UK: Green light For Telcos - How The Telecommunications Industry Can Help Other Industries Reduce Carbon Emissions And Therefore Cost


Since the late 1800s the Telecommunications industry has played a major role in shaping how we live, and today it is the backbone of the global economy, with total revenues in excess of $1.9 trillion (USD). However, energy consumption has grown in line with demand and this represents a major environmental challenge. Public awareness of the impact of big business on the environment is increasing and both governments and companies are responding. As such, the strategic imperative for Telcos is to leverage solutions to reduce emissions and costs developed in their own industry to capitalise on the revenue opportunities associated with deploying these solutions in other industries. This is more about adapting existing solutions to deliver sustainable changes in behaviour, and less about developing new ones.

While current satellite navigation solutions are likely to achieve significant improvements in traffic efficiency, there is a need to further enhance these solutions to unlock additional reductions in CO2 emissions. However, this technology could also be adopted to encourage migration away from cars towards public transport.

It is widely acknowledged that teleworking can substitute commuting and business travel, reducing the negative environmental impacts and associated costs.

Yet the growth of telepresence solutions has fallen far short of expectations. We believe that due to a combination of factors, conditions are now right for this to change. The opportunity for Telcos here is as much about enabling best practise performance management through enhanced management information as it is about driving adoption by further enhancing existing collaborative working solutions.

The introduction of 2nd generation smart meters also represents a significant opportunity to drive further emission reductions and new revenue streams derived from connecting these devices to the smart grid. However, Telcos should also capitalise on the customer insights that this energy usage data will bring.

Global IP traffic is forecast to grow fivefold between 2008 and 2013.1 Yet while the financial benefits of this traffic to operators are clear, this level of growth is undesirable from an emissions perspective. Telcos can help other industries reduce both emissions and costs by proactively supporting greater enforcement of anti-piracy legislation, by adopting new pricing structures and by enhancing existing throttling policies to discourage traffic with negative economic value.


Since the first commercial telephone services were set up in 1878 and 1879 on both sides of the Atlantic in the cities of New Haven and London, the Telecommunications industry has continued to have a significant social, cultural and economic impact on modern society. A recent World Bank report found that for every 10 percentage point increase in high-speed internet connections there is an increase in economic growth of 1.3%.2

Not only are high capacity fibre networks enabling the world's leading and emerging economies to expand their markets across regions and timezones, developing countries are also increasingly reliant on advanced mobile voice and data services to drive traditional industries. In 2008, estimates placed the Telecommunications industry's revenue at $1.9 trillion (USD).3 These numbers are anticipated to significantly increase as data traffic is expected to grow fivefold between 2008 and 2013.4

And because the Telecommunications industry provides products and services that enable greater efficiency through ever faster communications across an increasingly interconnected world, global revenues indicate that the industry already makes a very significant contribution to efficiency and cost reduction in every aspect of the economy. And this too is set to rise in line with demand for these services.

Yet the central role of telecommunications in the global economy also represents a significant environmental challenge; in April 2009 OFCOM suggested that the total global carbon footprint of the ICT industry as a whole is in the order of 800 MtCO2e or approximately 2% of global emissions. Of this, the contribution from global telecommunication systems – mobile, fixed and communications devices – currently approaches 230 MtCO2e or approximately 0.7% of global emissions.5 And these numbers are expected to more than double by 2020.6

Historically the perception has been that the Telecommunications industry has low energy consumption. However, following the rapid expansion in the number of mobile base stations and abundant utilisation of servers, power consumption has risen significantly and public awareness is now on the increase.

The run-up to the climate change conference in Copenhagen in December 2009 (COP15) is proving to be a period of unprecedented focus on the challenges of climate change. At the UN Forum on Climate Change in New York in September 2009, the Airline industry became the first sector to announce a global plan to cut net carbon emissions by 50% from 2005 levels by 2050. Furthermore, Japan has thrown down the gauntlet to other industrialised nations by pledging to cut emissions by 25% from 1990 levels by 2020, subject to a global deal at Copenhagen.

