UK: COP 19 – Day 2 Of The Conference

Having completed the formalities of COP 19 on Day 1, Day 2 opened with a plenary meeting of the AWG-DP. Through the course of the day, contact groups, informal consultations, workshops and other events convened under the AWG-DP, SBI and SBSTA. This alert covers some of the issues discussed at these meetings.

AWG-DP

The Co-Chair (Kishan Kumarsingh) opened this third part of AWG-DP 2 and highlighted the positive drive by parties to "shift gears" by moving forward and not in reverse on negotiating a text that defines the content and elements of the 2015 agreement ("workstream 1"). In relation to pre-2020 ambition ("workstream 2"), the co-chair called for a common understanding of the concrete outcome in Warsaw.

Fiji, speaking on behalf of the G-77/CHINA, called for a fair, ambitious and equitable outcome under the Convention in accordance with its principles that will include mitigation, adaptation and means of implementation. Regarding workstream 1, the EU called for progress on substantive elements of the new agreement and setting out a timeline for delivering it. In relation to workstream 2, the EU also called for specific options with tangible results, new pledges and implementation of existing pledges, and scaled-up action in areas with high mitigation potential, including hydrofluorocarbons ("HFCs").

Speaking on behalf of the UMBRELLA GROUP, Australia emphasised the need to build momentum towards an effective agreement, with all parties contributing "to the best of their abilities" and to lay the groundwork for the elements of a negotiating text in relation to workstream 1. On workstream 2, Australia encouraged countries that have not yet submitted pledges, including 20 out of the top 50 emitters, to do so.

China, speaking on behalf of BASIC, welcomed the Brazilian submission proposing that the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change ("IPCC") develop a reference methodology on historical responsibilities. On behalf of the COALITION FOR RAINFOREST NATIONS, Papua New Guinea called for new and additional financial and technical support for the implementation of Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation ("REDD"+) activities, that would be accompanied by new governance architecture.

The AWG-DP's afternoon session considered an overview of institutions, mechanisms and arrangements under the Convention. Brazil lamented that critical aspects of REDD+ had been left out and requested that the documents and online platform be amended to reflect the context of adequate and predictable support from developed countries and on-going work on REDD+ financing. The Philippines emphasised the need to address the adaptation funding crisis, and called for predictable, adequate and sustainable funding to make the existing institutions work. Meanwhile, China called for the review and implementation of Annex I parties' commitments during the Protocol's second commitment period, and emphasised the need for comparable mitigation efforts by Annex I parties with no current commitments under the Protocol.

To assess adequacy or identify gaps to be filled in order to deliver on core elements of workstream 1, the EU suggested looking at existing institutions on adaptation, mitigation, finance and technology. India lamented the fact that Intellectual Property Rights ("IPRs") have "turned into a taboo" under the UNFCCC and called for a practical way to address technology transfer.

SBSTA

Chair Muyungi opened the morning workshop on agriculture. The IPCC presented on various impacts of climate change on agriculture, explaining that the sector is vulnerable to climate extremes, with implications for food security. The EU, supported by Malawi (speaking on behalf of the AFRICAN GROUP), highlighted scientific knowledge to enhance adaptation while promoting agricultural productivity. Egypt, speaking on behalf of the G-77/CHINA, called for the SBSTA's consideration of agriculture to focus on adaptation, and identified loss and damage as "crucial." The morning workshop concluded with the Secretariat agreeing to prepare a report of the workshop for SBSTA 40, and informal consultations on whether to convene a contact group will continue.

The afternoon session was in the form of the second structured expert dialogue on the 2013-2015 review. The review focused on the adequacy of the long-term global goal and the overall progress made towards achieving it. The IPCC presented the main findings of Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Working Group I ("IPCC WG I"), highlighting that: warming of the climate system is unequivocal, human influence on the climate system is clear and limiting climate change will require substantial and sustained reductions of GHGs. Discussions focused on sea level rise projections, impacts of 2°C warming on small islands, reliability of projections and assessment of climate models. During the discussion, parties asked questions related to, inter alia, forecasting extreme weather events under various scenarios, identifying targets other than temperature, and including adaptation costs in the long-term global goal.

There was also an in-session workshop forum on the response measure. Among the discussions, the G-77/CHINA stressed that cooperation on response strategies is to be viewed in the context of sustainable development and poverty eradication, in accordance with the Convention's principles and provisions. The INTERNATIONAL CENTRE FOR TRADE AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT argued that response measures should be the result of cooperation.

