Turkey: Work - Residence Permits and Immigration in Turkey

Last Updated: 27 July 2010
Article by Ayten Gasimova

The main purpose of this brief information note is to discuss the issue of work and residence permits required for foreigners in order to reside and work in Turkey along with some information regarding permanent immigration regulations.

Work Permits:

In order to work in Turkey, foreigners should obtain a working visa. In addition to this, they will also need to get a working permit. The Law Concerning Work Permits of Expatriates No. 4817, dated March 6, 2003 has introduced fundamental changes in Turkish law. One of the most crucial changes is that the competent (expert) authority for the work permits will be the Ministry of Labour and Social Security. The new law has introduced four (4) types of work permits. Each type will be discussed in detail below:

  1. Periodical/Definite: is usually given for maximum one year, taking into account factors such as the situation in the business market and etc. However, one should take into consideration that the duration may be extended up to three (3) years depending on conditions;
  2. Indefinite: is usually given in case when foreigners have been living in Turkey 'legally and uninterruptedly' for at least eight (8) years or have had a total of six (6) years of working period in Turkey. Another important factor that needs to be mentioned is that under this type a work permit would be granted without any terms/conditions. However, foreigners will need to provide a certificate given by the police authorities. The next step will be to present all needed documents to the Ministry. Applicants should bear in mind that eight (8) years period does not include education time;
  3. Independent: will be given to those foreigners who reside in Turkey 'legally and uninterruptedly' for at least five (5) years. In addition, any foreigner held to be suitable for an independent work permit, first will be provided a "Certificate of Application for Independent Work Permit". This certificate is valid for three (3) months from the date of its issue; and
  4. Exceptional: there are exceptions when a work permit will be issued independently from the terms listed by Law. These exceptions are:
    1. Foreigners married to Turkish Citizens and living in Turkey with their spouses who stay in Turkey legally. However, if the marriage breaks down before completing three (3) years, then the work permit becomes invalid;
    2. Foreigners Considered having Settled Down;
    3. Foreigners who have lost their Turkish Citizenship- this will only apply to those who are listed under articles 19, 27 and 28 of the Turkish Citizenship Law 403;
    4. Foreigners who have completed their studies/education in Turkey (Age of Maturity must be reached). However, there is an exception to this rule, which states that the work permit will be granted to those foreigners who have been born in Turkey or have come to Turkey before turning 18 on the condition that they must provide some evidence that they have graduated from any academy, university and etc. in Turkey;
    5. Foreigners who fit in within the scope of the Setting Law No. 2510;
    6. Citizens of EU Countries, including their spouse and children;
    7. Foreigners Commissioned with the Representations of Embassies, Consulates and International Institutions in Turkey, including their spouse and children;
    8. Foreigners Coming on a Short-Term Basis for Scientific, Cultural and Sportive Purposes;
    9. Foreigners featuring the Status of Key Personnel; and
    10. Work Permits of Foreign Instructors at Schools active in the framework of Embassies or Consulates in Turkey, Foreigners Commissioned with Cultural Institutions as well as Foreigners to be commissioned with Religious Institutions.

As mentioned above, according to Turkish legislation, before applying for a visa to work in Turkey as an administrative or technical employee, an expatriate must first obtain a work permit. For this work permit it is necessary to establish that the applicant has adequate technical and/or administrative knowledge.

According to the Law on Work Permit of Foreigners No. 4817, dated March 6, 2003, foreign personnel that will be employed in Turkey will need first to apply to the Turkish Consulate abroad in order to obtain his/her work permit before entering Turkey. However, if the foreign personnel is in Turkey for the last six (6) months and/or if he/she is a married to a Turkish citizen, he/she may directly apply to the Ministry of Labour and Social Security in Turkey since the mentioned Ministry has right to grant, extent and cancel the work permits for foreigners to be employed in Turkey.

In addition to all said above, it is also important for enterprises to know that in order to employ foreign citizens, they must apply to the Ministry of Labour and Social Security with the following documents:

Documents Requested From the Foreign Personnel:

  • Petition;
  • Application form (four (4) sets);
  • Passport copy (Notarized and translated into Turkish);
  • Diploma copy (Notarized and translated into Turkish) (It shall be noted that this is a University degree requirement and in addition a Turkish High Education Board Equivalence decision may be required for the employee. In some circumstances for such application of a decision even the High School degree may be requested by officials);
  • In case the application is made in Turkey, valid residence permit;
  • Curriculum Vitae;
  • For the foreigners married to a Turkish citizen, copy of identification registry; and
  • For the foreigners married to a Turkish citizen, notarized copy of marriage certificate.