Figure 1. Breakdown Of CO2 Emission By End Users In The UK In 20077

All this suggests that Telcos must respond in two ways; firstly to demonstrate leadership by reducing emissions in its own industry, in a way that can be evidenced and builds trust. Some good progress has already been made in this space but more is needed. Key initiatives to date include the development of collaborative working technologies, use of solar panels and wind turbines to power mobile base stations, development of increasingly energy efficient network equipment and voluntary certification of progress made against key sustainability metrics. However this topic is discussed in more depth in our related paper 'The line goes green: Why environmental policies are critical to Telcos and recommended strategies'.

Secondly, Telcos must apply the learnings from reducing emissions in their own industry to capitalise on the opportunities to reduce emissions in other industries. While the economic downturn has led to the emergence of a global cost reduction agenda, and while the recent global drive to cut carbon emissions gathers momentum, it seems that there is now a unique opportunity for Telcos not only to take the lead from an eminence perspective but also to open up significant new revenue streams. Experience in the Telecommunications industry suggests that reducing emissions is as much a behavioural challenge as it is a technology one.

Many of the opportunities for Telcos to enable reductions in CO2 emissions (emissions) are well understood. Indeed the industry is already active in a number of areas:

  • Business:
    • Dematerialisation to reduce the production of DVDs, paper, etc.
    • Cloud computing resulting in more efficient use of IT equipment.
    • Remote medical monitoring of out-patients to reduce travel and demand for in-patient services.
  • Transport:
    • Decentralising business districts resulting in less travel and congestion.
    • Real-time fleet management to increase effective usage.
  • Residential:
    • Rollout of 1st generation smart meters that allows remote monitoring/metering of power consumption by utilities companies.

However, the focus of this paper is in four key areas where Telcos could significantly enhance their current contribution to reductions in emissions and cost in other industries, and at the same time increase revenues and enhance brand equity. These opportunities relate to the Business, Transport and Residential sectors that together made up 89% of all CO2 emissions by end users in the UK in 2007 (see Figure 1):

  • Opportunity 1: Transport – use of telemetry solutions to optimise private transport and encourage long-term transition from private to public transport.
  • Opportunity 2: Business and Transport – use of new management information (MI) solutions and performance management approach to encourage uptake of existing collaborative working tools.
  • Opportunity 3: Residential – enable next generation energy management solutions and tap into new CRM opportunities.
  • Opportunity 4: Business and Residential – optimise network usage by discouraging IP traffic that generates negative economic value.

And by exploiting these opportunities and other like them, it has been estimated that the Telecommunications industry could enable reductions in global CO2 emissions by between 5 and 10%.8


Current Activities

The Transport sector currently accounts for 28% of carbon emissions in the UK and 23% globally.9 Consequently, there are already a number of initiatives to reduce these levels. Two key areas are fleet management and satellite navigation with real-time traffic information.

Fleet Management Solutions

Many large businesses around the world have implemented fleet management solutions; these provide specific features such as real-time scheduling and network optimisation enabled by mobile communication technologies that result in a reduction in operating costs as well as emissions.

Many major retailers have leveraged these solutions successfully to optimise store locations, and balance warehouse capacities and daily throughput limits to improve transport schedules. For example, fleet management initiatives allowed Tesco to reduce its carbon footprint by 10.2% in 2007. And they are on target to achieve their longer term goal of a 50% reduction of CO2 produced per case delivered by 2011.10

Similarly, UPS has used 'package flow' to pack and sort its cargo, map out routes and significantly reduce the number of left-hand turns their drivers make. In 2006, this initiative reduced UPS's delivery routes by 28.5 million miles and reduced carbon emissions by 31,000 metric tons.11

Recently, First Group – the UK's largest bus operator – installed new telemetry technology across its UK fleet of 9,000 buses to help improve driving styles and reduce the carbon footprint of its buses. It is estimated that First buses will achieve a reduction of 130,000 tonnes of CO2 within three years – the equivalent of removing 24,000 cars from the roads.12

Enhanced Satellite Navigation

TomTom's partnership with Vodafone to launch High Definition (HD) Traffic allows users to be routed around real-time traffic congestion. Traffic flow data is generated by the movement patterns of mobile phones inside vehicles on the Vodafone network. This is then combined with data from TomTom devices as well as other traditional sources of traffic information to provide the drivers with unprecedented quality, accuracy, and coverage. The traffic information is relayed in real time to TomTom devices enabled by Vodafone Machine to Machine (M2M) solutions.

