UK: Deceptively Simple: Revisiting Paragraph 320

Last Updated: 3 November 2010
Article by Miranda Sirikanda


The introduction of new mandatory grounds for refusal has been a controversial area in Immigration Law, particularly because of the harsh construction which the Courts have previously applied. The increasing length, detail and complexity of immigration application forms, has led inevitably to an increase in the number of applications rejected on the basis of inaccurate information provided. Employers and skilled migrants should take exceptional care to avoid these pitfalls, and the protracted litigation which can follow.

If upheld, a decision under Paragraph 320 will preclude a grant of Leave to Enter Remain under the Immigration Rules. The applicant will be caught by the Paragraph 320 (7B) of the Immigration Rules, and barred from re -entering the United Kingdom for ten years subject to certain exceptions set out at Paragraph 320 (7C) to join a family members.

Paragraph 320 (7B) will be engaged where an Applicant is found to use Deception in Application for entry clearance, leave to enter or remain (whether successful or not).

The definition of Deception is provided at paragraph 6 of the Immigration Rules:

"Deception" means making false representations or submitting false documents (whether or not material to the application) or failing to disclose material facts

The Court of Appeal's decision in A v the Secretary of State for the Home Department [2010] EWCA Civ 7331 is essential reading for all Immigration Practitioners who have find that simple errors on application forms are leading to mandatory refusal under paragraph 322 (1A).

False Representations

What is the definition of a false Representation? The first guidance came from the Upper Tribunal in FW (Paragraph 322: untruthful answer) Kenya [2010] UKUT 165 (IAC) . It found that knowledge of falsity was irrelevant to applying the paragraph 320.

It does not seem right to us to say that the Secretary of State ought to grant leave on a false basis, provided only that the falsity was unknown to the applicant. If a false statement is made in an application, the secretary of state must be entitled to refuse it. That indeed appears to be the effect of the words in parenthesis in paragraph 322 (1A) itself.

Paragraph 322 (1A) – under the heading 'Mandatory Grounds for refusal' reads as follows; Leave to Remain in the United Kingdom (essentially identical provisions apply to entry clearance) "is to be refused":

"(1A) Where false representations have been made or false documents or information have been submitted (whether or not material to the application and whether or not to the applicant's knowledge), or material facts have not been disclosed, in relation to the application."

However in 'A', the Court of Appeal reversed the Upper Tribunal's interpretation of the paragraph and called a halt to the false logic which led to honest errors to be treated as acts of deception for the purposes of paragraph 320.

Back to Basics

The Court of Appeal's starting point for construction of the paragraph was the Concise Oxford Dictionary's definitions of the word "false". There were two. The first was "wrong" or "incorrect"; the second "lying" or "deceitful" etc. Examples of the second meaning can be found in terms from Civil law and Criminal law: Civil law prefers the expression "misrepresentation" to "false representation" and Criminal Law "false accounting", "false allegation", "false statements on oath" each require a men rea element. Bare inaccuracy will not suffice. The Court concluded there was therefore an open choice of two meanings to be attributed to the word "false".

The Court observed that the rules were an expression of Executive Policy. Where there was genuine ambiguity, it would be legitimate to consider what the Executive had said publicly about its rules. Lord Bassam confirmed in the Lords Debate of the 17th March 2008, when the rule was in question before parliament, that a false document referred to one that has been forged, or altered to give false information. ILPA then wrote to minister for the Home Department Liam Byrne for clarification of whether this meaning extended to representations. The minister replied that the rules were intended to cover "people who tell lies" either on their own behalf, or that of someone else and were not intended to catch those that made "innocent mistakes in their applications".

The Court also searched for explanation in the Immigration Rules themselves. They noted that engagement of paragraph 320 (7B) (d) turns on Deception, and therefore locks into the sanction which follow making a false Representation under paragraph 322(1A), a finding that the Applicant has exercised deceit. Lord Justice Rix considered that it would be "grotesque" to attribute to the Secretary of State a definition of "Deception" which did not require dishonesty. Once the connection between paragraph 322(1A) and 320 7B (d) is made, he viewed it as impossible to conclude that "false" in the expression false representation, has the morally neutral meaning of "incorrect".