Documents Requested From the Company Employing the Foreign Personnel:

  • Petition;
  • Balance sheet and profit/loss table approved by the tax office for the last year;
  • Trade Registry Gazette proving the share structure of the Company;
  • For the institutions that acquired the right to conduct the projects of international tenders opened by governmental institutions and organizations, the documents indicating the fact that they have undertaken the work from the relevant institutions and organizations; and
  • For the legal persons that will employ foreign expert personnel within the framework of engineering, architecture, constructor and consultancy services, the copies of the payroll proving the fact that Turkish engineer/architect/city planner is also employed and service contract of the foreign personnel.

It is normally not possible to obtain a work permit for the expatriate's family members unless each, separately, is able to qualify a work permit based on his or her own skills and qualifications. However, according to the new law, periodical work permit may be granted also to the expatriate's spouse, who he/she has brought along with him/her or later and his/her children, who are in need of his/her support.

Once the Work Permit is granted, a Working Visa should be obtained from the Turkish Consulate in the expatriate's own country before applying for a Residence Permit.

Work Permits for Foreign Key Personnel:

According to the Direct Foreign Investments Law No. 4875, dated June 17, 2003 foreigners that hold key personnel status and are employed in foreign direct investments with exceptional features (investments above tresholds to be mentioned below) have a right to file their applications for work permits at the representations (consulates) of the Turkish Republic in the countries they are citizens of or in the countries they reside.

These applications will be transfered by the representations to the Ministry of Labour. Communication between the two on the issue of work permit will be held by e-email and the procedure is swifter compared with a regular application. In addition, the employer of the foreigner will need to submit the required documents to the Ministry along with the application form within three (3) days since the date of the application.

Moreover, after receiving work permit, key personnel have to apply to the representations of the Turkish Republic abroad for work visa within ninety (90) days since the date of their receipt of the work permit and apply to the Ministry of the Interior for a residence permit within thirty (30) days following their entry to Turkey (will be discussed below).

If key personnel previously received a residence permit-with the exception of residence permits given for education in Turkey-with minimum six (6) months period, for any reason, and have been granted a work permit within this permit, he/she is not required to obtain a work visa from the representations of the Turkish Republic abroad.

The documents listed below need to be handed in along with the work pemrit applications of key personnel in order to be employed in foreign direct investments with exceptional features:

  • Documents certifying that the total shares owned by foreign shareholders is valued at least TRL 636.666 (documents such as company endorsed book records, company endorsed balance sheet, Xerox copy of Trade Registry Gazette);
  • Documents certifying that the exports realized by the company or the branch office during the previous year has been at least USD 1.000.000 (documents such as bank receipt certifying the export amount, bank letter, Xerox copy of foreign currency buying note, company endorsed income statement);
  • Documents certifying that the turnover of the company or the branch office for the previous year has been minimum TRL 47.749.979 (documents such as company endorsed income statement);
  • Documents certifying that the company or the branch office employed at least 250 personnel registered to the Social Security Authority (SSK) during the previous year, documents certifying the case such as SSK lists;
  • In case the company or the branch office is yet to make investments, documents certifying that the projected fixed investment amount is at least TRL 15.916.659 such as Investment Incentive Certificate, Tourism Incentive Certificate; and
  • Certificate of Activity or Activity Report or letter from the officially authorized organizations of the related country certifying that the company has at least one foreign direct investment besides the country its head office is located at, and letter of assignment certifying that the subject key personnel have been assigned by the main company headquartered abroad.

Extension of Work Permits:

Extension of a work permit has to be made fifteen (15) days before its date of expiry at the latest. Extension applications made after such deadline will be considered as initial applications by the Ministry rather than renewal applications. These applications may as well be made earlier, provided that they are filed within the two-months (2) before the expiry date of the work permit. In case a work permit is extended, the date of initiation of the extended work permit is the date of expiry of the expired work permit which makes more practical to apply in the last fifteen (15) days.

Residence Permits:

According to Turkish Regulations, the application for a residence permit should be made personally by the foreigner (in practice application may be made by an agent however the individual must at least be present once for facial confirmation) to the Police Department Foreigners Bureau.

With regards to family members of the expatriate, residence permits for all of them for the period of the expatriate's employment shall also be obtained. However, in case of a delay of the work visa process/procedure, the expatriate may be granted a temporary residence permit for three (3) to twelve (12) months for touristic purposes. The applicant should take into consideration that the residence permit is normally issued within one week.

