user no longer desires our service, we will endeavour to provide a way to correct, update or remove that user’s personal data provided to us. This can usually be done at the “Your Profile” page or by sending an email to EditorialAdvisor@mondaq.com.

Notification of Changes

If we decide to change our Terms & Conditions or Privacy Policy, we will post those changes on our site so our users are always aware of what information we collect, how we use it, and under what circumstances, if any, we disclose it. If at any point we decide to use personally identifiable information in a manner different from that stated at the time it was collected, we will notify users by way of an email. Users will have a choice as to whether or not we use their information in this different manner. We will use information in accordance with the privacy policy under which the information was collected.

How to contact Mondaq

You can contact us with comments or queries at enquiries@mondaq.com.

If for some reason you believe Mondaq Ltd. has not adhered to these principles, please notify us by e-mail at problems@mondaq.com and we will use commercially reasonable efforts to determine and correct the problem promptly.