HD Traffic is already available in the Netherlands, the UK, Germany, Switzerland and France. It will also be available for major automotive manufacturers to include in their navigation solutions, as well as for road authorities and businesses, which may use similar Telco-enabled technologies for dynamic traffic control or fleet management.

Yet while advanced navigation solutions are likely to improve the efficient management of traffic, the environmental impact is less clear. This is because vehicles may be re-routed, in order to minimise travel times, via smaller local roads not designed for high volumes. Not only is the additional mileage likely to increase direct emissions but it may also result in further emissions associated with additional maintenance of minor roads.

Green revenue opportunities However, with greater collaboration between Telcos, technology providers, governments and local authorities, these telemetry solutions can be further developed to drive key behavioural changes that are likely to in turn reduce emissions and also costs for both businesses and private individuals.

Optimise Use Of Private Vehicles

The opportunity here is to encourage a reduction in the overall use of private vehicles and, where they are used, to encourage behaviour that will reduce emissions. Options include Telcos enabling GPS devices with multi-way communications such as vehicle-to-vehicle and vehicle-to-infrastructure in a way that is integrated with systems to control traffic lights, speed limits, parking availability and potentially dynamic congestion charging zones. Indeed the use of telemetry information related to driving style in commercial vehicles has already proved to significantly reduce emissions and also fuel costs. This information could also be used by insurance companies to build a more accurate risk profile for particular categories of drivers. It could in turn allow proactive intervention by the insurance company based on actual data rather than perceived risk, either to increase the cost of a policy and/or encourage different driving behaviours to reduce the risk of a claim to the insurer.

Encourage Migration From Private To Public Transport

Successive UK governments have encouraged the migration from private to public transport, with some success in urban areas. However, the challenges of climate change and increasing congestion on the roads suggest that more progress is needed. We believe that Telcos can play an important role in encouraging the use of public transport by working with the government, local authorities and transport operators in the following ways:

  • Use location-based services (e.g. TomTom Live) to study travel patterns to better match supply of public transport services with demand.
  • Use this information to improve coordination of public transport between different services, for example by aligning train services with bus services for the most popular routes at different times during the day.
  • Improve accessibility of key transport information such as timetables and service delays on mobile devices. For example, an augmented reality application for the iPhone already provides location details based on the skyline in the user's location. This type of application could be enhanced to bring together information on where the nearest bus station is, the distance and travel time with real time arrival information for the next service. This information already exists, but currently across different devices. This type of application would revolutionise the current offerings and would be likely to increase uptake.

These initiatives are likely to benefit public transport operators not only by increasing usage and associated revenues, but also by increasing asset efficiency and optimising cost/income ratios. Aside from the opportunities for Telcos to generate additional revenues, total emissions are also likely to fall as more people choose public over private transport.


This approach will require Telcos to collaborate and share data with the government, local authorities and transport operators. The extent of the collaboration needed is likely to require the government and/or relevant local authorities to take the lead. Furthermore, increased use of mobile information to track movement is likely to raise privacy issues. As such, careful consideration of the legal and data security implications is critical.

However it is also recognised that the most compelling drivers of this transition is likely to be the cost and comfort of public transport relative to the cost of a car journey.


Current Activities

It is well publicised that teleworking can substitute commuting and business travel to reduce the negative environmental impacts and associated costs. Studies have found that on days they telework, employees reduce travel mileage by 48% – 77%, resulting in a saving of 11% – 19% in overall travel.13

Telepresence solutions have been around for a number of years but so far they have been long on projections and short on actual growth. Nevertheless, Cisco has reportedly reduced its annual travel budget by two thirds – from $750 million to $240 million. Similarly, Hewlett-Packard reported a reduction of 30% in its travel expenses from 2007 to 2008 and expects even better results for 2009.14

However, while a reduction in commuting will save time and cost, we believe the opportunity to save on emissions is less clear as typically heating and lighting usage per employee increases when they work from home. Emission savings are therefore more clearly associated with a reduction in business travel not related to commuting.

