Turkey: Adli Sicil Kaydi İle Adli Sicil Arşiv Kaydinin Silinmesi

Last Updated: 10 September 2018
Article by Metincan Uçar
Most Read Contributor in Turkey, September 2018

Hakkında Türk mahkemeleri veya yabancı ülke mahkemeleri tarafından kesinleşmiş ve Türk Hukukuna göre tanınan mahkûmiyet kararı bulunan Türk vatandaşları ile Türkiye'de suç işlemiş olan yabancıların kayıtları da dahil tüm adli sicil bilgileri kayıt altına alınır. Bu kayıtlar halk arasında sabıka kaydı olarak bilinen adli sicil kaydı ve adli sicil arşiv kaydından oluşur.

Bu iki kayıt arasındaki farktan kısaca bahsetmek gerekirse adli sicil kaydı infazı tamamlanmamış sonuçları devam eden kayıtları içerirken, adli sicil arşiv kaydı infazı tamamlanmış etkisi ortadan kalkmış kayıtları içerir.

Adli sicile kaydedilecek bilgiler Adli Sicil Kanununda gösterilmiş olup, yine aynı kanununda hangi kararların adli sicil kaydına ve adli sicil arşiv kaydına işlenmeyeceği düzenlenmiştir.

Halk arasında sabıka kaydında ve arşiv kaydında yer aldığı düşünülen ancak bu kayıtlarda yer almayan kararlar ise şunlardır;

  • Disiplin suçlarına ve sırf askeri suçlara ilişkin mahkûmiyet hükümleri,
  • Disiplin ve tazyik hapsine ilişkin kararlar,
  • İdari para cezasına ilişkin kararlar.

Bu kararlara ek olarak kamu davasının açılmasının ertelenmesine ve hükmün açıklanmasının geri bırakılmasına (verilen cezanın ertelenmesine) ilişkin kararlar, adli sicil kaydında kendilerine mahsus bir bölümde kaydedilir. Bu kayıtlar normal bir adli sicil kaydı (sabıka kaydı) belgesi alındığında görülmeyecektir ancak soruşturma veya kovuşturmayla bağlantılı olarak mahkeme, hâkim, Cumhuriyet Başsavcılığı veya askeri savcılık tarafından istenmesi halinde verilmek üzere hazırlanan adli sicil kaydında görülecektir.

Aşağıdaki şartlarda adli sicil kaydı silinebilmektedir. Buna göre;

  • Cezanın ve güvenlik tedbirinin infazının tamamlanması,
  • Ceza mahkumiyetini bütün sonuçlarıyla ortadan kaldıran şikâyetten vazgeçme veya etkin pişmanlık,
  • Ceza zamanaşımının dolması,
  • Genel af halinde Adli Sicil ve İstatistik Genel Müdürlüğünde silinerek, arşiv kaydına alınır.

Adli sicil kaydının silinmesi ile hükümlü hakkında adli sicil arşiv kaydı oluşturulur. Adli sicil arşiv kaydının hangi hallerde ve ne şekilde silineceği de aşağıdaki şartlara bağlıdır. Buna göre;

  • İlgilinin ölümü üzerine,
  • Anayasanın 76 ncı maddesi (taksirli suçlar hariç toplam bir yıl veya daha fazla hapis ile ağır hapis cezasına hüküm giymiş olanlar; zimmet, ihtilâs, irtikâp, rüşvet, hırsızlık, dolandırıcılık, sahtecilik, inancı kötüye kullanma, dolanlı iflas gibi yüz kızartıcı suçlarla, kaçakçılık, resmî ihale ve alım satımlara fesat karıştırma, Devlet sırlarını açığa vurma, terör eylemlerine katılma ve bu gibi eylemleri tahrik ve teşvik suçlarından biriyle hüküm giymiş olanlar) ile TCK dışındaki kanunlarda bir hak yoksunluğuna neden olan mahkumiyetler bakımından kaydın arşive alınması koşullarının oluştuğu tarihten itibaren;

1. Yasaklanmış hakların geri verilmesi kararı alınması koşuluyla on beş yıl geçmesiyle,

2. Yasaklanmış hakların geri verilmesi kararı alınması koşulu aranmaksızın otuz yıl geçmesiyle,

  • Diğer mahkumiyetler bakımından kaydın arşive alınma koşullarının oluştuğu tarihten itibaren beş yıl geçmesiyle,

Tamamen silinir. Arşive alınma koşullarının ne zaman oluşacağının tespit edilmesi önemlidir. Zira sayılan sürelerin hesaplanması arşive alınma süresinin belirlenmesiyle mümkündür.

Yasaklanmış Hakların Geri Verilmesi;

 

Türk Ceza Kanunu dışındaki kanunların belli bir suçtan dolayı veya belli bir cezaya mahkumiyete bağladığı hak yoksunluklarının giderilebilmesi için, yasaklanmış hakların geri verilmesi yolu vardır. Bunun için;

  • Mahkûm olunan cezanın infazının tamamlandığı tarihten itibaren üç yıllık bir sürenin geçmiş olması,
  • Kişinin bu süre zarfında yeni bir suç işlememiş olması ve hayatını iyi halli olarak sürdürdüğü konuda mahkemede kanaat oluşması gerekir.

Genel şartlar bunlar olmakla birlikte; mahkûm olunan cezaya, genel af veya etkin pişmanlık dışında başka bir nedenle son verilmiş ise, yasaklanmış hakların geri verilmesi yoluna gidilebilmesi için, hükmün(cezanın) kesinleştiği tarihten itibaren beş yıl geçmesi gerekir.

Yasaklanmış hakların geri verilmesi için hükümlünün veya vekilinin talebi üzerine hükmü veren mahkemenin veya hükümlünün ikametgahının bulunduğu yerdeki aynı derecedeki mahkemenin karar vermesi gerekir. Yani burada yetki konusunda seçimlik hak bulunmaktadır. Her iki mahkemeden de yasaklanmış hakların geri verilmesi kararı alınabilir. Mahkeme bu husustaki kararını dosya üzerinde inceleme yaparak ya da Cumhuriyet savcısının ve hükümlüyü dinlemek suretiyle verebilir.

Adli sicil (sabıka) ve arşiv kayıtlarının silinebilmesi için yetkili mahkemeden "Yasaklanmış Hakların Geri Verilmesi Kararı" alınması ile birlikte arşiv kaydının silinmesi için yazacağınız bir dilekçe ile Adli Sicil ve İstatistik Genel Müdürlüğüne başvurmanız yeterlidir. Adli sicil kaydı ile adli sicil arşiv kaydının silinmesi için ayrıca mahkemeye başvurmak gerekmez.

The content of this article is intended to provide a general guide to the subject matter. Specialist advice should be sought about your specific circumstances.

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