Turkey: Portfolioausgleichanspruch Des Alleinvertriebshändlers Nach Türkischem Recht

Im türkischen Recht wird der Ausgleichansprucheines Handelsvertreters  gegenüber  dem  Unternehmer  nach  Beendigung des  Vertragsverhältnisses  als Portfolioausgleich  bezeichnet.  Dieser  Anspruch  war  bereits  vor Inkrafttreten  des  neuen  türkischen  Handelsgesetzbuches  ("HGB")  durch  die  Rechtsprechung des  Kassationshofes  anerkannt.  Mit  dem  Inkrafttreten  des  neuen  HGB  am1.  Juli  2012  wurde der Anspruch in Art. 122 HGB kodifiziert.

Nach  der  amtlichen  Begründung   ist  Art.  122  HGB  dem  §  89b  des  deutschen  HGB  und  dem Art. 418u des schweizerischen Obligationenrechts nachgebildet.1

Gemäß   Art.   122   HGB   kann   der   Handelsvertreter   vom   Unternehmer   nach   Beendigung   des Vertragsverhältnisses einen angemessenen Ausgleich verlangen, wenn

  1. Der Unternehmer aus der Geschäftsverbindung mit neuen Kunden, die der Handelsvertreter geworben hat, auch nach Beendigung des Vertragsverhältnisses erhebliche Vorteile hat,
  2. der Handelsvertreterals Folge der Beendigung des Vertragsverhältnisses seinen Anspruch auf Zahlung bezüglich der mit den von ihm geworbenen Kunden abgeschlossenen Geschäfte oder in Kürze abzuschließenden Geschäfte verliert und
  3. die Zahlung eines Ausgleichs unter Berücksichtigung aller Umstände der Billigkeit entspricht.

Für die Entstehung des Anspruchs  müssen diese drei Voraussetzungen  kumulativ erfüllt sein.2

Nun  ist  in  Artikel  122  Abs.  5  HGB  vorgesehen,  dass  der  Ausgleichsanspruch  auch  im  Falle  der Beendigung   einer   Alleinvertriebsvereinbarung   Anwendung   findet,   soweit   dies   der   Billigkeit entspricht. Eine weitere Voraussetzung als die der Billigkeit wird im Gesetz nicht genannt.

Beim  Alleinvertriebsvertrag  handelt  es  sich  um  einen  Rahmenvertrag  zwischen  Lieferant  und Vertriebspartner,  aufgrund  dessen  der  Vertriebspartner  berechtigt  wird,  für  ein  bestimmtes Gebiet  alle  oder  einen  bestimmten  Teil  der  Produkte  des  Lieferanten  als  einziger  Verkäufer zu  vertreiben.3  Der  Vertriebspartner  handelt  in  eigenem  Namen  und  auf  eigene  Rechnung.  Er ist   verpflichtet,   dem   Lieferanten   den   Einkaufspreis   für   die   Ware   zu   bezahlen.   In   einer Alleinvertriebsvereinbarung übernimmt              der Lieferant typischerweise die              vertragliche Verpflichtung,  keine  weiteren  Vertriebspartner  im  Vertragsgebiet  einzusetzen  und  seine  Ware auch nicht selbst in dem  Vertragsgebiet zu vertreiben oder durch Dritte vertreiben zu lassen.

In   der   deutschen   Rechtsprechung   ist   anerkannt,   dass   der   in   § 89b   des   deutschen   HGB Geregelter Handelsvertreterausgleich analog nach Beendigung des Vertragsverhältnisses Einem Alleinvertriebspartner zu gewähren ist, wenn der  Alleinvertriebshändler in das Vertriebssystem  des  Lieferanten  ähnlich  einem  Handelsvertreter  eingebunden  ist  und  eine vertragliche   Verpflichtung   des   Alleinvertriebshändlers   zur   Offenlegung   des   Kundenstamms besteht.

Nach der bisherigen Rechtsprechung des türkischen Kassationshofes wird dem Alleinvertriebshändler  ein  Ausgleichanspruch  zugebilligt,  solange  ihm  nicht  aus  berechtigtem Grund   gekündigt   worden   ist.   Weitere   Voraussetzungen   an   das   Verhältnis   zwischen   dem Alleinvertriebshändler  und  dem  Lieferanten,  wie  die  Eingliederung  des  Vertriebshändlers  in die  Organisation  des  Lieferanten  oder  zumindest  die  Möglichkeit  des  Lieferanten  vom  durch den  Alleinvertriebshändler  geworbenen  Kundenstamm  Kenntnis  zu  nehmen,  werden  durch den türkischen Kassationshof zur Anspruchsbegründung nicht vorausgesetzt.

