UK: The Long Arm Of British Anti-Corruption Laws And The Impact On Individual Defendants

Last Updated: 1 September 2014
Article by Adam Greaves

Bruce Hall, the former Chief Executive Office of Aluminium Bahrain Bsc ("ABLA") was sentenced on 22 July 2014 to 16 months in prison for conspiracy to corrupt in relation to contracts for the supply of goods and services to ALBA during the period September 2001 to June 2005.  The Serious Fraud Office ("SFO") press release is here.

Followers of this blog will remember that the SFO also prosecuted Victor Dahdaleh, a British/Canadian billionaire, whose trial collapsed at the end of 2013.  We blogged previously here , here and here.

Bruce Hall decided in 2012 to plead guilty to the charges laid by the SFO in 2012.  He accepted that he had received £2.9 million in corrupt payments between 2002 and 2005 including 10,000 Bahraini Dinars in cash from Sheikh Isa Bin Ali Al Khalifa, a member of the Bahraini Royal Family and, at the time, Bahrain's Minister of Finance and ALBA's Chairman.  The payments were made in exchange for Mr Hall agreeing to and allowing corrupt payments that Sheikh Isa had been involved in before Mr Hall's appointment as CEO to continue as a result of the corrupt payments received.  Mr Hall was ordered to pay: 

  • £3,070,106.03 within seven days, or face serving an additional term of imprisonment of 10 years; 
  • compensation to ALBA in the amount of £500,010; 
  • £100,000 as a contribution to the prosecution costs. 

The Judge presiding over the hearing, Judge Loraine-Smith said: 

"In any view, this was an extremely serious use of corruption...you breached the trust that was placed in you as the CEO of ALBA...corruption has been described as an insidious plague that has corrosive effects across communities...there was a reluctance by you to accept that what was done by you was as corrupt as it so obviously was..." 

Judge Loraine-Smith also noted that Mr Hall had cooperated with numerous authorities throughout the investigation.  The Judge held that if he had not been so cooperative, he could have faced around six years in prison, close to the maximum sentence for conspiracy to corrupt (under the old, pre-Bribery Act 2010 laws).  As a result of his cooperation Mr Hall was entitled to a 66% reduction in his sentence and a further one third reduction due to entering a guilty plea.  In addition to which, the 119 days that Mr Hall spent in prison in Australia awaiting extradition to the United Kingdom would be taken off his sentence. 

As part of Mr Hall's mitigation, he also agreed to divest himself of other corrupt payments which he had received during his time as the CEO of ALBA.  These payments were not part of the indictment as the SFO did not have jurisdiction to prosecute for the conduct acknowledged by Mr Hall.  In order to recover the other payments received by Mr Hall, which amounted to US$900,000, the director of the SFO launched proceedings under Part 5 of the Proceeds of Crime Act 2002 in the High Court. 

Although the SFO had a fairly spectacular failure during the ALBA case in its prosecution of Victor Dahdaleh (on which we have blogged previously - links above), the prosecution of Bruce Hall is another SFO success story and should properly be regarded as such.  Even though the prosecution took place under the pre 1 July 2011 (the date the Bribery Act came into force) corruption laws, which pre-date the Bribery Act 2010 and which are still being used to prosecute for offences which took place prior to that date, nevertheless this case amply demonstrates: 

  • That British anticorruption laws can affect foreign individuals living outside of the UK, and that extradition treaties can be utilised to force those individuals to face trial in the UK; 
  • That the SFO and the British courts will use the Proceeds of Crime Act 2002 to force individuals to disgorge the profits made from corruption. 
  • The investigations/prosecutions can hang over an individual (or indeed a corporate defendant) for many years – in this case the SFO formally opened its investigation in 2009.  For most people that may mean their lives are in limbo during the whole period, and they may be unable to obtain employment during that time, or at least at the same level or in the same industry.
  • Practices of corruption which are regarded as almost de rigeur in many countries around the world will be viewed very differently indeed if they come before the English courts which have repeatedly stated that defendants are no better than "common criminals".

The inference to be made from this court order is that  the crime of corruption really doesn't pay, especially for board level directors, and that individuals who get involved in (or permit existing arrangements to continue unabated) international corruption are at risk of being prosecuted in one or more jurisdictions around the world and are liable to lengthy terms of imprisonment as well as very substantial penalties and orders for disgorgement of payments.  That said, one one view, for wealthy defendants like Victor Dahdaleh, there is still an argument for aggressively defending these prosecutions because Mr Dahdaleh's trial collapsed (the SFO's statement on the collapse is here) and he is no longer being prosecuted, whereas Bruce Hall pleaded guilty at an early stage for the very same allegations, and Mr Hall by contrast has suffered all the penalties set out above.  As with all prosecutions, the way a defendant pleads to them is ultimately his/her own decision and often a complete gamble, but the orders made by Judge Loraine-Smith on 22 July 2014 show that the courts will make substantial discounts in sentencing as a result of a guilty plea and cooperation with the prosecution, and this should encourage defendants to work out for themselves the benefits of cooperation.