The Court also considered the phrase "whether or not to the holder's knowledge", which had previously led the Upper Tribunal to conclude that dishonesty was not necessary element of a false representation. It found that paragraph 322 (1A) was compatible with their interpretation. By way of example, they suggested that submission of a false document would not require deception on the part of the person who presented it. The Applicant themselves may be unaware of its falsity, and a third party such as an agent, may be responsible; nevertheless, the Applicant will fall foul of paragraph 322 (1A).


The Court of Appeal drew on a plain reading of the rules, Executive Policy and the English Dictionary to lead them to conclude that dishonesty, on the part of the applicant or a third party, must be established before paragraph 322 (1A) can be relied on for the purposes of a False Representation.


1. Also referred to as AA (Nigeria)

The content of this article is intended to provide a general guide to the subject matter. Specialist advice should be sought about your specific circumstances.

To print this article, all you need is to be registered on

Click to Login as an existing user or Register so you can print this article.

In association with
Up-coming Events Search
Font Size:
Mondaq on Twitter
Register for Access and our Free Biweekly Alert for
This service is completely free. Access 250,000 archived articles from 100+ countries and get a personalised email twice a week covering developments (and yes, our lawyers like to think you’ve read our Disclaimer).
Email Address
Company Name
Confirm Password
Mondaq Topics -- Select your Interests
 Law Performance
 Law Practice
 Media & IT
 Real Estate
 Wealth Mgt
Asia Pacific
European Union
Latin America
Middle East
United States
Worldwide Updates
Check to state you have read and
agree to our Terms and Conditions

Terms & Conditions and Privacy Statement (the Website) is owned and managed by Mondaq Ltd and as a user you are granted a non-exclusive, revocable license to access the Website under its terms and conditions of use. Your use of the Website constitutes your agreement to the following terms and conditions of use. Mondaq Ltd may terminate your use of the Website if you are in breach of these terms and conditions or if Mondaq Ltd decides to terminate your license of use for whatever reason.

Use of

You may use the Website but are required to register as a user if you wish to read the full text of the content and articles available (the Content). You may not modify, publish, transmit, transfer or sell, reproduce, create derivative works from, distribute, perform, link, display, or in any way exploit any of the Content, in whole or in part, except as expressly permitted in these terms & conditions or with the prior written consent of Mondaq Ltd. You may not use electronic or other means to extract details or information about’s content, users or contributors in order to offer them any services or products which compete directly or indirectly with Mondaq Ltd’s services and products.


Mondaq Ltd and/or its respective suppliers make no representations about the suitability of the information contained in the documents and related graphics published on this server for any purpose. All such documents and related graphics are provided "as is" without warranty of any kind. Mondaq Ltd and/or its respective suppliers hereby disclaim all warranties and conditions with regard to this information, including all implied warranties and conditions of merchantability, fitness for a particular purpose, title and non-infringement. In no event shall Mondaq Ltd and/or its respective suppliers be liable for any special, indirect or consequential damages or any damages whatsoever resulting from loss of use, data or profits, whether in an action of contract, negligence or other tortious action, arising out of or in connection with the use or performance of information available from this server.

The documents and related graphics published on this server could include technical inaccuracies or typographical errors. Changes are periodically added to the information herein. Mondaq Ltd and/or its respective suppliers may make improvements and/or changes in the product(s) and/or the program(s) described herein at any time.


Mondaq Ltd requires you to register and provide information that personally identifies you, including what sort of information you are interested in, for three primary purposes:

  • To allow you to personalize the Mondaq websites you are visiting.
  • To enable features such as password reminder, newsletter alerts, email a colleague, and linking from Mondaq (and its affiliate sites) to your website.
  • To produce demographic feedback for our information providers who provide information free for your use.

Mondaq (and its affiliate sites) do not sell or provide your details to third parties other than information providers. The reason we provide our information providers with this information is so that they can measure the response their articles are receiving and provide you with information about their products and services.

If you do not want us to provide your name and email address you may opt out by clicking here .

If you do not wish to receive any future announcements of products and services offered by Mondaq by clicking here .