Nach der herrschenden Lehre inder Türkei entspricht die Anwendung des Ausgleichsanspruches  auf  Alleinvertriebsverträge  nur  dann  der  Billigkeit  gemäß  122  Abs.  5 HGB,  wenn  der  Alleinvertriebshändler  ähnlich  wie  ein  Handelsvertreter  weisungsgebunden,  in die   Absatzorganisation   des   Unternehmens   eingeordnet   und   gegenüber   dem   Lieferanten verpflichtet  ist,  diesem  bei  Beendigung  des  Vertragsverhältnisses  seinen  Kundenstamm  zu überlassen,  so  dass  sich  der  Lieferant  den  Kundenstamm  des  Alleinvertriebshändlers  ohne weiteres nutzbar machen kann.4

Eine  veröffentlichte  Rechtsprechung  des  Kassationshofes  zum  neuen  Art.  122  Abs.  5  HGB liegt  noch  nicht  vor.  Der  Kassationshof  hat  bisher  nur  in  Fällen  entschieden,  auf  die  das  alte HGB  anzuwenden  war.  Der  Kassationshof  verweist  in  seinen  neuen  Urteilen,  die  zwar  dem alten  Recht  unterliegen  aber  nach  dem  Inkrafttreten  des  neuen  HGB  entschieden  wurden, auf  die  Kodifizierung  in  Artikel  122  Abs.  5  HGB.  Der  Kassationshof  sieht  sich  offensichtlich durch   die   Kodifizierung   des   Ausgleichanspruches   in   dem   neuen   HGB   in   seiner   bisherigen Rechtsprechung gestärkt. Allerdings scheint   der Kassationshof der nunmehr vom Gesetzgeber geforderten doppelten Billigkeitskontrolle in den Fällen von Alleinvertriebsverträgen  bisher  keine  besondere  Bedeutung  zu  schenken.  Der  Kassationshof Bejaht die Billigkeit lediglich mit dem Hinweis, dass die Gewährung des Kundenportfolioausgleichs   dann   nicht   der   Billigkeit   entspreche,   wenn   der   Lieferant   den Vertrag  aus  einem  berechtigten  Grund  gekündigt  habe  und  eine  berechtigte  Kündigung  nicht vorliege.5  Dieser  Rechtsprechung  ist  nicht  zu  entnehmen,  dass  der  Kassationshof,  wie  in  der Literatur  gefordert  und  wie  in  Deutschland  praktiziert  wird,  für  den  Ausgleichsanspruch  eines Alleinvertriebshändlers  die  Übernahme  der  vertraglichen  Verpflichtung  zur  Überlassung  des Kundenstamms nach der Beendigung des Vertrages und die Einbindung in die Betriebsorganisation des Lieferanten ähnlich einem Handelsvertreter voraussetze.

Es   bleibt   offen,   ob   der   Kassationshof   nunmehr   aufgrund   der   neuen   Rechtslage,   die   eine Doppelte Billigkeitskontrolle für              den Anspruch des Alleinvertriebshändlers voraussetzt, nämlich als Anwendungsvoraussetzung nach Art. 122 Abs. 5 HGB und als Anspruchsvoraussetzung  nach  Art.  122  Abs.  1  HGB,  seine  alte  Rechtsprechung  aufgeben  und der herrschenden Ansicht in der Literatur folgen wird.

Footnotes

1 Amtliche Begründung zum HGB, Art. 122, in: Kaya, Türk Ticaret Kanunu Şerhi, 2013 Istanbul, S. 333.

2 Kassationshof, Entscheidungsnummer 2008/2759 vom 21. März 2008; 2000/3470 vom 4. Mai 2000.

3 Vgl. Kassationshof, Entscheidungsnummer 2001/6382 vom 11. Oktober 2001.

4 Demir Gökyayla, Milletlerarası Özel Hukukta Tek Satıcılık Sözleşmeleri, 2. Aufl. Istanbul, 2013, S. 258 ff.; Kaya, Türk   Ticaret   Kanunu   Şerhi,   2013   Istanbul,   S. 260   ff;   Badak   Aybar,   6102   Sayılı   Türk   Ticaret   Kanunu'nda Denkleştirme İstemi, İTÜSBD 2013/2, S. 195.

© Kolcuoğlu Demirkan Koçaklı Attorneys at Law 2015

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