SBI

The afternoon session saw the meeting of the contact group on 'loss and damage'. Supported by AOSIS, the LDCs, the AFRICAN GROUP and others, the G-77/CHINA called for textual discussions based on its recent submission, and stressed the need for a system to address 'loss and damage' instead of an ad hoc humanitarian approach. The U.S. proposed consideration of responses within and outside of the UNFCCC. Earlier, the U.S. senior negotiator (Trigg Talley) emphasised that the United States has "technical and political issues" with any 'loss and damage' mechanism. The EU called for engaging all relevant stakeholders. Pointing to 'loss and damage' solutions already in place, New Zealand identified 'loss and damage' as part of a continuum that prioritizes mitigation and adaptation first. Informal consultation is set to continue throughout this conference.

Informal Groups

There were a number of informal groups on market mechanism (including Clean Development mechanism, Joint Implementation Reform), non-market approaches and the new market mechanism. Not much common ground could be reached at these informal group meetings between those who favoured the existing mechanism and those who oppose it. What is clear is that concrete results regarding new mechanisms will take a very long time achieve, much longer than the length of COP 19.

Today's events

Today saw continued meetings, workshops, contact groups and informal consultations of Convention and Protocol bodies (inter alia, COP 19, CMP 9, AWG – DP 2-3, SBSTA 39 and SBI 39). Our alert tomorrow will cover the discussions and progress of these bodies.

Conclusion

The hard work of finding common ground on which to build the roadmap for Paris appears to have begun positively. Although no concrete agreements are expected until the latter part of the second week of the conference, the current outlook is encouraging with parties open to discussions in an effort to move forward on some very difficult and sensitive topics, such as 'loss and damage'.

The content of this article is intended to provide a general guide to the subject matter. Specialist advice should be sought about your specific circumstances.

To print this article, all you need is to be registered on Mondaq.com.

Click to Login as an existing user or Register so you can print this article.

Authors
 
In association with
Related Topics
 
Related Articles
 
Up-coming Events Search
Tools
Print
Font Size:
Translation
Channels
Mondaq on Twitter
 
Mondaq Free Registration
Gain access to Mondaq global archive of over 375,000 articles covering 200 countries with a personalised News Alert and automatic login on this device.
Mondaq News Alert (some suggested topics and region)
Select Topics
Registration (please scroll down to set your data preferences)

Mondaq Ltd requires you to register and provide information that personally identifies you, including your content preferences, for three primary purposes (full details of Mondaq’s use of your personal data can be found in our Privacy and Cookies Notice):

  • To allow you to personalize the Mondaq websites you are visiting to show content ("Content") relevant to your interests.
  • To enable features such as password reminder, news alerts, email a colleague, and linking from Mondaq (and its affiliate sites) to your website.
  • To produce demographic feedback for our content providers ("Contributors") who contribute Content for free for your use.

Mondaq hopes that our registered users will support us in maintaining our free to view business model by consenting to our use of your personal data as described below.

Mondaq has a "free to view" business model. Our services are paid for by Contributors in exchange for Mondaq providing them with access to information about who accesses their content. Once personal data is transferred to our Contributors they become a data controller of this personal data. They use it to measure the response that their articles are receiving, as a form of market research. They may also use it to provide Mondaq users with information about their products and services.

Details of each Contributor to which your personal data will be transferred is clearly stated within the Content that you access. For full details of how this Contributor will use your personal data, you should review the Contributor’s own Privacy Notice.

Please indicate your preference below:

Yes, I am happy to support Mondaq in maintaining its free to view business model by agreeing to allow Mondaq to share my personal data with Contributors whose Content I access
No, I do not want Mondaq to share my personal data with Contributors

Also please let us know whether you are happy to receive communications promoting products and services offered by Mondaq:

Yes, I am happy to received promotional communications from Mondaq
No, please do not send me promotional communications from Mondaq
Terms & Conditions

Mondaq.com (the Website) is owned and managed by Mondaq Ltd (Mondaq). Mondaq grants you a non-exclusive, revocable licence to access the Website and associated services, such as the Mondaq News Alerts (Services), subject to and in consideration of your compliance with the following terms and conditions of use (Terms). Your use of the Website and/or Services constitutes your agreement to the Terms. Mondaq may terminate your use of the Website and Services if you are in breach of these Terms or if Mondaq decides to terminate the licence granted hereunder for any reason whatsoever.

Use of www.mondaq.com

To Use Mondaq.com you must be: eighteen (18) years old or over; legally capable of entering into binding contracts; and not in any way prohibited by the applicable law to enter into these Terms in the jurisdiction which you are currently located.

You may use the Website as an unregistered user, however, you are required to register as a user if you wish to read the full text of the Content or to receive the Services.

You may not modify, publish, transmit, transfer or sell, reproduce, create derivative works from, distribute, perform, link, display, or in any way exploit any of the Content, in whole or in part, except as expressly permitted in these Terms or with the prior written consent of Mondaq. You may not use electronic or other means to extract details or information from the Content. Nor shall you extract information about users or Contributors in order to offer them any services or products.

