Turkey: Technoparks In Turkey - Collaboration Between Science And Industry

Last Updated: 18 January 2007
Article by Paul Wouters

Article by Demet Karataş

Technology clearly has become a focal point in most of our lives. Therefore, countries which seek such development must have the ability to transform research into technology and technology into useful commercial products.

Turkey recognizes the importance of collaboration between academia and industrial sectors in this regard. Technoparks have been established where universities and research institutes - in collaboration with commercial companies - have started to create a competitive technology-based industry, as well as procure the technological infrastructure which will ease the access of foreign capital for high-technology.

These Technoparks have obtained legal status with the Technology Development Zones Code ("TDZC") adopted in 2001.

I. Legal Structure And The Establishment Procedure

A Technopark is a site where academic, economic and social structures are integrated. High technology companies develop technology and software and carry out R&D by utilizing the facilities of a university or a high technology institute or R&D center/institute. It has to be established in or near a university, a high technology institute or a R&D center/institute according to the TDZC.

Applications for the establishment of a Technopark are made by a Founding Committee, one of whose members must be a representative of a university, a high technology institute or a R&D center/institute. Foreign legal entities of private law can be members of the Founding Committee. The final decision regarding the establishment of a Technopark is made by the Council of Ministers.

Thereupon, a Management Company is established in the form of a joint stock company, responsible for the establishment, management and operation of the Technopark.

Members of the Founding Committee are also the shareholders of the Management Company. Therefore, a foreign legal entity of private law may also be a founding shareholder or later become a shareholder of the Management Company. Although the Articles of Association of a company are not generally subject to prior authorization according to the Turkish Commercial Code, it is required for the Articles of Association of the Management Company to get advanced authorization from the Directorate General of Research and Development.

TDZC is flexible with respect to the procurement of the land needed for the Technoparks (the Code even makes possible land expropriation).

It should also be mentioned that the TDZC provides for the ability to employ foreign directors and qualified research and development personnel in the Technoparks to encourage foreign investment.

Regarding companies that wish to conduct R&D activities in Technoparks, there are two major steps of the application process which take approximately 6 to 10 weeks. Firstly, a preliminary application is filed with the authorized board of the Technopark administration. If this preliminary application is approved by the board, a more detailed secondary application must be filed with the same board to make a final determination. Upon approval, the participant company may commence its activities in the Technopark.

II. Services Provided In Technoparks In Turkey

Techno parks have been established not only in Ankara and Istanbul but also in different regions of Turkey such as İzmir, Eskişehir, Konya, Kayseri, Kocaeli, Antalya and Mersin.

Technoparks provide various consultancy and incubator services as well. The EU center, venture capital consultancy, access to financial and donation sources consultancy and life-long education center are the main services that companies may benefit from in the Kocaeli University Technopark.

The Ankara Cyberpark, incorporated with the participation of the well reputed Bilkent University, offers specialization in the fields of nanotechnology, financial consultancy, Labor Law, trademark, patent and tax management consultancy, business and project development consultancy, enterprise consultancy and human resources.

At the Arı Teknokent -Istanbul Technical University’s Technopark, technical and legal consultancy, marketing consultancy, information technologies consultancy, publicity and advertisement consultancy, venture capital consultancy, permanent education services and incubator services are available.

The Gebze Organized Industrial Zone Technopark has been established with contribution from Israeli Stef Wertheimer and sets a  good example of Technoparks founded in cooperation with foreign capital.  Its most important service is the entrepreneur development program. Thanks to this program - realized by Sabancı and Tel Aviv Universities - entrepreneurs benefit from assistance in business planning, feasibility preparation, marketing and management strategies development in accordance with their needs.

  1. Financial Supports And Tax Exemptions

The Management Company is exempt from all tax, duty and fee concerning its activities encompassed in the TDZC.

Moreover, the Management Company may receive a governmental grant for the procurement of land and construction of the infrastructure in the event of financial difficulties.

Finally, according to the TDZC, the Management Company through the establishment, management and operation of the Technopark is not subject to corporate income tax.

The relevant legislation provides any interested third parties with support and exemptions in order to encourage them to invest in Technoparks.

For instance; the entrepreneurs are not liable to corporation or revenue tax for the income they earn from their R&D or software activities in Technoparks until the end of the year 2013.

The researchers, software engineers and R&D personnel in Technoparks do not have to pay income tax for their earnings based on their activities at the Technoparks until the end of the year 2013.

In addition to those exemptions, the Companies in Technoparks are also exempt from VAT for their deliveries or services in terms of system software, data management software and internet, mobile or military command control software they produce in said Technoparks until the end of the year 2013.

According to Corporation Tax Communiqué № 86, forty percent of the R&D expenses spent by Companies (including Technoparks) shall be subject to a Revenue/Corporation Tax Abatement unless the entrepreneurs benefit from the Revenue/Corporation Tax Exemption for their earnings concerning their R&D and software activities in Technoparks in compliance with TDZC.

