European Union: 欧洲反垄断执法机构开始关注大数据持有者

Last Updated: July 18 2016
Article by Jones Day

近几个月来,欧洲反垄断执法机构实施了一系列新举措,以对"大数据"持有者和处理者适用竞争法法规。大数据通常是指大量的不同类型的数据积累,这些数据是经多种渠道高速处理后产生的,其处理和分析可能需要更强大的新型处理器和新型算法。 [1] 尽管公众的注意力目前主要集中在搜索引擎和社交网络,许多其他行业例如在线广告、能源、通讯、保险、银行或运输业也会处理大数据,因此这些行业也会受到潜在影响。

欧洲委员会过去触及过由数据的收集和使用引起的各类问题,特别是在一些并购审查的决定上。目前问题的重点已转移到国家反垄断执法机构上,这些执法机构开始测验竞争法工具对大数据处理(收集,转让和持有)的适用性,特别是在潜在的滥用支配地位案中所起的作用。

近期发展动态包括: 2016年3月 Facebook在德国的滥用支配地位案、2016年5月10日发布的关于大数据与竞争相互影响的法德共同报告、和法国的进一步执法行动公告。其他成员国比如英国和意大利过去已考虑过部分相关问题,并有可能在将来采取措施。

这些发展是在对数据集的价值意识提升以及欧洲数据保护法改进的大背景下产生的。随着《一般数据保护条例》的通过,反垄断监管部门已开始测验竞争法工具对大数据发布的可适用性。《一般数据保护条例》为保护欧盟境内个人数据建立了新标准, [2]包括通过提高个人对其数据的控制(比如,通过对数据可移植性的新权利)。

欧洲委员会和欧洲数据保护监管机构

在过去的一系列并购审查案中,欧洲委员会曾分析过数据问题。在2008年Google/DoubleClick [3] 一案的决定中,委员会评估了双方数据库的合并是否将阻碍竞争;隐私问题曾被提到过,但并未在委员会的决定中起到决定性作用。在TomTom/TeleAtlas [4]案中,欧洲委员会考虑了数据积累导致机密数据保护级别降低的风险。在更近期的案件中,欧洲委员会被要求审查Facebook 和WhatsApp的合并[5],在审查过程中,委员会分析了Facebook是否能利用WhatsApp作为潜在的用户数据资源以提升其广告效果,但最终的结论是该担忧并不足以妨碍竞争。委员会强调,根据现有判例法, [6]任何纯粹的隐私相关的问题均不包含在其对并购审查的司法管辖权范围内, [7]这与美国的主流情况恰恰相反,在美国,与隐私相关的救济措施曾被作为交易批准附加条件的一部分。 [8]

在并购审查之外,委员会曾在IMS [9] 和Reuters案[10]等案件中考虑到数据库的代码和结构可能是参与相关市场竞争需要获得的必要设施。

近期,欧盟委员会委员Vestager在2016年1月的一次演讲中确认了委员会对大数据和竞争的兴趣,特别是隐私问题和数据资产。 [11] 她也强调,委员会目前并未发现就数据有关的任何反垄断问题。关于谷歌的反垄断未决案针对的是其广告和Android业务,但并未明确强调大数据。

欧洲数据保护监管局("EDPS")是欧洲的数据保护部门,该部门在2014年的意见发表 [12]和几次关于反垄断与数据保护的交集的研讨会组织 [13]也表现出其对该议题的兴趣。

德国联邦企业联合管理局对Facebook提起滥用支配地位案

2016年3月,德国联邦企业联合管理局("FCO")提起Facebook涉嫌滥用支配地位的诉讼。FCO怀疑Facebook可能通过其隐私条款滥用其在社交网络中的支配地位。特别是,FCO怀疑Facebook的隐私条款违反了德国的隐私法。尽管拥有市场支配地位的公司不能仅仅因为违反隐私法而在反垄断法下被提起诉讼,FCO将评估Facebook的地位是否允许其施加一些在其不具备支配地位的情况下用户本不会接受的合约条款。