The evidence suggests that companies that use collaborative technologies as part of core business processes typically generate significant productivity gains. A multinational pharmaceutical company has used video collaboration in sales and research to bring drugs to market 20% faster by helping distribute company messages internally and enabling 75% of issues to be addressed within 24 hours.

Similarly by deploying 225 videoconferencing systems throughout the United States over the past six years, a multinational entertainment company was able to troubleshoot more efficiently in the development phase and get product to market 15% faster than previously.

Green Revenue Opportunities

Despite previous growth projections, it is only now that the necessary demand drivers appear to be falling into place:

  • Globalisation and an increasingly distributed workforce.
  • Greater focus on sustainability, in particular on the environment.
  • Implementation of carbon pricing.
  • Advancement in technology and products.
  • Proven benefits of faster decision-making, innovation and customer responsiveness.
  • Emergence of tools to measure projected and actual benefits of teleworking.
  • Significant cost reduction focus brought on by the global economic downturn.

Collaborative working solutions can enable the decentralisation of business districts. BT has shown that by moving to smaller satellite offices around London, the distance that the majority of employees commute to work is reduced and therefore total emissions fall. Historically many Corporates have resisted this approach due to concerns over productivity.

However, BT has shown that this can be overcome by aligning the performance management approach with the behaviours that are required to maintain productivity whilst working remotely. In this context remote working is considered a privilege that can be revoked if performance or productivity drops. Today BT has around 18,000 home workers.15 In the UK, this approach has also helped to improve the average tenure of call centre staff at BT to 4.5 years compared to an industry average of just 9 months.16

In order to reduce business travel, some banks in the UK have integrated applications into their telepresence solutions that measure the potential and actual cost and emissions savings achieved at both the corporate and individual levels. In addition to ensuring that senior management are incentivised around cost and emission reduction, the desired behaviours could further be incentivised across the organisation through an incentive scheme such as offering points to be redeemed against rewards such as discounted public transport.

Active incentivisation is proven to drive and sustain the behaviours required to achieve significant reductions in both costs and emissions. The opportunity for Telcos is therefore to drive adoption of their collaborative working solutions by enhancing them with the capabilities to measure and track the benefits of their products.


One of the major challenges in reducing air travel is achieving critical mass; even if one person uses video conferencing instead of taking a flight, the plane is still likely to fly and generate emissions. It is only when 200 people don't fly on the same day that emission reductions are realised.


Current Activities

In 2007, the UK's residential power consumption accounted for 26% of the country's CO2 emissions.17 Governments globally have recognised that a critical component of achieving emission targets is to reduce domestic energy consumption. Consequently there has been significant focus placed on the implementation of 1st generation smart grid and smart meters. These are meters where connectivity is limited to the grid and cannot be accessed remotely by consumers.

However they do provide access to real-time information around energy usage which is anticipated to directly deliver the following benefits:

  • Better cost and usage information can lead to reductions in domestic energy consumption of between 3.5-7%.18
  • Smoothing of energy demand from peak times to off-peak times is likely to increase the efficiency of the grid by reducing overall power requirements and therefore also costs and emissions.

The UK government plans to install 46 million smart meters (electricity and gas) by 2020 at an estimated cost of £7bn; similarly the US government has provided $100m in initial programme funding with a further $11bn set aside for the wider development of the smart grid.

In the UK, three main delivery models are being considered to underpin the roll out of smart meters:

  • A fully competitive model – all elements of the infrastructure are supplier led, generally utilising existing market structures.
  • A centralised communications model – a national communications network is put in place to support smart metering, but provision and installation of meters is left to suppliers.
  • A fully centralised model – a national communications provider and regional (or national) monopoly providers for provision and installation of meters are put in place.