The required documents for residence permit application made to the related Police Department are the following:

  • Two (2) declaration forms;
  • Two (2) work statement forms;
  • Seven (7) photos of foreign personnel;
  • Petition prepared by the Company that will employ the expatriate;
  • Work permit obtained from the Ministry of Labor and Social Security; and
  • Passport of foreign personnel.

In addition the applicant will need to exchange USD 1.000.- per month for short term (less than six (6) months) application and USD 300.- per month (more than six (6) months) for long term applications into Turkish Lira and submit the receipt along with the applicaiton. This amount of exchange is to prove that the applicant could support the expenses of his/her stay in Turkey and could be reexchanged or used directly without any regard to the application and the sole requirement is to produce such excahnge receipt.

Finally, another important aspect to take into account is that in case of the expiry of residence permit, the foreigner has to make an inquiry to the authorities within fifteen (15) days in order to extend the expired residence permit.

Issues Regarding Access and Immigration:

According to the Turkish Passport Law No. 5682, dated July 24, 1950 foreigners who wish to enter the country, needs to obtain a visa from the Turkish authorities (please note that there are exceptions for visa requirements for entry and stay for citizens of some countries announced by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs). One should bear in mind that there are three (3) types of entry visas for Turkey:

  1. Single Entry Visa: this kind of visa is valid for one year from the date of issue and grants the right of one entry;
  2. Return Visa: while leaving Turkey, an expatriate may obtain a return visa before he/she departs (such visa is valid for one year from the departure date); and
  3. Multiple Entry Visa: this type of visa provides an entry right for a period of three (3), six (6), or twelve (12) months.

Information for Non-European Nationals Seeking Asylum in Turkey:

Under Article 6 of the Turkish Citizenship Law No. 403, dated February 11, 1964 there is a list of requirements to be met in order to acquire Turkish citizenship:

  • To be at the age required by the laws of the national laws;
  • To have resided in Turkey for at least five (5) years before the application date;
  • Having confirmed with behavior the intent to settle in Turkey;
  • Having good morality; not having an illness presenting a threat to public health;
  • Speaking sufficient Turkish; and
  • Having sufficient income to support himself/herself and those who are dependent on him/her.

In addition to Article 6, Article 7 of the Citizenship Law titled 'Exceptional Granting of Citizenship', refers to those who are of Turkish origin, their children and spouses who are among those who will be granted citizenship exceptionally. As a result, immigrants will no longer be referred to as foreigners living in Turkey if they are granted citizenship.

As for the Refugee and Asylum Seekers status in Turkey, it needs to be mentioned that Turkey is a party to the 1951 Convention on the Status of Refugees (Geneva Convention) and its 1967 Additional Protocol. Turkey used an opportunity given under Article 1 (B) (a) of the Convention which gives a Geographical Limitation.

According to this provision, it is up to the contracting parties to decide whether to apply the Convention to people escaping from their own countries as a result of events taking place in Europe before January 1, 1951. Moreover, at the time of signing the Convention, Turkey has made use of the geographical limitation as well as the time limitation. Nonetheless, the time limitation was put aside when Turkey was signing the 1967 Protocol relating to the Status of Refugees. Accordingly the provisions of the Convention only apply to those refugees and asylum seekers who enter Turkey from the "European countries" (including Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Moldova, Belorussia, Ukraine, Russian Federation, Georgia, Armenia and Azerbaijan and other continental European countries).

As a result of the remaining limitation, according to the Turkish legislation a refugees is defined as 'an alien who is outside his/he country and cannot or is reluctant to enjoy the protection provided by his/her country of origin; or in case of stateless persons who is reluctant to go back to the country he/she previously resided, due to a well founded fear of prosecution based on his/her race, religion, nationality, membership to a particular group or political opinion as a result of events taking place in Europe'.

Foreigners who are willing to apply for refugee status must approach the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (hereinafter, referred to as UNHCR) Offices in Turkey in order to submit their application forms. One should bear in mind that in order to do so foreigners must follow two (2) separate procedures. The first procedure is known as 'The Temporary Asylum Procedure of the Government of Turkey' and the second one is 'The Refugee Status Determination Procedure of UNHCR'. It is up to the Turkish Government to decide whether or not to qualify foreigners with a temporary asylum under the 1994 Asylum Regulation and 1951 Geneva Convention. While refugees wait for UNHCR to evaluate their claims, they are usually required to live in one of thirty (30) 'satellite cities' throughout Turkey.