尽管欧洲委员会之前的决定中分析过数据收集对公司在广告市场中的市场地位的影响,FCO提起的这项案件则首次将从用户处收集数据与潜在的滥用市场支配地位(对用户而言)结合起来。

该案可能需要数年才能作出决定,主要原因是即使在Facebook并未向用户收费的情况下,FCO仍必须证明Facebook在"市场"上的支配地位, [14]并证明假如Facebook不具备支配地位,其不可能施加上述条款,这将涉及复杂的建立在假设条件下的分析。

这项行动受到了欧盟官员的好评:欧盟的数据保护总负责人认为该项举措是一项值得欢迎的积极进展。

法国和德国于5月10日发布关于竞争法和数据的报告

在Facebook一案提起之前,FCO和法国反垄断机构(Autorité de la Concurrence)就对竞争法和大数据的联合报告展开合作,该报告已于2016年5月10日发布。

该报告并未要求增加执法行动,而是简要表述了两家机构对大数据对反垄断法的影响以及潜在危害理论的看法。该报告大体上试图将数据放在现有反垄断原则框架之下进行分析(比如数据引起的进入障碍或排他性或剥削性滥用支配地位背景下的数据问题)。该报告引用了许多过去的案例以阐明主管机构如何分析反垄断案中的数据问题,并就主管机构将来可能关注的问题提供指导。

该报告称,将来的案件可能将基于以下理论:滥用支配地位行为是由公司通过数据获取市场支配力的能力引起的,而这种能力是其竞争者所无法比拟的。在评估这项"数据优势"时,主管机构可能会评估数据是稀有的还是容易复制的,以及数据收集的规模和范围是否具有重要性。

法国的行业调查及对法德报告的后续跟进

与之并行的是,法国反垄断机构表示其计划就大数据展开市场调查。据称,今年初反垄断机构已联络部分法国行业经营者,从而为其市场调查做准备。市场调查并不特别针对任何公司,而是大体上作为主管机构更好了解市场情况和动态的调查工具。尽管如此,主管机构总负责人并未排除调查结果可能导致对行业经营者立案的可能。

英国

2015年6月,英国竞争与市场管理局("CMA")发布了一份关于"消费者数据的商业使用"的报告。 [15] 这是一项事实调查项目,旨在帮助CMA了解公司如何使用大数据,消费者如何参与其中,大数据的优势以及对消费者和竞争的潜在伤害。CMA列举了大量大数据对消费者的益处,其中包括更有针对性的广告和促销,提供免费服务,改进产品开发和更为个性化的产品和服务。CMA也重点列出了由大数据收集引起的潜在的反竞争效果,特别是公司能够凭借其收集的数据获得市场支配力,并随后使用该支配力,通过阻止或限制获取和使用消费者数据的途径来排除其竞争者。然而,CMA并未表示其发现了任何足以使其展开新的反垄断调查的具体问题。

2015年11月,在英国金融领域具有竞争法执法权力的英国金融行为监管局("FCA")呼吁提供零售业普通保险大数据的相关信息。 [16] FCA的问询部分旨在寻求了解大数据如何影响零售保险业产品的竞争,特别是私人汽车和家庭保险,以及其对消费者的影响。这些初步调查结果的反馈声明将在今年下半年发布。这些调查结果可能会包含通过市场研究作出的更为深入的调查。

意大利

尽管在意大利大数据的收集和使用并不在意大利竞争局("ICA")的关注范围之内,ICA已将不正当商业行为法和《欧盟运行条约》第102条广泛应用到查处部分服务供应商对其客户施加的不正当商业条款中。特别是在滥用市场支配地位领域,针对Facebook的未决FCO调查与ICA过去的一些调查相似,后者将电信和电力企业施加给接替之前订购用户的新订购用户的经济负担(即,为了接替订购服务,新的订购用户必须先将之前订购用户的欠款缴清)视为剥削型滥用的一种形式。ICA调查下的危害理论体现为,在对其订购用户施加上述不公平合同条款时,具有支配地位的供应商的行为仅仅是在利用其市场支配力从用户处获取额外的利益,这样的行为可以被归纳为通过过高定价从消费者处获取垄断利润的一种方式。

