United States: 对《反不正当竞争法(修订草案送审稿)》的两点解读:商业贿赂条款和

Last Updated: February 23 2017
Article by Dentons  

对《反不正当竞争法(修订草案送审稿)》的两点解读:商业贿赂条款和滥用相对优势地位条款

2016-03-22 反垄断实务评论 作者:邓志松 戴健民

《反不正当竞争法(修订草案送审稿)》(以下简称"《修订草案》")正在向全社会公开征求意见。经过二十四年的实施,1993年颁布的《反不正当竞争法》相对于日新月异的经济社会发展现状亟需修订。《修订草案》对现行法律总共33条中的30条均有修改,更新力度可谓空前,也将进一步完善中国现行的包括《反垄断法》在内的竞争法体系。特别是基于竞争法的实务角度,《修订草案》中的商业贿赂条款及滥用市场优势地位条款预计将企业经营产生直接的现实影响。我们认为,目前草案中对于这两个极具现实意义的条款的修订既有有突出的亮点和意义,也存在进一步合理化的空间。

一、商业贿赂条款的修订

(一)修订草案的亮点和意义

1、统一了执法主体

依据现行《反不正当竞争法》第三条第二款的规定,长期以来,银行、保险、电信、建设工程招投标等行业的商业贿赂监管,均由各自的行业主管部门负责。此次《修订草案》将该条款修改为:"县级以上人民政府工商行政管理部门对不正当竞争行为进行监督检查;其他法律、行政法规另有规定的,相关部门也可以依照其规定进行监督检查"。据此,未来工商部门对商业贿赂行为的执法,将不再存在禁区。

2、明确了商业贿赂的内涵和外延

受现行《反不正当竞争法》未对商业贿赂概念予以界定的影响,执法机构对于商业贿赂行为缺乏统一的认定标准,由此在执法实践中出现了泛商业贿赂化的现象。这在一定程度上制约了经营者创新商业模式的积极性。此次《修订草案》顺应社会各界要求明晰商业贿赂概念的呼声,对商业贿赂的内涵予以了定义,并通过列举的方式,表述了商业贿赂行为的表现形式,从而在一定程度上限定了商业贿赂的外延范围。相信未来我国的反商业贿赂执法,将更为系统、合理和有效。

3、罚则设计更为科学

现行《反不正当竞争法》中对于商业贿赂行为的处罚由没收违法所得和1至20万元的罚款组成。在执法实践中,由于缺乏科学的计算方法,违法所得的计算始终难以真正做到合法性与合理性的统一。而20万元的罚款上限,又无法对此类违法行为形成足够的威慑。因此,在《修订草案》中,对于商业贿赂行为的处罚不再包括没收违法所得,转而采用以违法经营额为基数,处以一定比例(10-30%)罚款的罚则设计。与违法所得相比,违法经营额不涉及复杂的成本计算,将有利于提高行政执法的效率。而相对明确的处罚基数与比例,也能使经营者较为准确的预测其相关行为的法律后果,从而发挥法律的指引作用。

(二)条款的进一步修改和完善

1、商业贿赂的定义仍有待完善

《修订草案》第七条第二款对于商业贿赂的定义有待进一步的完善。在该款中,商业贿赂的表现形式被定义为"给付或者承诺给付经济利益"。但在商品(服务)交易中,价格折让、免费售后、买大送小等商业模式均属于"给付经济利益",也都具有为经营者谋取交易机会或者竞争优势的作用。以此来区别合法商业行为与商业贿赂行为,其科学性有待商榷。事实上,法条本身对此问题的观点也存在矛盾。从《修订草案》第七条第一款第(二)项的表述来看,经营者之间如能在合同及会计凭证中如实记载,则"给付经济利益"并不违法。我们认为,"隐秘性"才是商业贿赂的本质特征。也是其社会危害性的主要根源。如将商业贿赂的定义修改为:"经营者向交易对方或者可能影响交易的第三方,暗中给付或者承诺给付经济利益,诱使其为经营者谋取交易机会或者竞争优势",可能更为科学合理。