In the US, the major Telcos Sprint, AT&T, Verizon, UXC and T-Mobile have already partnered with manufacturers and utility companies to go to market with a range of solutions.

The initial challenge is determining the optimal communication protocols from the smart meter through to the data management system. There are a number of options being explored from utilising existing communication providers' networks being that fixed or mobile; adapting communications technology for a hybrid solution involving RF, PLC, WiMAX, 3G, Broadband; or leveraging lowest-cost, readily available, functionally sufficient technology like GPRS.

The UK government has suggested that they favour a WiMAX enabled model similar to the one currently that is being rolled out in Australia.

Green Revenue Opportunities

2nd generation smartmeters will allow customers to connect to energy management solutions remotely and will also provide the functionality to control individual appliances on an automated basis. By providing the communications to enable introduction of these 2nd generation devices, Telcos could help drive changes in energy consumption behaviour to deliver benefits significantly beyond those anticipated from 1st generation technologies.

The obvious opportunity for Telcos is to secure the revenue associated with the connectivity between the smart meters and the utility companies initially, but ultimately to underpin a fully-fledged smart grid. As there is currently limited compatibility between smart meter infrastructures, Telcos need to lead consultation with the government and other bodies to establish and embed the standards required to enable rapid and large-scale development of the infrastructure.

However, the bigger opportunity lies in the role that Telcos could play in the management and analytics of energy usage data. This would allow them to augment their role from merely providing a 'dumb pipe' capability to become a provider of value-added energy management services such as:

  • Providing smart solutions to consumers by linking electrical devices such as dishwashers, TVs, lighting, fridges, heating and air conditioning to enable the devices to be remotely monitored and controlled in real-time. This allows better understanding of how energy is used and managed at the appliance level increasing awareness and empowering individuals to make informed decisions in reducing and smoothing transmission demand, and to capitalise on variable power prices. For example, Telcos can provide the infrastructure and solutions that enable customers to see current power usage and trends online, and remotely manage their electrical devices.
  • Smart solutions could also give Telcos access to detailed behavioural information such the time of day people watch TV, frequency of running washing machines, when they are on holidays, and so on. Similar to loyalty programmes like the Tesco Club card which collects data on the shopping habits of 20 million UK people, this data would be of significant value from a marketing perspective and can be used in targeting and creating new services. For example, Telcos could provide insulation companies with information on customers with high heater usage. Similarly, information on the hours of usage for appliances can be provided to manufacturers or retailers so that they know when a customer's appliance is approaching replacement age.


As Utilities are subject to greater regulation than the Telco sector, Telcos will need to be prepared to operate in a more restricted environment. For example, the need to address issues such as traffic prioritisation and security. Access to energy usage data would open the door to data privacy issues. Careful consideration of the use of the data both legally and in terms of public acceptability is key.


Current Activities

Global IP traffic is forecast to grow fivefold between 2008 and 2013 and is likely to reach 56 exabytes per month in 2013 compared to approximately 9 exabytes per month in 2008.19 Of this, it is estimated that mobile data will grow by 66 times to over 2 exabyte per month22. This means that by 2013 the monthly mobile data traffic will exceed the 2008 annual level. In addition video format traffic such as IPTV, VoD and P2P will account for about 90% of total consumer traffic.19 Clearly this growth in traffic is also likely to increase emissions.

The principle of net neutrality advocates that all IP traffic is treated equally, regardless of origin, destination and economic value and it has led in part to the prevalence of 'all you can eat' tariffs. As such, there are currently few mechanisms that discourage growth in traffic that generates negative economic value, such as copyright theft, and the associated emissions.

Sweden was one of the last countries to introduce an anti-piracy law based on the EU Property Rights Enforcement Directive (IPRED) that allows copyright holders to force ISPs to reveal details of file sharers. However, on the day that the law came into effect, data traffic in and out of the country fell by 33%.20 This suggests that as much as a third of internet traffic could be associated with transactions of negative economic value.

Initial steps have been taken in the UK to identify users involved in copyright theft. However the current approach is largely restricted to informing persistent offenders that they are known to the ISP and is rarely reinforced with punitive measures such as service restrictions or legal action.