比利时

2015年9月,比利时竞争主管机构通过了一项和解决定,针对国家彩票滥用其支配地位的行为处以120万欧元的罚款。经发现,国家彩票使用其在法定垄断的公众彩票下的客户数据库,来出售其参与市场竞争的新的体育博彩产品。

结论

目前,各国家竞争主管机构在了解大数据的收集和使用对竞争的影响时走在前列。这些主管机构也越来越一致认为现有反垄断法律与执法权力应足以解决任何发现的问题,且最可能产生的问题的源泉是潜在的滥用市场支配地位行为。当然,企业对客户的数据搜集将继续飞速发展,特别是在物联网发展的背景下。这些趋势将会有所冲突,且我们预计一家或多家主管机构会在不久的将来会对那些在收集大数据方面已悄悄超过竞争者,并可能使用这些数据在同一市场或邻近市场的竞争者中取得优势的特定公司展开反垄断调查。大数据的收集和分析有许多有利于竞争和消费者的好处,但是收集这些数据的公司应审慎考虑他们应如何使用数据以及如何更好地避免反垄断风险。

Footnotes

[1] 定义见《关于竞争法与数据的法德联合报告》。

[2] 详见众达评论,《欧洲就数据保护改革达成一致意见》。

[3] Case COMP/M.4731, 11.03.2008。

[4] Case COMP/M.4854, 14.05.2008。

[5] 尽管并未满足基于营业额的欧盟营业额门槛,但却因其在三个欧盟国家的市场份额而满足基于市场份额的国家并购审查门槛,从而允许欧盟对其进行审查。

[6] Case C-235/08, Asnef, [2006] ECR I-11125, § 63。

[7] 欧洲委员会新闻发布,2014年10月3日。

[8] 联邦贸易委员会消费者保护局局长Jessica L. Rich给Facebook的首席隐私保密官 Erin Egan和WhatsApp Inc. 的法律总顾问Anne Hoge的信函。

[9] 2001年7月3日委员会就COMP D3/38.044, IMS Health.案件的决定。

[10] 2012年12月20日委员会就AT.39654, Reuters Instrument Codes.案的决定。

[11] 2016年1月18日委员会公告,"大数据世界的竞争"。

[12] 欧洲数据保护监管局,2014年3月,"大数据时代的隐私和竞争:数字经济中数据保护、竞争法和消费者保护之间的相互影响"。

[13] 欧洲数据保护监管局,2014年6月2日"隐私、消费者、竞争和大数据研讨会报告"及其他研讨会。

[14] 提供免费服务是否构成相关市场的问题并未解决。在2016年5月2日的一次访谈中, FCO局长Mundt称FCO在实践中将其视为相关市场,但呼吁德国立法者澄清该问题。

[15] 英国竞争与市场管理局,"消费者数据的商业使用"。

[16] 英国金融行为监管局,"请求提供信息:零售业普通保险中的大数据"。

The content of this article is intended to provide a general guide to the subject matter. Specialist advice should be sought about your specific circumstances.

To print this article, all you need is to be registered on Mondaq.com.

Click to Login as an existing user or Register so you can print this article.

Authors
 
In association with
Related Topics
 
Related Articles
 
Related Video
Up-coming Events Search
Tools
Print
Font Size:
Translation
Channels
Mondaq on Twitter
 
Register for Access and our Free Biweekly Alert for
This service is completely free. Access 250,000 archived articles from 100+ countries and get a personalised email twice a week covering developments (and yes, our lawyers like to think you’ve read our Disclaimer).
 
