United States: The "Key-Stoned State": Employer's Guide To The Pennsylvania Medical Marijuana Law

Last Updated: June 1 2016
Article by Samuel Sverdlov, Jacob Oslick and Meredith-Anne Berger

Can a bistro in Pottsville, Pa. fire employees for using medical cannabis? Not anymore. On Tuesday, May 17, 2016, the Pennsylvania Medical Marijuana Act (SB-3) ("MMA") went into effect, following Governor Tom Wolf's signature last month (as previously reported here). Pennsylvania joins 24 other states, including New York, New Jersey and Connecticut, on the Pineapple Express. Along the way, employers will learn their ability to discipline employees for consuming medical marijuana on the job, for showing up to work under the influence of medical marijuana, and other unintended consequences that will bud from the law.

Overview of the Law

The MMA permits people diagnosed with a "serious medical condition,[1]" and who meet the act's certifications requirement to use medical marijuana. However, the MMA adopts a much more restrictive approach than many other state medical marijuana laws. Under the MMA, individuals certified to use medical marijuana cannot smoke it. They can only dose using a pill, oil, topical form, a form suitable for vaporization or nebulization, tincture or liquid.[2] So blunts, bongs, and hookahs are out. But brownies baked with cannabis oil appear to be ok.

Impact on the Workplace

Under the MMA, employers are prohibited from threatening to discharge, discharging, refusing to hire or otherwise discriminating or retaliating against an employee because the employee is certified to use medical marijuana. Despite this robust protection for medical marijuana users, employers do not need to permit employees to use medical marijuana in the workplace.

Since medical marijuana use remains illegal under federal law, Pennsylvania employers need not accommodate employees under the Americans with Disabilities Act. Nor do they need to put themselves (or their agents) in a position that violates federal law — a provision that was likely intended to provide a safe harbor for federal contractors and heavily-regulated employers in sensitive industries. So the blunt truth is that employees who work in glass houses for the federal government probably still can't get stoned.

The MMA hides several other employer-friendly provisions in the smoke.

  • From our reading of the law, an employer may always discipline an employee if he or she is under the influence of medical marijuana while working. However, there is an alternate interpretation holding that employers can always discipline an employee for being under the influence in the workplace, but if employees are working under the influence of medical marijuana outside of the workplace (such as outside sales people), employers may only discipline those employees whose performance falls below the standard of care normally accepted for that position. Absent any further guidance by the legislature, the courts will likely decide which reading is correct.
  • Employees under the influence of medical marijuana while working, regardless of whether they are in the workplace, are expressly prohibited from performing particularly sensitive jobs such as "any employment duties at heights or in confined spaces, including, but not limited to, mining" or working with certain chemicals and high-voltage electronics.
  • Employers also have the option to prohibit employees who are under the influence of marijuana while working from: (1) "performing any task which the employer deems life-threatening, to either the employee or any of the employees of the employer"; or (2) "performing any duty which could result in a public health or safety risk." This is true, even if the employee is working outside the workplace and the employee's conduct does not fall below the standard of care normally accepted for that position. It remains to be seen what kinds of duties would fall under these categories. This provision may extend to employees that work with children, the elderly, and the mentally ill, and litigation is possible over the breadth of this provision. In either circumstance, the employer's imposition of a limitation would not be considered an "adverse action" even if it resulted in a financial detriment to the employee.

Outlook for Employers

In light of the MMA, employers should make sure that they do not discriminate or retaliate against employees who use medical marijuana. However, employers may still prohibit employees from working under the influence of medical marijuana. Employers may also require a drug-free workplace and maintain a drug-testing program that provides accommodations for medical marijuana users. And certain federal contractors and other employers may still be able to exclude medical marijuana users from sensitive jobs (such as jobs where applicable statutes or regulations require employees to pass random drug tests).

Employers should also consider including provisions in its employee handbook about the use of medical marijuana, and develop specific policies regarding restrictions of particular duties for medical marijuana users. In administrating such policies, employers should take care not to divulge any personal medical information of the employee to people who do not need to know. For the most part, it should be sufficient to inform supervisors that the employee has a specific work restriction or needs a particular accommodation: rarely will a supervisor need to know that an employee is using medical marijuana. To that end, it may be preferable for employers to allow employees to go directly to Human Resources when requesting accommodations, by-passing their supervisors or managers.

Employers who do not tread carefully may find themselves in violation of the Pennsylvania Human Relations Act, as well as the non-retaliation provision of the MMA.