Green Revenue Opportunities

The majority of internet traffic is generated by a small minority of heavy users, and a significant proportion of this traffic is associated with transactions that generate negative economic value, such as file sharing.

The opportunity for Telcos is to provide users with the incentives to align behaviours with the desired outcomes as follows:

  • ISPs to work with government and regulatory bodies to ensure more rigorous enforcement of anti-piracy legislation.
  • Adapt pricing models and throttling policies to discourage traffic with negative economic value.

While this approach may result in downward pressure on volumes, year-on-year growth in IP traffic is still likely to remain very significant. We anticipate that heavy users would pay more and as such the net impact would be to generate additional revenues for operators. Telcos would then have the opportunity to reduce the cost of internet traffic with neutral or positive economic value and therefore stimulate rather than stifle economic growth.

To achieve this, pricing models could be adapted to consider additional dimensions such as:

  • Price setting at international, national and/or operator level.
  • Type of data – negative, neutral or positive economic value.
  • Time of day – peak or off peak.

This approach would benefit businesses by reducing both emissions and costs in ways that include:

  • Slow growth of traffic.
  • Slow growth in volume of data held in data centres.
  • Reduce power consumption.
  • Increase labour productivity.
  • Encourage production companies to create more memory efficient content and/or improve compression technology.
  • Encourage application developers to develop more efficient code that requires less capacity to run applications.


ISPs would need to work closely with governments and regulatory authorities to define and agree the optimal approach to policy enforcement such as anti-piracy legislation.

It is also anticipated that standards would need to be established not only around the technologies that enable deep packet inspection, but also around monitoring, disclosure and security policies in order to ensure compliance with data protection legislation.

Mandating elements of pricing policy is an emotive subject particularly when it relates to net neutrality. However it must also be recognised that pricing is also the primary lever for driving the desired behaviour in any industry. It would need to be conducted in a way that is equitable for all and does not hinder competition. As such, changes to pricing policies would need to be led at the national or EU level.


The global economic downturn has given added momentum to the sustainability agenda. Greater pressure on costs, rapidly increasing social awareness of the impact of big business on the environment and emerging legislative commitments have led to an increased focus on Corporate Social Responsibility, particularly on the environment, as a platform for growth across all industries.

Telcos need to lead in providing bold solutions that deliver the sustainable changes in behaviour that are required to address the challenges of climate change, both in their own industry and in others. This is more about making use of existing solutions than it is about developing new ones. Those Telcos that understand and respond to these opportunities will find that they open up significant new revenue streams.

So as the social, political and legislative pressure builds to reduce carbon emissions both individually and collectively, now is a good time for Telcos to show they already have some of the solutions.


  • What are the barriers to leveraging location-based services to encourage the transition from private to public transport?
  • How should Telcos work together and engage with Government/local authorities to enhance current satellite navigation services?
  • How can Telcos work with Government to accelerate the uptake of collaboration tools in order to secure actual reductions in emissions?
  • What are the data security challenges associated with smart meters? Who will own/have access to the customer data? What will they be able to do with it?
  • What's the optimal delivery model for smart meter infrastructure?
  • What should the Government's role be in defining standards for smart meters?
  • What are the challenges for ISPs and Governments associated with discouraging IP traffic with negative economic value?


1. Cisco – Visual Networking Index: Forecast and Methodology 2008-2013 (June 2009)

2. World Bank – Information and Communications for Development 2009: Extending Research and Increasing Impact (2009)

3. Gartner – Dataquest Insight: Global Telecommunications Market Take (June 2009)

4. Cisco – Visual Networking Index: Forecast and Methodology 2008-2013 (June 2009)

5. Eftec and Plextek – OFCOM: Understanding the Environmental Impact of Communication Systems, Final Report (April 2009)

6. The Climate Group on behalf of the Global eSustainability Initiative (GeSI) – SMART 2020: Enabling the low carbon economy in the information age (June 2008)

7. AEA Energy & Environment (AEA) – Emissions of carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide by NC source category, fuel type and end user 1990-2007 (March 2008)