The content of this article is intended to provide a general guide to the subject matter. Specialist advice should be sought about your specific circumstances.

To print this article, all you need is to be registered on Mondaq.com.

Click to Login as an existing user or Register so you can print this article.

Authors
 
In association with
Related Topics
 
Related Articles
 
Related Video
Up-coming Events Search
Tools
Print
Font Size:
Translation
Channels
Mondaq on Twitter
 
Register for Access and our Free Biweekly Alert for
This service is completely free. Access 250,000 archived articles from 100+ countries and get a personalised email twice a week covering developments (and yes, our lawyers like to think you’ve read our Disclaimer).
 
Email Address
Company Name
Password
Confirm Password
Position
Mondaq Topics -- Select your Interests
 Accounting
 Anti-trust
 Commercial
 Compliance
 Consumer
 Criminal
 Employment
 Energy
 Environment
 Family
 Finance
 Government
 Healthcare
 Immigration
 Insolvency
 Insurance
 International
 IP
 Law Performance
 Law Practice
 Litigation
 Media & IT
 Privacy
 Real Estate
 Strategy
 Tax
 Technology
 Transport
 Wealth Mgt
Regions
Africa
Asia
Asia Pacific
Australasia
Canada
Caribbean
Europe
European Union
Latin America
Middle East
U.K.
United States
Worldwide Updates
Registration (you must scroll down to set your data preferences)

Mondaq Ltd requires you to register and provide information that personally identifies you, including your content preferences, for three primary purposes (full details of Mondaq’s use of your personal data can be found in our Privacy and Cookies Notice):

  • To allow you to personalize the Mondaq websites you are visiting to show content ("Content") relevant to your interests.
  • To enable features such as password reminder, news alerts, email a colleague, and linking from Mondaq (and its affiliate sites) to your website.
  • To produce demographic feedback for our content providers ("Contributors") who contribute Content for free for your use.

Mondaq hopes that our registered users will support us in maintaining our free to view business model by consenting to our use of your personal data as described below.

Mondaq has a "free to view" business model. Our services are paid for by Contributors in exchange for Mondaq providing them with access to information about who accesses their content. Once personal data is transferred to our Contributors they become a data controller of this personal data. They use it to measure the response that their articles are receiving, as a form of market research. They may also use it to provide Mondaq users with information about their products and services.

Details of each Contributor to which your personal data will be transferred is clearly stated within the Content that you access. For full details of how this Contributor will use your personal data, you should review the Contributor’s own Privacy Notice.

Please indicate your preference below:

Yes, I am happy to support Mondaq in maintaining its free to view business model by agreeing to allow Mondaq to share my personal data with Contributors whose Content I access
No, I do not want Mondaq to share my personal data with Contributors

Also please let us know whether you are happy to receive communications promoting products and services offered by Mondaq:

Yes, I am happy to received promotional communications from Mondaq
No, please do not send me promotional communications from Mondaq
Terms & Conditions

Mondaq.com (the Website) is owned and managed by Mondaq Ltd (Mondaq). Mondaq grants you a non-exclusive, revocable licence to access the Website and associated services, such as the Mondaq News Alerts (Services), subject to and in consideration of your compliance with the following terms and conditions of use (Terms). Your use of the Website and/or Services constitutes your agreement to the Terms. Mondaq may terminate your use of the Website and Services if you are in breach of these Terms or if Mondaq decides to terminate the licence granted hereunder for any reason whatsoever.

Use of www.mondaq.com

To Use Mondaq.com you must be: eighteen (18) years old or over; legally capable of entering into binding contracts; and not in any way prohibited by the applicable law to enter into these Terms in the jurisdiction which you are currently located.

You may use the Website as an unregistered user, however, you are required to register as a user if you wish to read the full text of the Content or to receive the Services.

You may not modify, publish, transmit, transfer or sell, reproduce, create derivative works from, distribute, perform, link, display, or in any way exploit any of the Content, in whole or in part, except as expressly permitted in these Terms or with the prior written consent of Mondaq. You may not use electronic or other means to extract details or information from the Content. Nor shall you extract information about users or Contributors in order to offer them any services or products.

