Turkey: Tahkim Yargılamasında İhtiyati Tedbir Kurumu

Last Updated: 11 January 2018
Article by Abdulkadir Guzeloglu and Tarik Kurban

İhtiyati tedbir, kesin hüküm verilene kadar yargılama süresince taraflardan birinin dava konusunun hukuki durumunda meydana gelebilecek zararlara karşı alınması öngörülmüş hukuki korumalardır. Dava konusu üzerinde meydana gelebilecek olan değişiklikler sonucu yargılama sonucunda elde edilecek hükmün icrasının zorlaşabilme veya imkânsız hale gelebilme ihtimaline karşı alınan geçici önlemler bütünüdür.

İhtiyati tedbir kurumu sadece klasik yargılama usulünde öngörülmemekte, hemen hemen tahkim kurallarının tümü de geçici koruma yöntemlerini benimsemektedir.

İstanbul Tahkim Merkezi ("ISTAC") Tahkim Kuralları Kapsamında Geçici Hukuki Koruma Önlemleri

Istac Tahkim Kuralları'nın 31.maddesi "Geçici Hukuki Koruma Önlemleri" hususunu düzenlemektedir. Maddeye göre taraflar aksini kararlaştırmadıkça Tek Hakem veya Hakem Kurulu, taraflardan birinin talebi üzerine uygun gördüğü geçici hukuki koruma önlemine karar verebilmektedir. Bu halde Tek Hakem veya Hakem Kurulu, geçici hukuki koruma kararı verilmesini uygun bir teminat verilmesine bağlı kılabilmektedir.

Istac Tahkim Kurallarına göre dosyanın Tek Hakem veya Hakem Kurulu'na havalesinden önce veya sonra taraflar, mahkemelerden de geçici hukuki koruma talebinde bulunabilmektedirler. Bu durum, tahkim anlaşmasına aykırılık teşkil etmemekte; tahkim anlaşmasından feragat anlamını taşımamakta ve Tek Hakem veya Hakem Kurulu'nun sahip olduğu yetkileri etkilememektedir.

Istac Tahkim Kuralları bu geçici koruma önlemlerinin haricinde, Tek Hakemin veya Hakemler Kurulu'nun göreve başlamasının beklenemeyeceği ölçüde acil bir durumun varlığı halinde, geçici korumaya ihtiyaç duyan tarafın, İstanbul Tahkim Merkezi Acil Durum Hakemi Kuralları uyarınca Sekretarya'ya başvurabileceğini belirtmektedir.

Istac Acil Durum Hakemi Kuralları uyarınca Acil Durum Hakeminin tayini için başvuran tarafın, Tahkim Talebi, Dava Dilekçesi ya da Tahkim Talebine Cevap veya Cevap Dilekçesi sunmuş olması şartı aranmamaktadır. Acil Durum Hakemine başvuru yapan tarafın 15 gün içerisinde tahkim talebini veya dava dilekçesini sunması gerekmektedir.

Acil Durum Hakemi, dosyanın kendisine tevdiinden itibaren 7 gün içerisinde karar vermek zorundadır.

Acil Durum Hakemi, başvurunun niteliği ve özelliğini dikkate alarak uygun gördüğü geçici hukuki koruma önlemine karar vermekle yetkilidir. Acil Durum Hakemi, geçici hukuki koruma kararı verilmesini uygun bir teminat verilmesine bağlı kılabilmektedir.

Acil Durum Hakemi tarafından verilen kararlar, Tek Hakem veya Hakem Kurulunu bağlamamaktadır. Tek Hakem veya Hakem Kurulu, taraflardan birinin talebi üzerine veya re'sen Acil Durum Hakemi'nin kararlarını ve bu kararlar uyarınca yapılan işlemleri değiştirebilmekte veya tamamen kaldırabilmektedir.