2、制定违法经营额的认定标准

在此次《修订草案》中,未对违法经营额的认定标准予以规定,这可能给未来的反商业贿赂执法带来一定的问题。实践中,除回扣以外,大部分商业贿赂行为与交易之间未必存在一一对应关系。因此,违法经营额的计算将取决于执法机构对于涉案交易的范围和时间跨度的界定。为了保证这类界定的公平公正,我们建议在该法或后续的立法中,补充关于违法经营额认定标准和计算办法的相关条款。

二、滥用相对优势地位条款的修订

(一)修订草案的亮点和意义

《修订草案》纳入了两种新的类型化的不正当竞争行为,其中之一便是第六条规定的滥用相对优势地位条款。这一新的规定明确提高了对市场上实力较强的经营者的行为要求,体现了《修订草案》第二条所规定的市场正当竞争原则——"经营者在经济活动中,应当遵循自愿、平等、公平、诚实信用的原则,遵守公认的商业道德"。的确,从人类社会道德规范的角度来看,滥用相对优势地位好比乘人之危,将其纳入不正当竞争的范畴,也是人类道德在商业领域的反映。此外,在大众创业、万众创新的环境下,保护中小企业不被欺压,也顺应了时代的需求。

(二)与《反垄断法》市场支配地位滥用条款的关系

《反垄断法》与《反不正当竞争法》的本质区别在于,《反垄断法》旨在确保市场上存在竞争,市场竞争机制发挥应有的资源配置作用,而《反不正当竞争法》则是在市场存在竞争的前提下,确保经营者不要恶性竞争、不择手段地损人利己,败坏商业道德。从这个区别出发,可以看到滥用相对优势地位与《反垄断法》第十七条规定的市场支配地位滥用存在本质不同。前者在构成要件和行为效果方面都有自己的特点,其不要求经营者具有市场支配地位,也不要求其行为限制了市场竞争,只需符合相对优势或依赖性条件,该经营者就不应从事有损商业道德的行为。对经营者而言,滥用相对优势地位条款提出了新的行为准则,不能再用市场支配地位滥用条款的思路去对待这一新规则。

(三)条款的进一步修改和完善

从实务角度来看,滥用相对优势地位条款目前有两大不确定性。一是依赖性的界定,二是滥用行为的具体认定。依赖性是相对优势地位的核心,《修订草案》中提到依赖性意味着"交易相对方...难以转向其他经营者",这里就存在程度问题,"难以"在时间、空间、技术、成本、利润等多个角度都能进行评估,但是达到什么程度才算"难以"则并不确定。另外,滥用行为的构成都要求"没有正当理由"或"不合理",什么是正当、合理,这本身也不确定。这两个不确定叠加在一起,可能会使证明滥用相对优势地位的难度非常高。

Dentons is the world's first polycentric global law firm. A top 20 firm on the Acritas 2015 Global Elite Brand Index, the Firm is committed to challenging the status quo in delivering consistent and uncompromising quality and value in new and inventive ways. Driven to provide clients a competitive edge, and connected to the communities where its clients want to do business, Dentons knows that understanding local cultures is crucial to successfully completing a deal, resolving a dispute or solving a business challenge. Now the world's largest law firm, Dentons' global team builds agile, tailored solutions to meet the local, national and global needs of private and public clients of any size in more than 125 locations serving 50-plus countries. www.dentons.com.

The content of this article is intended to provide a general guide to the subject matter. Specialist advice should be sought about your specific circumstances.

To print this article, all you need is to be registered on Mondaq.com.

Click to Login as an existing user or Register so you can print this article.

Authors
Events from this Firm
17 Oct 2018, Seminar, Washington, DC, United States

Earn up to six hours of credits towards Virginia's October 31 MCLE compliance deadline (credit approval is pending) at this full-day program.

25 Oct 2018, Other, New York, United States

Once again, Dentons is proud to bring together insurance industry leaders, lawyers and regulators for a full-day examination of the most current issues.

 
In association with
Related Topics
 
Related Articles
 
Related Video
Up-coming Events Search
Tools
Print
Font Size:
Translation
Channels
Mondaq on Twitter
 
Register for Access and our Free Biweekly Alert for
This service is completely free. Access 250,000 archived articles from 100+ countries and get a personalised email twice a week covering developments (and yes, our lawyers like to think you’ve read our Disclaimer).
 
