United States: DC's New "Ban-The-Box" Law: Employers May Not Question Applicants About Arrests

Last Updated: September 22 2014
Article by Sandi R. Pessin Boyd and Douglas B. Mishkin

The District of Columbia is about to become the 14th jurisdiction nationwide1 to "ban the box" – to prohibit employers from asking job applicants to check "the box" indicating whether they have ever been arrested. Beginning soon (as explained below), DC employers who ask an applicant questions about his/her criminal history early in the hiring process or who use criminal history to eliminate an applicant from the employment pool will be subject to a fine by the DC Commission on Human Rights.

What Is "Banned?"

A covered employer may never inquire about, or require an applicant to disclose or reveal, an arrest or a criminal accusation that did not result in a conviction or that is not currently pending. An employer may not obtain such information through application forms, interviews, or in criminal history checks.

An employer may obtain information about an applicant's criminal convictions after a conditional offer of employment. But the employer may only withdraw that conditional offer, or take some other adverse action against an applicant, for a "legitimate business reason" that takes into account:

  • The specific duties and responsibilities of the position;
  • The bearing of the criminal offense on the applicant's fitness or ability to perform the job;
  • The time that has elapsed since the offense;
  • The age of the applicant at the time of the offense;
  • The frequency and seriousness of the offense; and
  • Any information provided by the applicant to show that s/he has been rehabilitated.

If an applicant believes that a conditional offer was rescinded or an adverse action was taken because of a criminal conviction, the employer must provide, within 30 days of the applicant's request: (1) a copy of all records procured by the employer in consideration of the applicant, and (2) a notice advising the applicant of his or her opportunity to file an administrative complaint with the DC Office of Human Rights.

Which Employers and Jobs Are Covered?

This new law applies to public and private employers who employ more than 10 employees in the District. This includes temporary or seasonal work, contracted work, contingent work, or work through a temporary or employment agency where the physical location of the employment is in whole or substantial part within the District of Columbia. It also includes any form of vocational or educational training. The law also applies to volunteers.

The law expressly excludes:

  • Any facility or employer that provides programs, services, or direct care to minors or vulnerable adults;
  • Positions where a federal or District law or regulation requires consideration of an applicant's criminal history;
  • Positions designated by the employer as part of a federal or District program designed to encourage employment of those with criminal histories; and
  • The District of Columbia courts.

What Should You Do?

Covered employers should review their employment applications and hiring policies and then:

  • Remove any questions from initial application forms regarding an applicant's arrests, criminal accusations, or convictions;
  • State in the personnel manual and/or other relevant policy documents that, in compliance with this law, the organization does not inquire about arrests or convictions pre-offer, and only considers convictions post-offer for "legitimate business reasons;"
  • Train your human resource professionals and others with interviewing responsibilities to avoid questions about arrests and convictions;
  • Educate managers and supervisors about the limited ability to consider convictions after making an offer of employment; and
  • Prepare a form to provide Notice of Right to File an Administrative Complaint with the Office of Human Rights.

The Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) has issued guidelines regarding what it regards as the proper use of criminal history in the hiring process.2

What Penalties Apply?

An aggrieved applicant may only file an administrative complaint with the DC Commission on Human Rights. There is no right to sue an employer in court. The Commission's remedies are limited. If the Commission finds a violation, the Commission may impose monetary penalties, half of which are awarded to the complainant, ranging from $1,000 to $5,000 depending on the employer's number of employees.

When Does The New Law Take Effect?

The DC Council passed the "Fair Criminal Record Screening Act" on July 14, 2014.3 Mayor Vincent Gray returned the signed legislation to the DC Council on August 22, 2014. The new law becomes effective following a 30-day Congressional review period, as required by the District of Columbia Home Rule Act, and publication in the District of Columbia Register. The 30-day review period counts only days in which Congress is actually in session (i.e., not weekends, holidays, or other days Congress does not convene), so the new law likely will not take effect until late 2014/early 2015. Thus, employers should use this opportunity to begin evaluating their hiring practices and preparing to make the necessary changes now.


1. California, Colorado, New Mexico, Nebraska, Minnesota, Illinois, Maryland, Delaware, Connecticut, Hawaii, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, and New Jersey have passed statewide initiatives impacting both private and public employers. See National Employment Law Project, Statewide Ban-the-Box (July 2014) available at http://www.nelp.org/page/-/SCLP/ModelStateHiringInitiatives.pdf?nocdn=1. Similar laws have been passed in more than 60 cities and counties including Baltimore, Atlanta, Tampa, Richmond, and New Orleans. Id.

2. See "Pre-Employment Inquiries and Arrest & Conviction" Guidance available at http://eeoc.gov/laws/practices/inquiries_arrest_conviction.cfm.

3. See Fair Criminal Record Screening Act, Bill 20-642 (D.C. 2014).

The content of this article is intended to provide a general guide to the subject matter. Specialist advice should be sought about your specific circumstances.

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