Istac Seri Tahkim Kurallar herhangi bir geçici önlem hükmünü ihtiva etmiyor olsa bile, Kuralların 9.maddesinde, Seri Tahkim Kuralları tarafından düzenlenmeyen konularda, niteliğine uygun olduğu ölçüde Istac Tahkim Kuralları hükümlerinin uygulanacağı belirtilmektedir. Bu nedenden ötürü Istac Seri Tahkim Yargılamasında geçici önlemlere ilişkin yukarıda açıklanan kuralların uygulama alanı bulacağı söylenebilmektedir.

International Chamber of Commerce ("ICC") Tahkim Kuralları Uyarınca Geçici Önlemler

ICC Tahkim Kuralları tarafından düzenlenmiş olan "Koruyucu ve Geçici Tedbirler (Conservatory and Interim Measures)" esas itibariyle Istac Tahkim Kuralları tarafından öngörülmüş olan Geçici Koruma Tedbirleri ile benzer hükümler içermektedir.

ICC Tahkim Kuralları uyarınca taraflar aksini kararlaştırmamışsa, hakem kurulu, dosya kendisine havale edilir edilmez, taraflardan birinin isteği üzerine, uygun gördüğü koruyucu veya geçici tedbir kararlarını verebilmektedir.

ICC Tahkim Kuralları dosyanın hakem kuruluna havalesinden önce ve uygun hallerde sonrasında dahi, taraflar koruyucu veya geçici tedbir kararları için yetkili herhangi bir yargı merciine başvurabileceğini düzenlemektedir. Taraflardan birinin böyle tedbirler için veya hakem kurulu tarafından verilen bu tür tedbir kararlarının uygulanması için bir yargı merciine başvurması tahkim anlaşmasının ihlali veya tahkim anlaşmasından feragat olarak kabul edilmemekte ve hakem kuruluna mahsus yetkileri etkilememektedir.

Istac Tahkim Kurallarında olduğu gibi ICC Tahkim Kurallarında da Acil Durum Hakemi düzenlenmektedir. Buna göre Hakem kurulunun oluşmasının beklenemeyeceği kadar acil olan koruyucu veya geçici tedbir kararlarına (Acil Önlemler) ihtiyaç duyan bir taraf, Acil Durum Hakemi Kuralları uyarınca bu tür önlemler için başvuruda bulunabilmektedirler. Taraflar Acil Durum Hakemi kurallarının uygulanmayacağını kararlaştırabilmektedirler.

ICC Acil Durum Hakemi Kuralları uyarınca acil durum hakemine başvuru yapan taraf, başvurusunu takip eden 10 gün içerisinde tahkim talebinde bulunmak zorundadır.

Acil Durum Hakemi, bu konu hakkındaki kararını 15 gün içerisinde vermek zorundadır.

Milletler Arası Tahkim Kanunu Uyarınca İhtiyati Tedbir Kararları

4686 sayılı Milletlerarası Tahkim Kanunu ("MTK") yabancılık unsuru taşıyan ve tahkim yerinin Türkiye olarak belirlendiği veya bu Kanun hükümlerinin taraflar ya da hakem veya hakem kurulunca seçildiği uyuşmazlıklar hakkında uygulanmaktadır. Ancak MTK'da yer alan ihtiyati tedbir veya ihtiyati hacze ilişkin hükümler, tahkim yerinin Türkiye dışı olarak belirlenmiş olan durumlarda da uygulanacağı belirtilmektedir.

MTK'ya göre taraflardan birinin, tahkim yargılamasından önce veya tahkim yargılaması sırasında mahkemeden ihtiyatî tedbir veya ihtiyatî haciz istemesi ve mahkemenin böyle bir tedbire veya hacze karar vermesi, tahkim anlaşmasına aykırılık teşkil etmemektedir. Böylelikle taraflar bir tahkim anlaşmasının varlığında dahi genel mahkemelerden geçici koruma talep edebilmektedirler.

The content of this article is intended to provide a general guide to the subject matter. Specialist advice should be sought about your specific circumstances.

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