In your use of the Website and/or Services you shall: comply with all applicable laws, regulations, directives and legislations which apply to your Use of the Website and/or Services in whatever country you are physically located including without limitation any and all consumer law, export control laws and regulations; provide to us true, correct and accurate information and promptly inform us in the event that any information that you have provided to us changes or becomes inaccurate; notify Mondaq immediately of any circumstances where you have reason to believe that any Intellectual Property Rights or any other rights of any third party may have been infringed; co-operate with reasonable security or other checks or requests for information made by Mondaq from time to time; and at all times be fully liable for the breach of any of these Terms by a third party using your login details to access the Website and/or Services

however, you shall not: do anything likely to impair, interfere with or damage or cause harm or distress to any persons, or the network; do anything that will infringe any Intellectual Property Rights or other rights of Mondaq or any third party; or use the Website, Services and/or Content otherwise than in accordance with these Terms; use any trade marks or service marks of Mondaq or the Contributors, or do anything which may be seen to take unfair advantage of the reputation and goodwill of Mondaq or the Contributors, or the Website, Services and/or Content.

Mondaq reserves the right, in its sole discretion, to take any action that it deems necessary and appropriate in the event it considers that there is a breach or threatened breach of the Terms.

Mondaq’s Rights and Obligations

Unless otherwise expressly set out to the contrary, nothing in these Terms shall serve to transfer from Mondaq to you, any Intellectual Property Rights owned by and/or licensed to Mondaq and all rights, title and interest in and to such Intellectual Property Rights will remain exclusively with Mondaq and/or its licensors.

Mondaq shall use its reasonable endeavours to make the Website and Services available to you at all times, but we cannot guarantee an uninterrupted and fault free service.

Mondaq reserves the right to make changes to the services and/or the Website or part thereof, from time to time, and we may add, remove, modify and/or vary any elements of features and functionalities of the Website or the services.

Mondaq also reserves the right from time to time to monitor your Use of the Website and/or services.

Disclaimer

The Content is general information only. It is not intended to constitute legal advice or seek to be the complete and comprehensive statement of the law, nor is it intended to address your specific requirements or provide advice on which reliance should be placed. Mondaq and/or its Contributors and other suppliers make no representations about the suitability of the information contained in the Content for any purpose. All Content provided "as is" without warranty of any kind. Mondaq and/or its Contributors and other suppliers hereby exclude and disclaim all representations, warranties or guarantees with regard to the Content, including all implied warranties and conditions of merchantability, fitness for a particular purpose, title and non-infringement. To the maximum extent permitted by law, Mondaq expressly excludes all representations, warranties, obligations, and liabilities arising out of or in connection with all Content. In no event shall Mondaq and/or its respective suppliers be liable for any special, indirect or consequential damages or any damages whatsoever resulting from loss of use, data or profits, whether in an action of contract, negligence or other tortious action, arising out of or in connection with the use of the Content or performance of Mondaq’s Services.

General

Mondaq may alter or amend these Terms by amending them on the Website. By continuing to Use the Services and/or the Website after such amendment, you will be deemed to have accepted any amendment to these Terms.

These Terms shall be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws of England and Wales and you irrevocably submit to the exclusive jurisdiction of the courts of England and Wales to settle any dispute which may arise out of or in connection with these Terms. If you live outside the United Kingdom, English law shall apply only to the extent that English law shall not deprive you of any legal protection accorded in accordance with the law of the place where you are habitually resident ("Local Law"). In the event English law deprives you of any legal protection which is accorded to you under Local Law, then these terms shall be governed by Local Law and any dispute or claim arising out of or in connection with these Terms shall be subject to the non-exclusive jurisdiction of the courts where you are habitually resident.

You may print and keep a copy of these Terms, which form the entire agreement between you and Mondaq and supersede any other communications or advertising in respect of the Service and/or the Website.

No delay in exercising or non-exercise by you and/or Mondaq of any of its rights under or in connection with these Terms shall operate as a waiver or release of each of your or Mondaq’s right. Rather, any such waiver or release must be specifically granted in writing signed by the party granting it.

If any part of these Terms is held unenforceable, that part shall be enforced to the maximum extent permissible so as to give effect to the intent of the parties, and the Terms shall continue in full force and effect.

Mondaq shall not incur any liability to you on account of any loss or damage resulting from any delay or failure to perform all or any part of these Terms if such delay or failure is caused, in whole or in part, by events, occurrences, or causes beyond the control of Mondaq. Such events, occurrences or causes will include, without limitation, acts of God, strikes, lockouts, server and network failure, riots, acts of war, earthquakes, fire and explosions.

By clicking Register you state you have read and agree to our Terms and Conditions