Information Collection and Use

We require site users to register with Mondaq (and its affiliate sites) to view the free information on the site. We also collect information from our users at several different points on the websites: this is so that we can customise the sites according to individual usage, provide 'session-aware' functionality, and ensure that content is acquired and developed appropriately. This gives us an overall picture of our user profiles, which in turn shows to our Editorial Contributors the type of person they are reaching by posting articles on Mondaq (and its affiliate sites) – meaning more free content for registered users.

We are only able to provide the material on the Mondaq (and its affiliate sites) site free to site visitors because we can pass on information about the pages that users are viewing and the personal information users provide to us (e.g. email addresses) to reputable contributing firms such as law firms who author those pages. We do not sell or rent information to anyone else other than the authors of those pages, who may change from time to time. Should you wish us not to disclose your details to any of these parties, please tick the box above or tick the box marked "Opt out of Registration Information Disclosure" on the Your Profile page. We and our author organisations may only contact you via email or other means if you allow us to do so. Users can opt out of contact when they register on the site, or send an email to with “no disclosure” in the subject heading

Mondaq News Alerts

In order to receive Mondaq News Alerts, users have to complete a separate registration form. This is a personalised service where users choose regions and topics of interest and we send it only to those users who have requested it. Users can stop receiving these Alerts by going to the Mondaq News Alerts page and deselecting all interest areas. In the same way users can amend their personal preferences to add or remove subject areas.


A cookie is a small text file written to a user’s hard drive that contains an identifying user number. The cookies do not contain any personal information about users. We use the cookie so users do not have to log in every time they use the service and the cookie will automatically expire if you do not visit the Mondaq website (or its affiliate sites) for 12 months. We also use the cookie to personalise a user's experience of the site (for example to show information specific to a user's region). As the Mondaq sites are fully personalised and cookies are essential to its core technology the site will function unpredictably with browsers that do not support cookies - or where cookies are disabled (in these circumstances we advise you to attempt to locate the information you require elsewhere on the web). However if you are concerned about the presence of a Mondaq cookie on your machine you can also choose to expire the cookie immediately (remove it) by selecting the 'Log Off' menu option as the last thing you do when you use the site.

Some of our business partners may use cookies on our site (for example, advertisers). However, we have no access to or control over these cookies and we are not aware of any at present that do so.

Log Files

We use IP addresses to analyse trends, administer the site, track movement, and gather broad demographic information for aggregate use. IP addresses are not linked to personally identifiable information.


This web site contains links to other sites. Please be aware that Mondaq (or its affiliate sites) are not responsible for the privacy practices of such other sites. We encourage our users to be aware when they leave our site and to read the privacy statements of these third party sites. This privacy statement applies solely to information collected by this Web site.

Surveys & Contests

From time-to-time our site requests information from users via surveys or contests. Participation in these surveys or contests is completely voluntary and the user therefore has a choice whether or not to disclose any information requested. Information requested may include contact information (such as name and delivery address), and demographic information (such as postcode, age level). Contact information will be used to notify the winners and award prizes. Survey information will be used for purposes of monitoring or improving the functionality of the site.


If a user elects to use our referral service for informing a friend about our site, we ask them for the friend’s name and email address. Mondaq stores this information and may contact the friend to invite them to register with Mondaq, but they will not be contacted more than once. The friend may contact Mondaq to request the removal of this information from our database.


This website takes every reasonable precaution to protect our users’ information. When users submit sensitive information via the website, your information is protected using firewalls and other security technology. If you have any questions about the security at our website, you can send an email to

Correcting/Updating Personal Information

If a user’s personally identifiable information changes (such as postcode), or if a user no longer desires our service, we will endeavour to provide a way to correct, update or remove that user’s personal data provided to us. This can usually be done at the “Your Profile” page or by sending an email to

Notification of Changes

If we decide to change our Terms & Conditions or Privacy Policy, we will post those changes on our site so our users are always aware of what information we collect, how we use it, and under what circumstances, if any, we disclose it. If at any point we decide to use personally identifiable information in a manner different from that stated at the time it was collected, we will notify users by way of an email. Users will have a choice as to whether or not we use their information in this different manner. We will use information in accordance with the privacy policy under which the information was collected.

How to contact Mondaq

You can contact us with comments or queries at

If for some reason you believe Mondaq Ltd. has not adhered to these principles, please notify us by e-mail at and we will use commercially reasonable efforts to determine and correct the problem promptly.