In addition to the above exemptions and support, the SME’s (Small and Medium Size Enterprise) also benefit from non-repayable Technopark rent subsidies and financial support for the construction of production plants and R&D offices in Technoparks in accordance with the Regulations for the Support of Presidency of Small and Medium-Scale Industry Development and Support Administration (KOSGEB).

Finally, there is also non-repayable support for various R&D activities granted by Presidency of Technology and Innovation Support Programs (TEYDEB), the interest-free credits granted to companies entitled to a certificate of industry register or to software companies for various R&D activities by Technology Development Foundation and long-term credits with low interest rates given by the European Investment Bank, as other important support to companies in Technoparks.

In conclusion, due to the promulgation of TDZC and the establishment of Technoparks in various parts of the country, Turkey has taken a crucial step forward in its’ technology-centered industrial and economic policy.

The support and exemptions provided by Technoparks to both foreign and domestic entrepreneurs as well as the high quality services offered in Technoparks will cause more entrepreneurs to invest in Technoparks and thus increase the importance of Technoparks to Turkey’s economy.

The content of this article is intended to provide a general guide to the subject matter. Specialist advice should be sought about your specific circumstances.

To print this article, all you need is to be registered on Mondaq.com.

Click to Login as an existing user or Register so you can print this article.

Some comments from our readers…
“The articles are extremely timely and highly applicable”
“I often find critical information not available elsewhere”
“As in-house counsel, Mondaq’s service is of great value”

Related Video
Up-coming Events Search
Font Size:
Mondaq on Twitter
Register for Access and our Free Biweekly Alert for
This service is completely free. Access 250,000 archived articles from 100+ countries and get a personalised email twice a week covering developments (and yes, our lawyers like to think you’ve read our Disclaimer).
Email Address
Company Name
Confirm Password
Mondaq Topics -- Select your Interests
 Law Performance
 Law Practice
 Media & IT
 Real Estate
 Wealth Mgt
Asia Pacific
European Union
Latin America
Middle East
United States
Worldwide Updates
Mondaq Ltd requires you to register and provide information that personally identifies you, including what sort of information you are interested in, for three primary purposes:
  • To allow you to personalize the Mondaq websites you are visiting.
  • To enable features such as password reminder, newsletter alerts, email a colleague, and linking from Mondaq (and its affiliate sites) to your website.
  • To produce demographic feedback for our information providers who provide information free for your use.
  • Mondaq (and its affiliate sites) do not sell or provide your details to third parties other than information providers. The reason we provide our information providers with this information is so that they can measure the response their articles are receiving and provide you with information about their products and services.
    If you do not want us to provide your name and email address you may opt out by clicking here
    If you do not wish to receive any future announcements of products and services offered by Mondaq you may opt out by clicking here

    Terms & Conditions and Privacy Statement

    Mondaq.com (the Website) is owned and managed by Mondaq Ltd and as a user you are granted a non-exclusive, revocable license to access the Website under its terms and conditions of use. Your use of the Website constitutes your agreement to the following terms and conditions of use. Mondaq Ltd may terminate your use of the Website if you are in breach of these terms and conditions or if Mondaq Ltd decides to terminate your license of use for whatever reason.

    Use of www.mondaq.com

    You may use the Website but are required to register as a user if you wish to read the full text of the content and articles available (the Content). You may not modify, publish, transmit, transfer or sell, reproduce, create derivative works from, distribute, perform, link, display, or in any way exploit any of the Content, in whole or in part, except as expressly permitted in these terms & conditions or with the prior written consent of Mondaq Ltd. You may not use electronic or other means to extract details or information about Mondaq.com’s content, users or contributors in order to offer them any services or products which compete directly or indirectly with Mondaq Ltd’s services and products.


    Mondaq Ltd and/or its respective suppliers make no representations about the suitability of the information contained in the documents and related graphics published on this server for any purpose. All such documents and related graphics are provided "as is" without warranty of any kind. Mondaq Ltd and/or its respective suppliers hereby disclaim all warranties and conditions with regard to this information, including all implied warranties and conditions of merchantability, fitness for a particular purpose, title and non-infringement. In no event shall Mondaq Ltd and/or its respective suppliers be liable for any special, indirect or consequential damages or any damages whatsoever resulting from loss of use, data or profits, whether in an action of contract, negligence or other tortious action, arising out of or in connection with the use or performance of information available from this server.

    The documents and related graphics published on this server could include technical inaccuracies or typographical errors. Changes are periodically added to the information herein. Mondaq Ltd and/or its respective suppliers may make improvements and/or changes in the product(s) and/or the program(s) described herein at any time.


    Mondaq Ltd requires you to register and provide information that personally identifies you, including what sort of information you are interested in, for three primary purposes:

    • To allow you to personalize the Mondaq websites you are visiting.
    • To enable features such as password reminder, newsletter alerts, email a colleague, and linking from Mondaq (and its affiliate sites) to your website.
    • To produce demographic feedback for our information providers who provide information free for your use.

