United States: Trasparenza E Correttezza Nei Rapporti Con La Clientela. L'applicazione Delle Clausole Di Indicizzazione Dei Finanziamenti

Nei contratti di finanziamento la previsione di clausole di remunerazione ancorate a un parametro (c.d. indicizzazione) permette di adeguare automaticamente il costo delle operazioni ai mutamenti dello scenario economico di riferimento.

Come noto, già a partire dalla metà del 2015, i principali tassi del mercato interbancario hanno assunto valori di segno negativo. Tale riduzione si è riflessa sui rapporti in essere con la clientela.

In merito a tale questione, a seguito di alcune segnalazioni, Banca d'Italia ha effettuato delle verifiche e, di recente, inviato agli intermediari bancari e finanziari un'apposita comunicazione diretta a chiarire gli aspetti principali affinché sia sempre assicurato il pieno rispetto del vigente quadro normativo e regolamentare ed, in particolare, resa una corretta e trasparente informativa alla clientela.

Comunicazione della Banca d'Italia – Prime Considerazioni

Con la comunicazione del 3 febbraio 2016, rubricata "Parametri di indicizzazione dei finanziamenti con valori negativi: trasparenza delle condizioni contrattuali e correttezza nei rapporti con la clientela", (di seguito la "Comunicazione") la Banca d'Italia ha voluto segnalare agli intermediari bancari e finanziari, che operano nell'ambito dell'erogazione dei finanziamenti di durata, le misure da adottare per mitigare taluni potenziali rischi di conformità.

In particolare, considerato anche il recente aggiornamento del provvedimento in materia di trasparenza delle operazioni e dei servizi bancari e finanziari (luglio 2015), l'Autorità richiama l'attenzione degli operatori al pieno rispetto delle norme che, da un lato, regolano la stesura di una adeguata informativa precontrattuale e, dall'altro, dispongono l'applicazione puntuale delle condizioni contrattuali e le relative modalità di modifica.

Difatti, con particolare riferimento ai contratti di mutuo a tasso variabile è stato rilevato come l'utilizzo delle clausole di remunerazione dei finanziamenti indicizzate a tassi comunemente praticati sul mercato interbancario (es. Euribor, Eonia, ecc.), oltre all'applicazione di una maggiorazione prefissata (c.d. spread), non è sempre risultato conforme con i canoni individuati dalle norme del Testo Unico Bancario (i.e. d.lgs. 385/1993) e relative disposizioni di vigilanza.

Banca d'Italia, nella sua Comunicazione, ha avuto modo di rilevare come, sulla base di alcune segnalazioni pervenute, siano emerse ipotesi in cui gli intermediari hanno neutralizzato l'erosione dello spread, derivante dal sopravvenuto valore negativo del parametro di indicizzazione, attribuendo a quest'ultimo valore pari a zero.

Tale prassi sembra abbia determinato l'applicazione di tassi di interesse non allineati con le rispettive previsioni contrattuali.

Alla luce di quanto sopra, Banca d'Italia, precisando che le indicazioni (come di seguito riportate) costituiranno oggetto dell'attività di controllo affidata allo stesso istituto, ha disposto che gli intermediari dovranno:

  1. attenersi a uno scrupoloso rispetto della normativa di trasparenza e correttezza e alla rigorosa applicazione delle condizioni pattuite con la clientela. In particolare, gli intermediari dovranno astenersi dall'applicare di fatto clausole di c.d. "tasso minimo" ("floor clause") non pubblicizzate e non incluse nella pertinente documentazione di trasparenza e nella modulistica contrattuale;
  2. verificare che gli applicativi e le procedure in uso, nel caso in cui i parametri di indicizzazione assumano valore negativo, determinino correttamente il tasso d'interesse applicabile a ciascun rapporto e l'ammontare degli interessi tempo per tempo dovuti;
  3. condurre sollecitamente una verifica delle condotte sinora seguite nella determinazione degli interessi dovuti e provvedere alle conseguenti restituzioni nel caso in cui tali condotte risultino in contrasto con quanto precisato al punto a); in tale ipotesi andrà resa un'informativa specifica alla Banca d'Italia.

Alla luce delle indicazioni fornite dall'Autorità risulta evidente un immediato piano di compliance. È opportuno, avuto riguardo alla distribuzione e alla gestione di prodotti bancari aventi le caratteristiche indicate dalla Comunicazione, che gli intermediari bancari e finanziari adottino tutte le misure utili ad accertare il comportamento tenuto dalla struttura nel suo complesso al fine di poter prontamente intervenire con le necessarie azioni ed adoperandosi, altresì tempestivamente, nei confronti della propria clientela.

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