UNHCR reviews applications for refugee status according to the 1950 Statute of the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees and other United Nations General Assembly resolutions. It needs to be mentioned that UNHCR refugee status determination can take from eight (8) months to over a year. In order to remain in Turkey legally, all asylum seekers are under an obligation to register themselves and their family members with the highest administrative officer within five (5) days of entry to Turkish territory. Similarly, those who enter the country illegally are forced to apply for asylum at the point of entry. On the other hand, they are at the risk of missing the deadline, as they are obliged to travel long distances. In addition to this, asylum seekers will get additional/extra fifteen (15) days in order to present valid documents to the authorities. However, it needs to be taken into account that asylum seekers do not usually have any valid documents while crossing the borders.

Therefore, according to Article 8 (3) of the Law on Settlement No. 2510, dated June 14, 1934 [revised at 2006], all immigrants will have to sign a 'citizenship declaration' and to get an 'immigrant paper' which is usually regarded as a birth certificate and is valid for two years. It should be kept in mind that those who are accepted as immigrants would instantly be given citizenship by the Council of Ministers. However, those who have not reached maturity age will be connected to their parents or their relatives. On the other hand, minors who are not accompanied while arriving will be given citizenship regardless of their age.

Apart from all mentioned above, asylum seekers need to submit applications to the Ministry of Interior (hereinafter, referred to as MOI) as well as UNCHR. It needs to be mentioned that Turkey gives only temporary asylum to non-European refugees. The reason behind this is that refugee status is usually kept for Europeans. However, those who are granted refugee status are usually resettled to third countries.

Next important factor is that under the Asylum Regulation of 1994 asylum seekers, who are not granted a refugee status, may then get residence permits on humanitarian grounds. On the other hand, if the application gets a rejection, then the asylum seeker has a right to protest the decision. Even if the decision remains the same, the applicant can still file a suit before the courts. This may lead to suspension of deportation procedures as appeals and case re-openings could take years. It needs to be kept in mind that deportation is not a judicial but an administrative procedure according to Turkish law. As a result, applicants with lawyers can still appeal to the European Court of Human Rights (hereinafter, referred to as ECHR). It therefore can order the Government to stop from deporting the applicant.

Another important issue to discuss is that UNCHR might recognize some persons who have escaped violence under 'extended mandate', such as Somalis. Moreover, it could also be individuals from Cote d'Ivoire and Sudan. This could be referred to as secondary protection, which in practice is not recognized by Turkish law; therefore it does not provide any protection from arrest or deportation.

Already discussed above, third country nationals of Turkish origin will need to sign a 'citizenship declaration' in order to apply for an immigrant status. Moreover, they will also need to get an 'immigrant paper', regarded as a birth certificate. As a result, those accepted as immigrants, will be immediately granted citizenship. In addition, one should keep in mind that if a third country national of Turkish origin decides to maintain his/her nationality and chooses not to apply for an immigrant status, he/she will still get a special treatment as Foreigners of Turkish descent have a privileged status with regards to right to work, meaning that they can work at any public or private institution with an exception of the Turkish Armed Forces and Security Forces.

On the other hand, this does not mean that applications would be rejected just because the applicant comes from outside Europe. In addition, asylum seekers need to take into account the fact that when they come to Turkey form outside Europe, the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) is informed about the application. These asylum seekers are interviewed and registered by the UNHCR. Therefore, if they are listed as refugees, then they will only enjoy temporary residence in Turkey until the UNCHR office in Turkey place positions them in a third country.

As can be analyzed, Turkey is not very sympathetic to asylum seekers, especially those coming from Iran or Iraq. This will be discussed in more detail in the following section.

Iranian and Iraqi Refugees:

Turkey does not grant refugee status to Iranian or Iraqi asylum-seekers due its geographical limitation (1951 Geneva Convention on the Status of Refugees). As a result, they are usually sent to third countries. However, these refugees are subject to some of the asylum and protection procedures provided by the UNCHR along with the Turkish authorities during the period of their stay in Turkey. It needs to be mentioned that they have to accomplish definite criteria for refugees in order for them to be settled in third countries. In addition, asylum seekers have to through several interviews, and those who fail to meet the basic refugee criteria, which includes language, nationality, his/her race or not being protected by the country of citizenship, are usually rejected. However, as it was already discussed above, asylum seekers have a right to appeal, but if the appeal process does not lead to any changes, then asylum seekers are under the risk of being sent back to their host countries.

The content of this article is intended to provide a general guide to the subject matter. Specialist advice should be sought about your specific circumstances.

To print this article, all you need is to be registered on Mondaq.com.

Click to Login as an existing user or Register so you can print this article.