In your use of the Website and/or Services you shall: comply with all applicable laws, regulations, directives and legislations which apply to your Use of the Website and/or Services in whatever country you are physically located including without limitation any and all consumer law, export control laws and regulations; provide to us true, correct and accurate information and promptly inform us in the event that any information that you have provided to us changes or becomes inaccurate; notify Mondaq immediately of any circumstances where you have reason to believe that any Intellectual Property Rights or any other rights of any third party may have been infringed; co-operate with reasonable security or other checks or requests for information made by Mondaq from time to time; and at all times be fully liable for the breach of any of these Terms by a third party using your login details to access the Website and/or Services

however, you shall not: do anything likely to impair, interfere with or damage or cause harm or distress to any persons, or the network; do anything that will infringe any Intellectual Property Rights or other rights of Mondaq or any third party; or use the Website, Services and/or Content otherwise than in accordance with these Terms; use any trade marks or service marks of Mondaq or the Contributors, or do anything which may be seen to take unfair advantage of the reputation and goodwill of Mondaq or the Contributors, or the Website, Services and/or Content.

Mondaq reserves the right, in its sole discretion, to take any action that it deems necessary and appropriate in the event it considers that there is a breach or threatened breach of the Terms.

Mondaq’s Rights and Obligations

Unless otherwise expressly set out to the contrary, nothing in these Terms shall serve to transfer from Mondaq to you, any Intellectual Property Rights owned by and/or licensed to Mondaq and all rights, title and interest in and to such Intellectual Property Rights will remain exclusively with Mondaq and/or its licensors.

Mondaq shall use its reasonable endeavours to make the Website and Services available to you at all times, but we cannot guarantee an uninterrupted and fault free service.

Mondaq reserves the right to make changes to the services and/or the Website or part thereof, from time to time, and we may add, remove, modify and/or vary any elements of features and functionalities of the Website or the services.

Mondaq also reserves the right from time to time to monitor your Use of the Website and/or services.

Disclaimer

The Content is general information only. It is not intended to constitute legal advice or seek to be the complete and comprehensive statement of the law, nor is it intended to address your specific requirements or provide advice on which reliance should be placed. Mondaq and/or its Contributors and other suppliers make no representations about the suitability of the information contained in the Content for any purpose. All Content provided "as is" without warranty of any kind. Mondaq and/or its Contributors and other suppliers hereby exclude and disclaim all representations, warranties or guarantees with regard to the Content, including all implied warranties and conditions of merchantability, fitness for a particular purpose, title and non-infringement. To the maximum extent permitted by law, Mondaq expressly excludes all representations, warranties, obligations, and liabilities arising out of or in connection with all Content. In no event shall Mondaq and/or its respective suppliers be liable for any special, indirect or consequential damages or any damages whatsoever resulting from loss of use, data or profits, whether in an action of contract, negligence or other tortious action, arising out of or in connection with the use of the Content or performance of Mondaq’s Services.

General

Mondaq may alter or amend these Terms by amending them on the Website. By continuing to Use the Services and/or the Website after such amendment, you will be deemed to have accepted any amendment to these Terms.

These Terms shall be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws of England and Wales and you irrevocably submit to the exclusive jurisdiction of the courts of England and Wales to settle any dispute which may arise out of or in connection with these Terms. If you live outside the United Kingdom, English law shall apply only to the extent that English law shall not deprive you of any legal protection accorded in accordance with the law of the place where you are habitually resident ("Local Law"). In the event English law deprives you of any legal protection which is accorded to you under Local Law, then these terms shall be governed by Local Law and any dispute or claim arising out of or in connection with these Terms shall be subject to the non-exclusive jurisdiction of the courts where you are habitually resident.

You may print and keep a copy of these Terms, which form the entire agreement between you and Mondaq and supersede any other communications or advertising in respect of the Service and/or the Website.

No delay in exercising or non-exercise by you and/or Mondaq of any of its rights under or in connection with these Terms shall operate as a waiver or release of each of your or Mondaq’s right. Rather, any such waiver or release must be specifically granted in writing signed by the party granting it.

If any part of these Terms is held unenforceable, that part shall be enforced to the maximum extent permissible so as to give effect to the intent of the parties, and the Terms shall continue in full force and effect.

Mondaq shall not incur any liability to you on account of any loss or damage resulting from any delay or failure to perform all or any part of these Terms if such delay or failure is caused, in whole or in part, by events, occurrences, or causes beyond the control of Mondaq. Such events, occurrences or causes will include, without limitation, acts of God, strikes, lockouts, server and network failure, riots, acts of war, earthquakes, fire and explosions.

By clicking Register you state you have read and agree to our Terms and Conditions