Email Address
Company Name
Password
Confirm Password
Position
Mondaq Topics -- Select your Interests
 Accounting
 Anti-trust
 Commercial
 Compliance
 Consumer
 Criminal
 Employment
 Energy
 Environment
 Family
 Finance
 Government
 Healthcare
 Immigration
 Insolvency
 Insurance
 International
 IP
 Law Performance
 Law Practice
 Litigation
 Media & IT
 Privacy
 Real Estate
 Strategy
 Tax
 Technology
 Transport
 Wealth Mgt
Regions
Africa
Asia
Asia Pacific
Australasia
Canada
Caribbean
Europe
European Union
Latin America
Middle East
U.K.
United States
Worldwide Updates
Registration (you must scroll down to set your data preferences)

Mondaq Ltd requires you to register and provide information that personally identifies you, including your content preferences, for three primary purposes (full details of Mondaq’s use of your personal data can be found in our Privacy and Cookies Notice):

  • To allow you to personalize the Mondaq websites you are visiting to show content ("Content") relevant to your interests.
  • To enable features such as password reminder, news alerts, email a colleague, and linking from Mondaq (and its affiliate sites) to your website.
  • To produce demographic feedback for our content providers ("Contributors") who contribute Content for free for your use.

Mondaq hopes that our registered users will support us in maintaining our free to view business model by consenting to our use of your personal data as described below.

Mondaq has a "free to view" business model. Our services are paid for by Contributors in exchange for Mondaq providing them with access to information about who accesses their content. Once personal data is transferred to our Contributors they become a data controller of this personal data. They use it to measure the response that their articles are receiving, as a form of market research. They may also use it to provide Mondaq users with information about their products and services.

Details of each Contributor to which your personal data will be transferred is clearly stated within the Content that you access. For full details of how this Contributor will use your personal data, you should review the Contributor’s own Privacy Notice.

Please indicate your preference below:

Yes, I am happy to support Mondaq in maintaining its free to view business model by agreeing to allow Mondaq to share my personal data with Contributors whose Content I access
No, I do not want Mondaq to share my personal data with Contributors

Also please let us know whether you are happy to receive communications promoting products and services offered by Mondaq:

Yes, I am happy to received promotional communications from Mondaq
No, please do not send me promotional communications from Mondaq
Terms & Conditions

Mondaq.com (the Website) is owned and managed by Mondaq Ltd (Mondaq). Mondaq grants you a non-exclusive, revocable licence to access the Website and associated services, such as the Mondaq News Alerts (Services), subject to and in consideration of your compliance with the following terms and conditions of use (Terms). Your use of the Website and/or Services constitutes your agreement to the Terms. Mondaq may terminate your use of the Website and Services if you are in breach of these Terms or if Mondaq decides to terminate the licence granted hereunder for any reason whatsoever.

Use of www.mondaq.com

To Use Mondaq.com you must be: eighteen (18) years old or over; legally capable of entering into binding contracts; and not in any way prohibited by the applicable law to enter into these Terms in the jurisdiction which you are currently located.

You may use the Website as an unregistered user, however, you are required to register as a user if you wish to read the full text of the Content or to receive the Services.

You may not modify, publish, transmit, transfer or sell, reproduce, create derivative works from, distribute, perform, link, display, or in any way exploit any of the Content, in whole or in part, except as expressly permitted in these Terms or with the prior written consent of Mondaq. You may not use electronic or other means to extract details or information from the Content. Nor shall you extract information about users or Contributors in order to offer them any services or products.

In your use of the Website and/or Services you shall: comply with all applicable laws, regulations, directives and legislations which apply to your Use of the Website and/or Services in whatever country you are physically located including without limitation any and all consumer law, export control laws and regulations; provide to us true, correct and accurate information and promptly inform us in the event that any information that you have provided to us changes or becomes inaccurate; notify Mondaq immediately of any circumstances where you have reason to believe that any Intellectual Property Rights or any other rights of any third party may have been infringed; co-operate with reasonable security or other checks or requests for information made by Mondaq from time to time; and at all times be fully liable for the breach of any of these Terms by a third party using your login details to access the Website and/or Services

however, you shall not: do anything likely to impair, interfere with or damage or cause harm or distress to any persons, or the network; do anything that will infringe any Intellectual Property Rights or other rights of Mondaq or any third party; or use the Website, Services and/or Content otherwise than in accordance with these Terms; use any trade marks or service marks of Mondaq or the Contributors, or do anything which may be seen to take unfair advantage of the reputation and goodwill of Mondaq or the Contributors, or the Website, Services and/or Content.