Footnotes

[1] The statute defines the following as "serious medical conditions:" cancer, positive status for human immunodeficiency virus or acquired immune deficiency syndrome, Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, Multiple Sclerosis, damage to the nervous tissue of the spinal cord with objective neurological indication of intractable spasticity, Epilepsy, Inflammatory bowel disease, neuropathies, Huntington's disease, Crohn's disease, post-traumatic stress disorder, intractable seizures, glaucoma, sickle cell anemia, severe chronic or intractable pain of neuropathic origin or severe chronic or intractable pain in which conventional therapeutic intervention and opiate therapy is contraindicated or ineffective, and autism.

[2] Edible products cannot be sold but patients can create their own.

The content of this article is intended to provide a general guide to the subject matter. Specialist advice should be sought about your specific circumstances.

To print this article, all you need is to be registered on Mondaq.com.

Click to Login as an existing user or Register so you can print this article.

Authors
Samuel Sverdlov
Meredith-Anne Berger
 
In association with
Related Video
Up-coming Events Search
Tools
Print
Font Size:
Translation
Channels
Mondaq on Twitter
 
Register for Access and our Free Biweekly Alert for
This service is completely free. Access 250,000 archived articles from 100+ countries and get a personalised email twice a week covering developments (and yes, our lawyers like to think you’ve read our Disclaimer).
 
Email Address
Company Name
Password
Confirm Password
Position
Mondaq Topics -- Select your Interests
 Accounting
 Anti-trust
 Commercial
 Compliance
 Consumer
 Criminal
 Employment
 Energy
 Environment
 Family
 Finance
 Government
 Healthcare
 Immigration
 Insolvency
 Insurance
 International
 IP
 Law Performance
 Law Practice
 Litigation
 Media & IT
 Privacy
 Real Estate
 Strategy
 Tax
 Technology
 Transport
 Wealth Mgt
Regions
Africa
Asia
Asia Pacific
Australasia
Canada
Caribbean
Europe
European Union
Latin America
Middle East
U.K.
United States
Worldwide Updates
Check to state you have read and
agree to our Terms and Conditions

Terms & Conditions and Privacy Statement

Mondaq.com (the Website) is owned and managed by Mondaq Ltd and as a user you are granted a non-exclusive, revocable license to access the Website under its terms and conditions of use. Your use of the Website constitutes your agreement to the following terms and conditions of use. Mondaq Ltd may terminate your use of the Website if you are in breach of these terms and conditions or if Mondaq Ltd decides to terminate your license of use for whatever reason.

Use of www.mondaq.com

You may use the Website but are required to register as a user if you wish to read the full text of the content and articles available (the Content). You may not modify, publish, transmit, transfer or sell, reproduce, create derivative works from, distribute, perform, link, display, or in any way exploit any of the Content, in whole or in part, except as expressly permitted in these terms & conditions or with the prior written consent of Mondaq Ltd. You may not use electronic or other means to extract details or information about Mondaq.com’s content, users or contributors in order to offer them any services or products which compete directly or indirectly with Mondaq Ltd’s services and products.

Disclaimer

Mondaq Ltd and/or its respective suppliers make no representations about the suitability of the information contained in the documents and related graphics published on this server for any purpose. All such documents and related graphics are provided "as is" without warranty of any kind. Mondaq Ltd and/or its respective suppliers hereby disclaim all warranties and conditions with regard to this information, including all implied warranties and conditions of merchantability, fitness for a particular purpose, title and non-infringement. In no event shall Mondaq Ltd and/or its respective suppliers be liable for any special, indirect or consequential damages or any damages whatsoever resulting from loss of use, data or profits, whether in an action of contract, negligence or other tortious action, arising out of or in connection with the use or performance of information available from this server.

The documents and related graphics published on this server could include technical inaccuracies or typographical errors. Changes are periodically added to the information herein. Mondaq Ltd and/or its respective suppliers may make improvements and/or changes in the product(s) and/or the program(s) described herein at any time.

Registration

Mondaq Ltd requires you to register and provide information that personally identifies you, including what sort of information you are interested in, for three primary purposes:

  • To allow you to personalize the Mondaq websites you are visiting.
  • To enable features such as password reminder, newsletter alerts, email a colleague, and linking from Mondaq (and its affiliate sites) to your website.
  • To produce demographic feedback for our information providers who provide information free for your use.

Mondaq (and its affiliate sites) do not sell or provide your details to third parties other than information providers. The reason we provide our information providers with this information is so that they can measure the response their articles are receiving and provide you with information about their products and services.

If you do not want us to provide your name and email address you may opt out by clicking here .

If you do not wish to receive any future announcements of products and services offered by Mondaq by clicking here .

