Turkey: Alman Hukukunda Portföy Tazminatı

6102 sayılı Türk Ticaret Kanunu büyük ölçüde Alman ve İsviçre mevzuatından etkilenerek hazırlanmıştır. Alman Ticaret Kanunu aynı zamanda dünyada acentelere ilişkin ayrı bir düzenleme yapan ilk ticaret kanunu olma özelliğini de taşımaktadır. Bu nedenle bu yazıda AB mevzuatı ışığında Alman Ticaret Kanunu'nun acentelik sözleşmesinin sona ermesinin ardından acentelerin taleplerine ilişkin 89b maddesi incelenecektir.

Avrupa Birliği 86/653/EEC sayılı direktifi ile üye devletlerin acentelere sağlaması gereken minimum korumaya ilişkin şartları tespit etmiştir. Bu kapsamda üye devletler iç hukuklarında yapacakları düzenleme ile acentelere bu minimum güvenceleri sağlamakla yükümlü kılınmıştır. Direktifin 17. maddesi acentelik sözleşmenin sonlandırılması halinde acenteye portföy tazminatı ödenmesi ya da acentenin zararının giderilmesi gerektiği düzenlemesini içermektedir. Madde, üye devletlere bu bakımdan seçimlik hak tanımıştır.

Direktif doğrultusunda Almanya, 23 Ekim 1989 tarihinde Ticaret Kanunu'nda (Handelsgesetzbuch-HGB) değişikliğe gitmiştir. Kanunun, AB Direktifinin 17(2)(a) maddesi ile uyumlu 89b(1) maddesi gereği, acente; müvekkile yeni müşteri çevresi sağlamışsa veya müvekkilin iş seviyesini önemli ölçüde artırmışsa ve müvekkil kendisine sağlanan bu menfaatler neticesinde sözleşmenin sona ermesinden sonra da ciddi menfaatler sağlamaya devam ediyorsa portföy tazminatına hak kazanacaktır.

Acentenin portföy tazminatına hak kazanması kural olarak herhangi bir kısıtlamaya tabi tutulmamıştır. Ancak Alman Ticaret Kanunu'nun 89b(3) maddesi uyarınca; i) acentenin, müvekkilden kaynaklanan haklı bir sebep bulunmaması veya sözleşme ilişkisini sürdürmesinin yaşı/hastalığı nedeniyle kendisinden beklenememesi halleri hariç sözleşmeyi feshetmesi, ii) müvekkilin sözleşmeyi acentenin kusurundan kaynaklanan haklı bir sebep ile feshetmiş olması, iii) sözleşme ilişkisine acente yerine üçüncü bir tarafın dahil olması ve buna bağlı olarak acentenin sözleşme ilişkisinden ayrılması bunun istisnasını oluşturmaktadır.

Kanunda açıkça yer alan bu düzenlemeler bir yana, sözleşmenin feshinden sonra acentenin hak kazanacağı portföy tazminatının hesaplanmasına ilişkin usul içtihatlarla gelişmiştir. Alman Hukukunda bu konuda en büyük gelişim ve değişim 2009 senesinde Hamburg Alt Derece Mahkemesi'nin (Landgericht Hamburg), Avrupa Adalet Divanı'na yaptığı başvuru sonucu gerçekleşmiş, bu başvurunun sonucu Alman Ticaret Kanunu'nun 89b(1) maddesi yeniden düzenlenmiştir.

Avrupa Adalet Divanı'nın kararından önceki dönemde Alman Mahkemeleri, portföy tazminatının hesabında acentenin komisyon kaybını esas (tek) unsur kabul ederek, tazminat miktarının hakkaniyete uygun olabilmesi için komisyon kaybı ile sınırlı olması gerektiği yönünde karar verme eğilimi göstermişlerdir. Hamburg Alt Derece Mahkemesi de Direktifin 17(2)(a) maddesini bu şekilde yorumlamıştır. Ancak en nihayetinde yorumunda şüpheye düşerek Avrupa Adalet Divanına başvuruda bulunmuş ve acentenin, sözleşmenin feshi halinde hak kazanacağı portföy tazminatı miktarının, kaybına uğradığı komisyon miktarıyla sınırlandırılmasının Direktife uygun olup olmadığını sormuştur.

Avrupa Adalet Divanı 06.03.2009 tarihli ve C-348/07 sayılı Turgay Semen v. Deutsche Tamoil kararında, tazminat hesabının Direktife uygun üç aşamalı bir değerlendirmeden geçmesi gerektiğini belirtmiştir. Buna göre ilk aşamada müvekkilin, acentenin yeni bulduğu müşteriler veya mevcut müşterilerle artırılan iş kapasitesi sayesinde elde ettiği kazanç miktarının belirlenmesi, ikinci aşamada bir önceki kriterde belirlenen miktarın portföy tazminatı olarak ödenmesinin olayın tüm şartları ve acentenin yaşadığı komisyon kaybı miktarı karşısında hakkaniyete uygun düşüp düşmediğinin belirlenmesi, üçüncü aşamada ise ilk iki kritere göre hesaplanan miktarın acentenin son beş yıllık faaliyeti sonucu edindiği ortalama yıllık "kazancını" aşıp aşmadığının belirlenmesi söz konusu olacaktır. Burada komisyon yerine kazanç ifadesi bilinçli olarak kullanılmıştır. Bu halde, acenteye ödenecek portföy tazminatı miktarının, acentenin kayba uğradığı komisyon miktarını aşabileceği, dolayısıyla komisyon kaybının yukarıda belirtilen değerlendirmeler yapılmaksızın, otomatik olarak, bir üst sınır olarak kabul edilmesinin mümkün olmadığı kabul edilmiştir. Bu kararın ardından Alman Ticaret Kanunu'nun 89b(1) maddesi gerekçesi ile birlikte değiştirilmiş, uygulamada da komisyon kaybı, portföy tazminatının hesabında diğer unsurlarla birlikte dikkate alınan bir unsur haline getirilmiştir.

Alman Ticaret Kanunu'nun 89b maddesinde yer alan tüm bu düzenlemelerin distribütör ve frenchise alanlara ise ancak kıyas yoluyla uygulanması mümkündür.

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