Turkey: Türk İş Hukukunda Çalişan Ve İşveren Arasindaki Davalarda Zorunlu Arabuluculuk Sistemi

Last Updated: 31 October 2017
Article by Petek Varol

Giriş

25 Ekim 2017 tarihinde 30221 sayılı Resmi Gazetede yayımlanan 7036 Sayılı İş Mahkemeleri Kanunu ('Kanun') ile iş hukuku uyuşmazlıklarının çözümüne köklü değişiklikler getirilmiş olup işbu Kanun önceki 5521 Sayılı İş Mahkemeleri Kanununu mülga etmiştir. 7036 Sayılı bu Kanun ile sisteme getirilen köklü değişiklerin özeti aşağıdaki gibidir.

Dava Şartı Olarak Arabuluculuk

Kanun ile sistemimize getirilmiş olan en önemli ve dikkat çekici değişiklik arabuluculuğun dava şartı olarak düzenlenmesidir.

Kanunun 3. maddesinde 'Kanuna, bireysel veya toplu iş sözleşmesine dayanan işçi veya işveren alacağı ve tazminatı ile işe iade talebiyle açılan davalarda, arabulucuya başvurulmuş olması dava şartıdır.' denerek arabuluculuğun sadece bahsi geçen konularda dava şartı olarak benimsendiği ortaya konulmaktadır. 

Kanunun ilgili 3. maddesi derhal yürürlüğe giren diğer maddelerden farklı olarak 1 Ocak 2018 tarihinde yürürlüğe girecektir.

Bu kapsamda 1 Ocak 2018 tarihinden itibaren işçi, işveren alacağı ve tazminatı ve işe iade talebiyle açılan davalarda öncelikli olarak arabuluculuğa başvurmak zorunlu hale gelmiştir. 

Yine aynı maddeye göre iş kazası veya meslek hastalığından kaynaklanan maddi ve manevi tazminat ile bunlarla ilgili tespit, itiraz ve rücu davalarının açılabilmesi için zorunlu arabuluculuk başvurusunun aranmayacağı anlaşılmaktadır.

Arabuluculuk Giderleri

Taraflardan birinin geçerli bir mazeret göstermeksizin ilk toplantıya katılmaması sebebiyle arabuluculuk faaliyetinin sona ermesi durumunda toplantıya katılmayan taraf davada kısmen veya tamamen haklı çıksa bile yargılama giderinin tamamından sorumlu tutulur.

Tarafların arabuluculuk faaliyeti sonunda anlaşmaları halinde, arabuluculuk ücreti, aksi kararlaştırılmadıkça taraflarca eşit şekilde karşılanır. Bu durumda ücret, Arabuluculuk Asgari Ücret Tarifesinin Birinci Kısmında belirlenen iki saatlik ücret tutarından az olamaz.

Arabuluculuk faaliyeti sonunda taraflara ulaşılamaması, taraflar katılmadığı için görüşme yapılamaması veya iki saatten az süren görüşmeler sonunda tarafların anlaşamamaları hallerinde, iki saatlik ücret tutarı Tarifenin Birinci Kısmına göre Hazineden ödenir. İki saatten fazla süren görüşmeler sonunda tarafların anlaşamamaları halinde ise iki saati aşan kısma ilişkin ücret aksi kararlaştırılmadıkça taraflarca eşit şekilde Tarifenin Birinci Kısmına göre karşılanır.

Arabuluculuğun Sonuçlandırılması

Arabuluculuk süreci üç (3) hafta içerisinde sonuçlandırılmalı; ancak zorunlu haller mevcut ise bu süreç bir (1) hafta daha uzatılabilir.

Arabuluculuğun devreye girmesi sonucu bir uyuşmazlık çözülerse artık aynı uyuşmazlık hakkında dava açılamayacaktır. Sonuçlandırılamayan uyuşmazlıklarda ise tarafların dava açma hakkı saklıdır.

Yargılama Usulü ve Kanun Yolları

Kanunun yürürlüğe girmesi ile birlikte kanun yoluna başvuru süreleri de değiştirilmiş ve de yapılacak olan başvuruların 6100 Sayılı Hukuk Muhakemeleri Kanununa uygun olarak yapılması öngörülmüştür.

Bu nedenle sekiz (8) günlük kanun yoluna başvuru süresi yürürlükten kaldırılmış olup yerel iş mahkemesinde verilen kararın taraflara tebliğ edilmesinden itibaren Bölge Adliye Mahkemesinde istinaf yoluna başvuru süresi iki (2) hafta olarak belirlenmiştir.

İstinaf sonucu Bölge Adliye Mahkemesinin vermiş olduğu kararın taraflara tebliğinden itibaren de Yargıtay nezdinde temyiz yoluna başvuru süreci de yine iki (2) hafta olarak uygulanacaktır.

Kanun ile gelen bir diğer önemli değişiklik ise Kanunun 8. Maddesinde yer alan belirli kararlar aleyhine Yargıtay nezdinde temyiz yoluna başvurulamayacağı ve işbu kararlar hakkında gidilebilecek kanun yolunun sadece Bölge Adliye Mahkemeleri nezdindeki istinaf yolu olacağıdır. Yargıtay nezdinde temyiz imkânı olmayan işbu kararlar aşağıda listelenmiştir:

  1. 4857 sayılı İş Kanununun 20. maddesi uyarınca açılan fesih bildirimine itiraz davalarında verilen kararlar;
  2. İşveren tarafından toplu iş sözleşmesi veya işyeri düzenlemeleri uyarınca işçiye verilen disiplin cezalarının iptali için açılan davalarda verilen kararlar;
  3. 6356 sayılı Sendikalar ve Toplu İş Sözleşmesi Kanunu uyarınca verilen aşağıda sayılı kararlar;
  • İşveren tarafından, işyeri sendika temsilcilerinin sözleşmelerini haksız yere feshedilmesi halinde;
  • İşletme toplu iş sözleşmesi yapılacak işyerlerinin aranılan niteliğe sahip olup olmadıklarına ilişkin uyuşmazlıklarda;
  • Uygulanmakta olan bir toplu iş sözleşmesinin yorumundan doğan uyuşmazlıklarda;
  • Taraflardan her biri, karar verilen veya uygulanmakta olan bir grev veya lokavtın kanun dışı olup olmadığının tespitinde.
  1. 4688 sayılı Kamu Görevlileri Sendikaları ve Toplu Sözleşme Kanunu uyarınca verilen aşağıdaki kararlar:
  • Genel kurulların toplantı zamanı ve karar yeter sayısına aykırı hareket eden sendika şubesi, sendika veya konfederasyon yönetim kurulu hakkında;
  • Sendika üyelik başvurusunun haklı bir neden gösterilmeksizin reddedilmesi halinde.

Zamanaşımı

Son olarak Kanun tasarısının 15. Maddesi ile 4857 sayılı İş Kanununda değişiklik yapılmıştır. İşbu değişikliğin kapsamı zamanaşımı olup iş sözleşmesinden kaynaklanmak kaydıyla hangi kanuna tabi olursa olsun, yıllık izin ücreti ve aşağıda belirtilen tazminatların zamanaşımı süresi beş (5) yıldır:

  1. Kıdem tazminatı;
  2. İhbar tazminatı;
  3. Kötü niyet tazminatı;
  4. İş sözleşmesinin eşit davranma ilkesine uyulmaksızın feshinden kaynaklanan tazminatı.

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