Email Address
Company Name
Password
Confirm Password
Position
Mondaq Topics -- Select your Interests
 Accounting
 Anti-trust
 Commercial
 Compliance
 Consumer
 Criminal
 Employment
 Energy
 Environment
 Family
 Finance
 Government
 Healthcare
 Immigration
 Insolvency
 Insurance
 International
 IP
 Law Performance
 Law Practice
 Litigation
 Media & IT
 Privacy
 Real Estate
 Strategy
 Tax
 Technology
 Transport
 Wealth Mgt
Regions
Africa
Asia
Asia Pacific
Australasia
Canada
Caribbean
Europe
European Union
Latin America
Middle East
U.K.
United States
Worldwide Updates
Registration (you must scroll down to set your data preferences)

Mondaq Ltd requires you to register and provide information that personally identifies you, including your content preferences, for three primary purposes (full details of Mondaq’s use of your personal data can be found in our Privacy and Cookies Notice):

  • To allow you to personalize the Mondaq websites you are visiting to show content ("Content") relevant to your interests.
  • To enable features such as password reminder, news alerts, email a colleague, and linking from Mondaq (and its affiliate sites) to your website.
  • To produce demographic feedback for our content providers ("Contributors") who contribute Content for free for your use.

Mondaq hopes that our registered users will support us in maintaining our free to view business model by consenting to our use of your personal data as described below.

Mondaq has a "free to view" business model. Our services are paid for by Contributors in exchange for Mondaq providing them with access to information about who accesses their content. Once personal data is transferred to our Contributors they become a data controller of this personal data. They use it to measure the response that their articles are receiving, as a form of market research. They may also use it to provide Mondaq users with information about their products and services.

Details of each Contributor to which your personal data will be transferred is clearly stated within the Content that you access. For full details of how this Contributor will use your personal data, you should review the Contributor’s own Privacy Notice.

Please indicate your preference below:

Yes, I am happy to support Mondaq in maintaining its free to view business model by agreeing to allow Mondaq to share my personal data with Contributors whose Content I access
No, I do not want Mondaq to share my personal data with Contributors

Also please let us know whether you are happy to receive communications promoting products and services offered by Mondaq:

Yes, I am happy to received promotional communications from Mondaq
No, please do not send me promotional communications from Mondaq
Terms & Conditions

Mondaq.com (the Website) is owned and managed by Mondaq Ltd (Mondaq). Mondaq grants you a non-exclusive, revocable licence to access the Website and associated services, such as the Mondaq News Alerts (Services), subject to and in consideration of your compliance with the following terms and conditions of use (Terms). Your use of the Website and/or Services constitutes your agreement to the Terms. Mondaq may terminate your use of the Website and Services if you are in breach of these Terms or if Mondaq decides to terminate the licence granted hereunder for any reason whatsoever.

Use of www.mondaq.com

To Use Mondaq.com you must be: eighteen (18) years old or over; legally capable of entering into binding contracts; and not in any way prohibited by the applicable law to enter into these Terms in the jurisdiction which you are currently located.

You may use the Website as an unregistered user, however, you are required to register as a user if you wish to read the full text of the Content or to receive the Services.

You may not modify, publish, transmit, transfer or sell, reproduce, create derivative works from, distribute, perform, link, display, or in any way exploit any of the Content, in whole or in part, except as expressly permitted in these Terms or with the prior written consent of Mondaq. You may not use electronic or other means to extract details or information from the Content. Nor shall you extract information about users or Contributors in order to offer them any services or products.