    Mondaq (and its affiliate sites) do not sell or provide your details to third parties other than information providers. The reason we provide our information providers with this information is so that they can measure the response their articles are receiving and provide you with information about their products and services.

    Information Collection and Use

    We require site users to register with Mondaq (and its affiliate sites) to view the free information on the site. We also collect information from our users at several different points on the websites: this is so that we can customise the sites according to individual usage, provide 'session-aware' functionality, and ensure that content is acquired and developed appropriately. This gives us an overall picture of our user profiles, which in turn shows to our Editorial Contributors the type of person they are reaching by posting articles on Mondaq (and its affiliate sites) – meaning more free content for registered users.

    We are only able to provide the material on the Mondaq (and its affiliate sites) site free to site visitors because we can pass on information about the pages that users are viewing and the personal information users provide to us (e.g. email addresses) to reputable contributing firms such as law firms who author those pages. We do not sell or rent information to anyone else other than the authors of those pages, who may change from time to time. Should you wish us not to disclose your details to any of these parties, please tick the box above or tick the box marked "Opt out of Registration Information Disclosure" on the Your Profile page. We and our author organisations may only contact you via email or other means if you allow us to do so. Users can opt out of contact when they register on the site, or send an email to unsubscribe@mondaq.com with “no disclosure” in the subject heading

    Mondaq News Alerts

    In order to receive Mondaq News Alerts, users have to complete a separate registration form. This is a personalised service where users choose regions and topics of interest and we send it only to those users who have requested it. Users can stop receiving these Alerts by going to the Mondaq News Alerts page and deselecting all interest areas. In the same way users can amend their personal preferences to add or remove subject areas.


    A cookie is a small text file written to a user’s hard drive that contains an identifying user number. The cookies do not contain any personal information about users. We use the cookie so users do not have to log in every time they use the service and the cookie will automatically expire if you do not visit the Mondaq website (or its affiliate sites) for 12 months. We also use the cookie to personalise a user's experience of the site (for example to show information specific to a user's region). As the Mondaq sites are fully personalised and cookies are essential to its core technology the site will function unpredictably with browsers that do not support cookies - or where cookies are disabled (in these circumstances we advise you to attempt to locate the information you require elsewhere on the web). However if you are concerned about the presence of a Mondaq cookie on your machine you can also choose to expire the cookie immediately (remove it) by selecting the 'Log Off' menu option as the last thing you do when you use the site.

    Some of our business partners may use cookies on our site (for example, advertisers). However, we have no access to or control over these cookies and we are not aware of any at present that do so.

    Log Files

    We use IP addresses to analyse trends, administer the site, track movement, and gather broad demographic information for aggregate use. IP addresses are not linked to personally identifiable information.


    This web site contains links to other sites. Please be aware that Mondaq (or its affiliate sites) are not responsible for the privacy practices of such other sites. We encourage our users to be aware when they leave our site and to read the privacy statements of these third party sites. This privacy statement applies solely to information collected by this Web site.

    Surveys & Contests

    From time-to-time our site requests information from users via surveys or contests. Participation in these surveys or contests is completely voluntary and the user therefore has a choice whether or not to disclose any information requested. Information requested may include contact information (such as name and delivery address), and demographic information (such as postcode, age level). Contact information will be used to notify the winners and award prizes. Survey information will be used for purposes of monitoring or improving the functionality of the site.


    If a user elects to use our referral service for informing a friend about our site, we ask them for the friend’s name and email address. Mondaq stores this information and may contact the friend to invite them to register with Mondaq, but they will not be contacted more than once. The friend may contact Mondaq to request the removal of this information from our database.


    From time to time Mondaq may send you emails promoting Mondaq services including new services. You may opt out of receiving such emails by clicking below.

    *** If you do not wish to receive any future announcements of services offered by Mondaq you may opt out by clicking here .


    This website takes every reasonable precaution to protect our users’ information. When users submit sensitive information via the website, your information is protected using firewalls and other security technology. If you have any questions about the security at our website, you can send an email to webmaster@mondaq.com.

    Correcting/Updating Personal Information

    If a user’s personally identifiable information changes (such as postcode), or if a user no longer desires our service, we will endeavour to provide a way to correct, update or remove that user’s personal data provided to us. This can usually be done at the “Your Profile” page or by sending an email to EditorialAdvisor@mondaq.com.

    Notification of Changes

    If we decide to change our Terms & Conditions or Privacy Policy, we will post those changes on our site so our users are always aware of what information we collect, how we use it, and under what circumstances, if any, we disclose it. If at any point we decide to use personally identifiable information in a manner different from that stated at the time it was collected, we will notify users by way of an email. Users will have a choice as to whether or not we use their information in this different manner. We will use information in accordance with the privacy policy under which the information was collected.

    How to contact Mondaq

    You can contact us with comments or queries at enquiries@mondaq.com.

    If for some reason you believe Mondaq Ltd. has not adhered to these principles, please notify us by e-mail at problems@mondaq.com and we will use commercially reasonable efforts to determine and correct the problem promptly.

    By clicking Register you state you have read and agree to our Terms and Conditions