Information Collection and Use

We require site users to register with Mondaq (and its affiliate sites) to view the free information on the site. We also collect information from our users at several different points on the websites: this is so that we can customise the sites according to individual usage, provide 'session-aware' functionality, and ensure that content is acquired and developed appropriately. This gives us an overall picture of our user profiles, which in turn shows to our Editorial Contributors the type of person they are reaching by posting articles on Mondaq (and its affiliate sites) – meaning more free content for registered users.

We are only able to provide the material on the Mondaq (and its affiliate sites) site free to site visitors because we can pass on information about the pages that users are viewing and the personal information users provide to us (e.g. email addresses) to reputable contributing firms such as law firms who author those pages. We do not sell or rent information to anyone else other than the authors of those pages, who may change from time to time. Should you wish us not to disclose your details to any of these parties, please tick the box above or tick the box marked "Opt out of Registration Information Disclosure" on the Your Profile page. We and our author organisations may only contact you via email or other means if you allow us to do so. Users can opt out of contact when they register on the site, or send an email to unsubscribe@mondaq.com with “no disclosure” in the subject heading

Mondaq News Alerts

In order to receive Mondaq News Alerts, users have to complete a separate registration form. This is a personalised service where users choose regions and topics of interest and we send it only to those users who have requested it. Users can stop receiving these Alerts by going to the Mondaq News Alerts page and deselecting all interest areas. In the same way users can amend their personal preferences to add or remove subject areas.

Cookies

A cookie is a small text file written to a user’s hard drive that contains an identifying user number. The cookies do not contain any personal information about users. We use the cookie so users do not have to log in every time they use the service and the cookie will automatically expire if you do not visit the Mondaq website (or its affiliate sites) for 12 months. We also use the cookie to personalise a user's experience of the site (for example to show information specific to a user's region). As the Mondaq sites are fully personalised and cookies are essential to its core technology the site will function unpredictably with browsers that do not support cookies - or where cookies are disabled (in these circumstances we advise you to attempt to locate the information you require elsewhere on the web). However if you are concerned about the presence of a Mondaq cookie on your machine you can also choose to expire the cookie immediately (remove it) by selecting the 'Log Off' menu option as the last thing you do when you use the site.

Some of our business partners may use cookies on our site (for example, advertisers). However, we have no access to or control over these cookies and we are not aware of any at present that do so.

Log Files

We use IP addresses to analyse trends, administer the site, track movement, and gather broad demographic information for aggregate use. IP addresses are not linked to personally identifiable information.

Links

This web site contains links to other sites. Please be aware that Mondaq (or its affiliate sites) are not responsible for the privacy practices of such other sites. We encourage our users to be aware when they leave our site and to read the privacy statements of these third party sites. This privacy statement applies solely to information collected by this Web site.

Surveys & Contests

From time-to-time our site requests information from users via surveys or contests. Participation in these surveys or contests is completely voluntary and the user therefore has a choice whether or not to disclose any information requested. Information requested may include contact information (such as name and delivery address), and demographic information (such as postcode, age level). Contact information will be used to notify the winners and award prizes. Survey information will be used for purposes of monitoring or improving the functionality of the site.

Mail-A-Friend

If a user elects to use our referral service for informing a friend about our site, we ask them for the friend’s name and email address. Mondaq stores this information and may contact the friend to invite them to register with Mondaq, but they will not be contacted more than once. The friend may contact Mondaq to request the removal of this information from our database.

Security

This website takes every reasonable precaution to protect our users’ information. When users submit sensitive information via the website, your information is protected using firewalls and other security technology. If you have any questions about the security at our website, you can send an email to webmaster@mondaq.com.

Correcting/Updating Personal Information

If a user’s personally identifiable information changes (such as postcode), or if a user no longer desires our service, we will endeavour to provide a way to correct, update or remove that user’s personal data provided to us. This can usually be done at the “Your Profile” page or by sending an email to EditorialAdvisor@mondaq.com.

Notification of Changes

If we decide to change our Terms & Conditions or Privacy Policy, we will post those changes on our site so our users are always aware of what information we collect, how we use it, and under what circumstances, if any, we disclose it. If at any point we decide to use personally identifiable information in a manner different from that stated at the time it was collected, we will notify users by way of an email. Users will have a choice as to whether or not we use their information in this different manner. We will use information in accordance with the privacy policy under which the information was collected.

How to contact Mondaq

You can contact us with comments or queries at enquiries@mondaq.com.

If for some reason you believe Mondaq Ltd. has not adhered to these principles, please notify us by e-mail at problems@mondaq.com and we will use commercially reasonable efforts to determine and correct the problem promptly.