United States: Oklahoma Federal Court Holds Pollution Exclusions Bar Duty To Defend Pollution Claims For Transporting Oil And Gas Drilling Waste

Last Updated: November 1 2013
Article by Ruth S. Kochenderfer

The United States District Court for the Eastern District of Oklahoma granted an insurer's motion for summary judgment and held that pollution exclusions barred any duty to defend allegations that the policyholder's transportation of oil and gas drilling wastes caused pollution. Star Insurance Company v. Bear Productions, Inc., No. CIV-12-149-RAW, 2013 WL 5637733, **1-2 (E.D. Okla. Oct. 16, 2013) (applying Oklahoma law).

A putative class action lawsuit, which alleged that the policyholder transported "produced fluid waste" to a dump site, was filed against the policyholder and others. Id. "Produced fluid waste" consisted of waste fluids and solids that were generated during oil and gas completion drilling operations and included saltwater, sand, acid, oil-based drilling fluids, frack flowback fluid, and the like. Id. at *2.

The policyholder sought a defense under a primary commercial general liability policy and an umbrella policy, both of which were in effect from March 16, 2006 through March 16, 2007. id. The primary policy contained a pollution exclusion that excluded coverage for injury or damage "arising out of the actual, alleged or threatened discharge, dispersal, seepage, migration, release or escape of 'pollutants' . . . ." id. at *3. An endorsement to the primary policy provided a limited exception to the pollution exclusion for a "pollution incident" at a designated well site within the coverage territory that lasts only 72 hours, that is accidental, that is reported within 90 days, and that first occurs during the policy period. id. The umbrella policy had a pollution exclusion barring coverage for injury or damage "arising out of the actual or threatened discharge, dispersal, seepage, migration, release or escape of pollutants from any source anywhere in the world." id. at *4. Both policies defined a "pollutant" as "any solid, liquid, gaseous, or thermal irritant or contaminant, including but not limited to, smoke, vapor, soot, fumes, acids, alkalis, chemicals, and waste materials. Waste material includes materials which are intended to be or have been recycled, reconditioned, or reclaimed." id. at **3-4.

After analyzing both policies, the federal district court held that it was "clear that there is no potential of liability under either policy" and, thus, the insurer had no duty to defend. id. at *5. In doing so, the court found that the complaint's description of "produced fluid waste" qualified as a "pollutant" under both policies. id. at **5 & 6 n.6.

In regard to the primary policy, the court found that the limited exception for coverage of a "pollution incident" was not applicable. id. at *5. The court stated that the alleged pollution took place between 2003 and 2009, and that the policyholder had entered into a contract to "dispose of water produced in connection with the production of oil and gas wells." id. Based on these facts, the court concluded that there was no covered "pollution incident" because the pollution began before the primary policy period, lasted beyond 72 hours, and "clearly was not accidental." id.

In seeking coverage under the umbrella policy, the policyholder argued that, unlike the primary policy, the umbrella policy's pollution exclusion did not include the word "alleged," and therefore the insurer should be required to defend the policyholder "if it is proven that [it] did not actually pollute." id. at *6. The court disagreed. Because the duty to defend clause only required the insurer to defend against "any claim or Suit seeking damages covered by this policy," and pollution was clearly not covered by the policy, the court held that the insurer was not required to defend the allegations of pollution. id. at *6 (citing policy language) (emphasis added).

Although the court expressly stated that these facts were "not determinative," the court noted that the policyholder was a corporate business that had successfully "bargained for an exception to the pollution exclusion" by way of the endorsement providing coverage for a "pollution incident." id. at *6. The court was not persuaded by the policyholder's argument that the policies, when "read literally . . . provide virtually no coverage for risks inherent to its business." id. *6. The court explained that the policy provided some pollution coverage for a "pollution incident" and that the policyholder was "entitled only to the coverage for which it negotiated and paid." id. at *6.

This case holds that oil and gas drilling wastes are pollutants falling within the scope of a pollution exclusion. Additionally, it reaffirms that, under Oklahoma law, the policyholder/insurer relationship is "contractual in nature" and a court "may not rewrite the policies to make them better for either party." id. at **4 & 6.

