United States: TPP協定の投資章に関する重要項目

環太平洋パートナーシップ協定(TPP)は「最先端」として特徴付けられ、投資障壁を取り除くことにより締結国の投資家たちにとって投資利益を高めると期待されています。2016年2月4日に正式に署名した際、ベトナムはTPPの最大の受益国だと言われており、他の国際協定と比べてTPPの効果に対し大きな期待を寄せています。

外国人投資家はTPP投資章が彼らのベトナムにおける投資環境に直接影響すると考え最も注目しています。正式にベトナムで実施され、執行可能となるには国会の承認次第である為、TPP投資章が外国人投資家にもたらす実際の利点及び効果に関してはさておき、ここではTPP投資章の条項を簡単に確認します。TPP投資章の重要な待遇は以下の通りです。

TPP投資章

範囲はいくつかの点において狭くなっていますが、TPP投資章は他の二国間そして多国間国際投資協定と同様の投資保護措置を提供しています。

  • 内国民待遇:投資受入国は次の状況において国内の競合他社が有利になるように外国人投資家を差別してはなりません。保護の対象はその地域での設立、買収、拡大、管理、経営、運用、売却、そして譲渡に制限されています。
  • 最恵国待遇:投資受入国は第三国または他の締結国の投資家に与えている待遇よりも不利な待遇を外国人投資家に与えてはなりません。内国民待遇と同様に、保護の対象は特定の状況に制限されています。
  • 公正衡平待遇:投資受入国は投資環境の公正衡平待遇及び完全な安全保証を維持することが義務づけられています。
  • 収用の禁止:公共目的のため、差別的ではない方法、迅速な補償、及び正当な法手続きのもとである場合を除いて収用や国有化が禁止されていることがTPP投資章で細かく制定されています。
  • 投資に関連する資金移転の自由:原則的に、出資に関連する資金、資本拠出による利益、契約にもとづく支払いそして紛争から生じる支払いに関する資金を遅延なく自由に移転することが可能です。
  • 投資活動に対する特定措置の履行要求の禁止:現地調達や技術移転のような、ある特定の要求は投資家による設立、買収、拡大、管理、経営、運用、売却、譲渡の際に禁止されています。

投資家と国家の国際仲裁手続き

TPP投資章には投資家と国家の国際仲裁手続き(ISDS)規定の詳細が含まれています。ISDS規定にもとづき、他の締結国の国民である投資家は投資に関する問題が発生した際に国際仲裁を通して投資予定国に対し訴訟を起こす権利を保持します。その為、ISDSは外国人投資家にとって以下の点において強い保障措置と言われています。

  • 法廷は訴訟の勝訴当事者に「弁護士費用」を裁定する権利を保持します。
  • 法廷は透明性が高い手続きの証として、「聴聞の公開」及び「全ての事案の審理、申立、判断内容を公開」することが義務付けられています。
  • (非政府組織のような)第三者の介入が可能となります。
  • 裁定は原則的に、損害賠償及び財産の返還に制限しなければなりません。
  • 裁定は国内裁判所または国際審査委員会のどちらかで確認することが可能です。
  • 仲裁廷は「同様の事例や状況」の下で生じたクレームを含め、平行手続きの危険性を避ける為に異なる仲裁手続きを確立することが可能です。

2012年のピーターソン研究所の研究によると、TPPの効果により2025年のベトナムのインカムゲインは総合的に13%以上高くなり、一方で2025年の輸出は37%以上高くなると予測されています。2018年までTPPがベトナムで施行されるとこはありませんが、TPP投資章による利点を踏まえ、透明性及び良好な投資環境への期待は確実に高まっています。

ご注意〉こちらの記事は皆様に情報をお届けする目的でのみ作成・掲載しておりますので、法的なアドバイスとして提供・構成することを目的としておりません。詳細につきましては、当法律事務所の注意書きをご一読下さい。

オリバー・マスマンはドウェイン・モリス・ベトナム法律事務所のディレクターです。上記に関するご質問等はomassmann@duanemorris.com までお気軽にご連絡ください。

Disclaimer: This Alert has been prepared and published for informational purposes only and is not offered, nor should be construed, as legal advice. For more information, please see the firm's full disclaimer.

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