In your use of the Website and/or Services you shall: comply with all applicable laws, regulations, directives and legislations which apply to your Use of the Website and/or Services in whatever country you are physically located including without limitation any and all consumer law, export control laws and regulations; provide to us true, correct and accurate information and promptly inform us in the event that any information that you have provided to us changes or becomes inaccurate; notify Mondaq immediately of any circumstances where you have reason to believe that any Intellectual Property Rights or any other rights of any third party may have been infringed; co-operate with reasonable security or other checks or requests for information made by Mondaq from time to time; and at all times be fully liable for the breach of any of these Terms by a third party using your login details to access the Website and/or Services

however, you shall not: do anything likely to impair, interfere with or damage or cause harm or distress to any persons, or the network; do anything that will infringe any Intellectual Property Rights or other rights of Mondaq or any third party; or use the Website, Services and/or Content otherwise than in accordance with these Terms; use any trade marks or service marks of Mondaq or the Contributors, or do anything which may be seen to take unfair advantage of the reputation and goodwill of Mondaq or the Contributors, or the Website, Services and/or Content.

Mondaq reserves the right, in its sole discretion, to take any action that it deems necessary and appropriate in the event it considers that there is a breach or threatened breach of the Terms.

Mondaq’s Rights and Obligations

Unless otherwise expressly set out to the contrary, nothing in these Terms shall serve to transfer from Mondaq to you, any Intellectual Property Rights owned by and/or licensed to Mondaq and all rights, title and interest in and to such Intellectual Property Rights will remain exclusively with Mondaq and/or its licensors.

Mondaq shall use its reasonable endeavours to make the Website and Services available to you at all times, but we cannot guarantee an uninterrupted and fault free service.

Mondaq reserves the right to make changes to the services and/or the Website or part thereof, from time to time, and we may add, remove, modify and/or vary any elements of features and functionalities of the Website or the services.

Mondaq also reserves the right from time to time to monitor your Use of the Website and/or services.

Disclaimer

The Content is general information only. It is not intended to constitute legal advice or seek to be the complete and comprehensive statement of the law, nor is it intended to address your specific requirements or provide advice on which reliance should be placed. Mondaq and/or its Contributors and other suppliers make no representations about the suitability of the information contained in the Content for any purpose. All Content provided "as is" without warranty of any kind. Mondaq and/or its Contributors and other suppliers hereby exclude and disclaim all representations, warranties or guarantees with regard to the Content, including all implied warranties and conditions of merchantability, fitness for a particular purpose, title and non-infringement. To the maximum extent permitted by law, Mondaq expressly excludes all representations, warranties, obligations, and liabilities arising out of or in connection with all Content. In no event shall Mondaq and/or its respective suppliers be liable for any special, indirect or consequential damages or any damages whatsoever resulting from loss of use, data or profits, whether in an action of contract, negligence or other tortious action, arising out of or in connection with the use of the Content or performance of Mondaq’s Services.

General

Mondaq may alter or amend these Terms by amending them on the Website. By continuing to Use the Services and/or the Website after such amendment, you will be deemed to have accepted any amendment to these Terms.

These Terms shall be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws of England and Wales and you irrevocably submit to the exclusive jurisdiction of the courts of England and Wales to settle any dispute which may arise out of or in connection with these Terms. If you live outside the United Kingdom, English law shall apply only to the extent that English law shall not deprive you of any legal protection accorded in accordance with the law of the place where you are habitually resident ("Local Law"). In the event English law deprives you of any legal protection which is accorded to you under Local Law, then these terms shall be governed by Local Law and any dispute or claim arising out of or in connection with these Terms shall be subject to the non-exclusive jurisdiction of the courts where you are habitually resident.

You may print and keep a copy of these Terms, which form the entire agreement between you and Mondaq and supersede any other communications or advertising in respect of the Service and/or the Website.

No delay in exercising or non-exercise by you and/or Mondaq of any of its rights under or in connection with these Terms shall operate as a waiver or release of each of your or Mondaq’s right. Rather, any such waiver or release must be specifically granted in writing signed by the party granting it.

If any part of these Terms is held unenforceable, that part shall be enforced to the maximum extent permissible so as to give effect to the intent of the parties, and the Terms shall continue in full force and effect.

Mondaq shall not incur any liability to you on account of any loss or damage resulting from any delay or failure to perform all or any part of these Terms if such delay or failure is caused, in whole or in part, by events, occurrences, or causes beyond the control of Mondaq. Such events, occurrences or causes will include, without limitation, acts of God, strikes, lockouts, server and network failure, riots, acts of war, earthquakes, fire and explosions.

By clicking Register you state you have read and agree to our Terms and Conditions