The content of this article is intended to provide a general guide to the subject matter. Specialist advice should be sought about your specific circumstances.

To print this article, all you need is to be registered on Mondaq.com.

Click to Login as an existing user or Register so you can print this article.

Ruth S. Kochenderfer
Similar Articles
Relevancy Powered by MondaqAI
In association with
Related Topics
Similar Articles
Relevancy Powered by MondaqAI
Related Articles
Related Video
Up-coming Events Search
Font Size:
Mondaq on Twitter
Register for Access and our Free Biweekly Alert for
This service is completely free. Access 250,000 archived articles from 100+ countries and get a personalised email twice a week covering developments (and yes, our lawyers like to think you’ve read our Disclaimer).
Email Address
Company Name
Confirm Password
Mondaq Topics -- Select your Interests
 Law Performance
 Law Practice
 Media & IT
 Real Estate
 Wealth Mgt
Asia Pacific
European Union
Latin America
Middle East
United States
Worldwide Updates
Registration (you must scroll down to set your data preferences)

Mondaq Ltd requires you to register and provide information that personally identifies you, including your content preferences, for three primary purposes (full details of Mondaq’s use of your personal data can be found in our Privacy and Cookies Notice):

  • To allow you to personalize the Mondaq websites you are visiting to show content ("Content") relevant to your interests.
  • To enable features such as password reminder, news alerts, email a colleague, and linking from Mondaq (and its affiliate sites) to your website.
  • To produce demographic feedback for our content providers ("Contributors") who contribute Content for free for your use.

Mondaq hopes that our registered users will support us in maintaining our free to view business model by consenting to our use of your personal data as described below.

Mondaq has a "free to view" business model. Our services are paid for by Contributors in exchange for Mondaq providing them with access to information about who accesses their content. Once personal data is transferred to our Contributors they become a data controller of this personal data. They use it to measure the response that their articles are receiving, as a form of market research. They may also use it to provide Mondaq users with information about their products and services.

Details of each Contributor to which your personal data will be transferred is clearly stated within the Content that you access. For full details of how this Contributor will use your personal data, you should review the Contributor’s own Privacy Notice.

Please indicate your preference below:

Yes, I am happy to support Mondaq in maintaining its free to view business model by agreeing to allow Mondaq to share my personal data with Contributors whose Content I access
No, I do not want Mondaq to share my personal data with Contributors

Also please let us know whether you are happy to receive communications promoting products and services offered by Mondaq:

Yes, I am happy to received promotional communications from Mondaq
No, please do not send me promotional communications from Mondaq
Terms & Conditions

Mondaq.com (the Website) is owned and managed by Mondaq Ltd (Mondaq). Mondaq grants you a non-exclusive, revocable licence to access the Website and associated services, such as the Mondaq News Alerts (Services), subject to and in consideration of your compliance with the following terms and conditions of use (Terms). Your use of the Website and/or Services constitutes your agreement to the Terms. Mondaq may terminate your use of the Website and Services if you are in breach of these Terms or if Mondaq decides to terminate the licence granted hereunder for any reason whatsoever.

Use of www.mondaq.com

To Use Mondaq.com you must be: eighteen (18) years old or over; legally capable of entering into binding contracts; and not in any way prohibited by the applicable law to enter into these Terms in the jurisdiction which you are currently located.

You may use the Website as an unregistered user, however, you are required to register as a user if you wish to read the full text of the Content or to receive the Services.

You may not modify, publish, transmit, transfer or sell, reproduce, create derivative works from, distribute, perform, link, display, or in any way exploit any of the Content, in whole or in part, except as expressly permitted in these Terms or with the prior written consent of Mondaq. You may not use electronic or other means to extract details or information from the Content. Nor shall you extract information about users or Contributors in order to offer them any services or products.