8. Ovum, Sally Banks – Green Telecoms: strategies and implications for operators (December 2008)

9. International Transport Forum – Key Transport and Greenhouse Gas Indicators – World: Total CO2 from Fuel Combustion including International Air and Maritime (2005)

10. Department for Transport – Freight Best Practice publication – Tesco Sets the Pace on Low Carbon and Efficiency (January 2009)

11. New York Times – Left-Hand-Turn Elimination (9 December 2007)

12. First Group – Green Light for better bus driving (August 2009)

13. Glogger, A.F., Zängler, T.W. and Karg, G. – The impact of telecommuting on households' travel behaviour, expenditures and emissions – Proceedings of the TRIP research conference, Hillerod, Denmark (February 2003)

14. John Boudreau – Video conferencing prompting Silicon Valley companies to cut travel budgets (June 2009)

15. Interview with BT Innovate, 14/09/09

16. Interview with BT Climate Change and Programme Development, 06/10/09

17. AEA Energy & Environment (AEA) – Emissions of carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide by NC source category, fuel type and end user 1990-2007 (March 2008)

18. Energywatch – Smart Meters – Costs and Consumer Benefits (2007)

19. Cisco – Visual Networking Index: Forecast and Methodology 2008-2013 (June 2009)

20. Netrod – Piracy law cuts internet traffic (April 2009)

The content of this article is intended to provide a general guide to the subject matter. Specialist advice should be sought about your specific circumstances.

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The Content is general information only. It is not intended to constitute legal advice or seek to be the complete and comprehensive statement of the law, nor is it intended to address your specific requirements or provide advice on which reliance should be placed. Mondaq and/or its Contributors and other suppliers make no representations about the suitability of the information contained in the Content for any purpose. All Content provided "as is" without warranty of any kind. Mondaq and/or its Contributors and other suppliers hereby exclude and disclaim all representations, warranties or guarantees with regard to the Content, including all implied warranties and conditions of merchantability, fitness for a particular purpose, title and non-infringement. To the maximum extent permitted by law, Mondaq expressly excludes all representations, warranties, obligations, and liabilities arising out of or in connection with all Content. In no event shall Mondaq and/or its respective suppliers be liable for any special, indirect or consequential damages or any damages whatsoever resulting from loss of use, data or profits, whether in an action of contract, negligence or other tortious action, arising out of or in connection with the use of the Content or performance of Mondaq’s Services.


Mondaq may alter or amend these Terms by amending them on the Website. By continuing to Use the Services and/or the Website after such amendment, you will be deemed to have accepted any amendment to these Terms.

These Terms shall be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws of England and Wales and you irrevocably submit to the exclusive jurisdiction of the courts of England and Wales to settle any dispute which may arise out of or in connection with these Terms. If you live outside the United Kingdom, English law shall apply only to the extent that English law shall not deprive you of any legal protection accorded in accordance with the law of the place where you are habitually resident ("Local Law"). In the event English law deprives you of any legal protection which is accorded to you under Local Law, then these terms shall be governed by Local Law and any dispute or claim arising out of or in connection with these Terms shall be subject to the non-exclusive jurisdiction of the courts where you are habitually resident.

You may print and keep a copy of these Terms, which form the entire agreement between you and Mondaq and supersede any other communications or advertising in respect of the Service and/or the Website.

No delay in exercising or non-exercise by you and/or Mondaq of any of its rights under or in connection with these Terms shall operate as a waiver or release of each of your or Mondaq’s right. Rather, any such waiver or release must be specifically granted in writing signed by the party granting it.

If any part of these Terms is held unenforceable, that part shall be enforced to the maximum extent permissible so as to give effect to the intent of the parties, and the Terms shall continue in full force and effect.

Mondaq shall not incur any liability to you on account of any loss or damage resulting from any delay or failure to perform all or any part of these Terms if such delay or failure is caused, in whole or in part, by events, occurrences, or causes beyond the control of Mondaq. Such events, occurrences or causes will include, without limitation, acts of God, strikes, lockouts, server and network failure, riots, acts of war, earthquakes, fire and explosions.

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