Mondaq reserves the right, in its sole discretion, to take any action that it deems necessary and appropriate in the event it considers that there is a breach or threatened breach of the Terms.

Mondaq’s Rights and Obligations

Unless otherwise expressly set out to the contrary, nothing in these Terms shall serve to transfer from Mondaq to you, any Intellectual Property Rights owned by and/or licensed to Mondaq and all rights, title and interest in and to such Intellectual Property Rights will remain exclusively with Mondaq and/or its licensors.

Mondaq shall use its reasonable endeavours to make the Website and Services available to you at all times, but we cannot guarantee an uninterrupted and fault free service.

Mondaq reserves the right to make changes to the services and/or the Website or part thereof, from time to time, and we may add, remove, modify and/or vary any elements of features and functionalities of the Website or the services.

Mondaq also reserves the right from time to time to monitor your Use of the Website and/or services.

Disclaimer

The Content is general information only. It is not intended to constitute legal advice or seek to be the complete and comprehensive statement of the law, nor is it intended to address your specific requirements or provide advice on which reliance should be placed. Mondaq and/or its Contributors and other suppliers make no representations about the suitability of the information contained in the Content for any purpose. All Content provided "as is" without warranty of any kind. Mondaq and/or its Contributors and other suppliers hereby exclude and disclaim all representations, warranties or guarantees with regard to the Content, including all implied warranties and conditions of merchantability, fitness for a particular purpose, title and non-infringement. To the maximum extent permitted by law, Mondaq expressly excludes all representations, warranties, obligations, and liabilities arising out of or in connection with all Content. In no event shall Mondaq and/or its respective suppliers be liable for any special, indirect or consequential damages or any damages whatsoever resulting from loss of use, data or profits, whether in an action of contract, negligence or other tortious action, arising out of or in connection with the use of the Content or performance of Mondaq’s Services.

General

Mondaq may alter or amend these Terms by amending them on the Website. By continuing to Use the Services and/or the Website after such amendment, you will be deemed to have accepted any amendment to these Terms.

These Terms shall be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws of England and Wales and you irrevocably submit to the exclusive jurisdiction of the courts of England and Wales to settle any dispute which may arise out of or in connection with these Terms. If you live outside the United Kingdom, English law shall apply only to the extent that English law shall not deprive you of any legal protection accorded in accordance with the law of the place where you are habitually resident ("Local Law"). In the event English law deprives you of any legal protection which is accorded to you under Local Law, then these terms shall be governed by Local Law and any dispute or claim arising out of or in connection with these Terms shall be subject to the non-exclusive jurisdiction of the courts where you are habitually resident.

You may print and keep a copy of these Terms, which form the entire agreement between you and Mondaq and supersede any other communications or advertising in respect of the Service and/or the Website.

No delay in exercising or non-exercise by you and/or Mondaq of any of its rights under or in connection with these Terms shall operate as a waiver or release of each of your or Mondaq’s right. Rather, any such waiver or release must be specifically granted in writing signed by the party granting it.

If any part of these Terms is held unenforceable, that part shall be enforced to the maximum extent permissible so as to give effect to the intent of the parties, and the Terms shall continue in full force and effect.

Mondaq shall not incur any liability to you on account of any loss or damage resulting from any delay or failure to perform all or any part of these Terms if such delay or failure is caused, in whole or in part, by events, occurrences, or causes beyond the control of Mondaq. Such events, occurrences or causes will include, without limitation, acts of God, strikes, lockouts, server and network failure, riots, acts of war, earthquakes, fire and explosions.

By clicking Register you state you have read and agree to our Terms and Conditions