In your use of the Website and/or Services you shall: comply with all applicable laws, regulations, directives and legislations which apply to your Use of the Website and/or Services in whatever country you are physically located including without limitation any and all consumer law, export control laws and regulations; provide to us true, correct and accurate information and promptly inform us in the event that any information that you have provided to us changes or becomes inaccurate; notify Mondaq immediately of any circumstances where you have reason to believe that any Intellectual Property Rights or any other rights of any third party may have been infringed; co-operate with reasonable security or other checks or requests for information made by Mondaq from time to time; and at all times be fully liable for the breach of any of these Terms by a third party using your login details to access the Website and/or Services

however, you shall not: do anything likely to impair, interfere with or damage or cause harm or distress to any persons, or the network; do anything that will infringe any Intellectual Property Rights or other rights of Mondaq or any third party; or use the Website, Services and/or Content otherwise than in accordance with these Terms; use any trade marks or service marks of Mondaq or the Contributors, or do anything which may be seen to take unfair advantage of the reputation and goodwill of Mondaq or the Contributors, or the Website, Services and/or Content.

Mondaq reserves the right, in its sole discretion, to take any action that it deems necessary and appropriate in the event it considers that there is a breach or threatened breach of the Terms.

Mondaq’s Rights and Obligations

Unless otherwise expressly set out to the contrary, nothing in these Terms shall serve to transfer from Mondaq to you, any Intellectual Property Rights owned by and/or licensed to Mondaq and all rights, title and interest in and to such Intellectual Property Rights will remain exclusively with Mondaq and/or its licensors.

Mondaq shall use its reasonable endeavours to make the Website and Services available to you at all times, but we cannot guarantee an uninterrupted and fault free service.

Mondaq reserves the right to make changes to the services and/or the Website or part thereof, from time to time, and we may add, remove, modify and/or vary any elements of features and functionalities of the Website or the services.

Mondaq also reserves the right from time to time to monitor your Use of the Website and/or services.


The Content is general information only. It is not intended to constitute legal advice or seek to be the complete and comprehensive statement of the law, nor is it intended to address your specific requirements or provide advice on which reliance should be placed. Mondaq and/or its Contributors and other suppliers make no representations about the suitability of the information contained in the Content for any purpose. All Content provided "as is" without warranty of any kind. Mondaq and/or its Contributors and other suppliers hereby exclude and disclaim all representations, warranties or guarantees with regard to the Content, including all implied warranties and conditions of merchantability, fitness for a particular purpose, title and non-infringement. To the maximum extent permitted by law, Mondaq expressly excludes all representations, warranties, obligations, and liabilities arising out of or in connection with all Content. In no event shall Mondaq and/or its respective suppliers be liable for any special, indirect or consequential damages or any damages whatsoever resulting from loss of use, data or profits, whether in an action of contract, negligence or other tortious action, arising out of or in connection with the use of the Content or performance of Mondaq’s Services.


Mondaq may alter or amend these Terms by amending them on the Website. By continuing to Use the Services and/or the Website after such amendment, you will be deemed to have accepted any amendment to these Terms.

These Terms shall be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws of England and Wales and you irrevocably submit to the exclusive jurisdiction of the courts of England and Wales to settle any dispute which may arise out of or in connection with these Terms. If you live outside the United Kingdom, English law shall apply only to the extent that English law shall not deprive you of any legal protection accorded in accordance with the law of the place where you are habitually resident ("Local Law"). In the event English law deprives you of any legal protection which is accorded to you under Local Law, then these terms shall be governed by Local Law and any dispute or claim arising out of or in connection with these Terms shall be subject to the non-exclusive jurisdiction of the courts where you are habitually resident.

You may print and keep a copy of these Terms, which form the entire agreement between you and Mondaq and supersede any other communications or advertising in respect of the Service and/or the Website.

No delay in exercising or non-exercise by you and/or Mondaq of any of its rights under or in connection with these Terms shall operate as a waiver or release of each of your or Mondaq’s right. Rather, any such waiver or release must be specifically granted in writing signed by the party granting it.

If any part of these Terms is held unenforceable, that part shall be enforced to the maximum extent permissible so as to give effect to the intent of the parties, and the Terms shall continue in full force and effect.

Mondaq shall not incur any liability to you on account of any loss or damage resulting from any delay or failure to perform all or any part of these Terms if such delay or failure is caused, in whole or in part, by events, occurrences, or causes beyond the control of Mondaq. Such events, occurrences or causes will include, without limitation, acts of God, strikes, lockouts, server and network failure, riots, acts of war, earthquakes, fire and explosions.

By clicking Register you state you have read and agree to our Terms and Conditions