Some comments from our readers…
“The articles are extremely timely and highly applicable”
“I often find critical information not available elsewhere”
“As in-house counsel, Mondaq’s service is of great value”

Up-coming Events Search
Font Size:
Mondaq on Twitter
Register for Access and our Free Biweekly Alert for
This service is completely free. Access 250,000 archived articles from 100+ countries and get a personalised email twice a week covering developments (and yes, our lawyers like to think you’ve read our Disclaimer).
Email Address
Company Name
Confirm Password
Mondaq Topics -- Select your Interests
 Law Performance
 Law Practice
 Media & IT
 Real Estate
 Wealth Mgt
Asia Pacific
European Union
Latin America
Middle East
United States
Worldwide Updates
Mondaq Ltd requires you to register and provide information that personally identifies you, including what sort of information you are interested in, for three primary purposes:
  • To allow you to personalize the Mondaq websites you are visiting.
  • To enable features such as password reminder, newsletter alerts, email a colleague, and linking from Mondaq (and its affiliate sites) to your website.
  • To produce demographic feedback for our information providers who provide information free for your use.
  • Mondaq (and its affiliate sites) do not sell or provide your details to third parties other than information providers. The reason we provide our information providers with this information is so that they can measure the response their articles are receiving and provide you with information about their products and services.
    If you do not want us to provide your name and email address you may opt out by clicking here
    If you do not wish to receive any future announcements of products and services offered by Mondaq you may opt out by clicking here

    Terms & Conditions and Privacy Statement

    Mondaq.com (the Website) is owned and managed by Mondaq Ltd and as a user you are granted a non-exclusive, revocable license to access the Website under its terms and conditions of use. Your use of the Website constitutes your agreement to the following terms and conditions of use. Mondaq Ltd may terminate your use of the Website if you are in breach of these terms and conditions or if Mondaq Ltd decides to terminate your license of use for whatever reason.

    Use of www.mondaq.com

    You may use the Website but are required to register as a user if you wish to read the full text of the content and articles available (the Content). You may not modify, publish, transmit, transfer or sell, reproduce, create derivative works from, distribute, perform, link, display, or in any way exploit any of the Content, in whole or in part, except as expressly permitted in these terms & conditions or with the prior written consent of Mondaq Ltd. You may not use electronic or other means to extract details or information about Mondaq.com’s content, users or contributors in order to offer them any services or products which compete directly or indirectly with Mondaq Ltd’s services and products.


    Mondaq Ltd and/or its respective suppliers make no representations about the suitability of the information contained in the documents and related graphics published on this server for any purpose. All such documents and related graphics are provided "as is" without warranty of any kind. Mondaq Ltd and/or its respective suppliers hereby disclaim all warranties and conditions with regard to this information, including all implied warranties and conditions of merchantability, fitness for a particular purpose, title and non-infringement. In no event shall Mondaq Ltd and/or its respective suppliers be liable for any special, indirect or consequential damages or any damages whatsoever resulting from loss of use, data or profits, whether in an action of contract, negligence or other tortious action, arising out of or in connection with the use or performance of information available from this server.

    The documents and related graphics published on this server could include technical inaccuracies or typographical errors. Changes are periodically added to the information herein. Mondaq Ltd and/or its respective suppliers may make improvements and/or changes in the product(s) and/or the program(s) described herein at any time.


    Mondaq Ltd requires you to register and provide information that personally identifies you, including what sort of information you are interested in, for three primary purposes:

    • To allow you to personalize the Mondaq websites you are visiting.
    • To enable features such as password reminder, newsletter alerts, email a colleague, and linking from Mondaq (and its affiliate sites) to your website.
    • To produce demographic feedback for our information providers who provide information free for your use.

    Mondaq (and its affiliate sites) do not sell or provide your details to third parties other than information providers. The reason we provide our information providers with this information is so that they can measure the response their articles are receiving and provide you with information about their products and services.

    Information Collection and Use

    We require site users to register with Mondaq (and its affiliate sites) to view the free information on the site. We also collect information from our users at several different points on the websites: this is so that we can customise the sites according to individual usage, provide 'session-aware' functionality, and ensure that content is acquired and developed appropriately. This gives us an overall picture of our user profiles, which in turn shows to our Editorial Contributors the type of person they are reaching by posting articles on Mondaq (and its affiliate sites) – meaning more free content for registered users.

    We are only able to provide the material on the Mondaq (and its affiliate sites) site free to site visitors because we can pass on information about the pages that users are viewing and the personal information users provide to us (e.g. email addresses) to reputable contributing firms such as law firms who author those pages. We do not sell or rent information to anyone else other than the authors of those pages, who may change from time to time. Should you wish us not to disclose your details to any of these parties, please tick the box above or tick the box marked "Opt out of Registration Information Disclosure" on the Your Profile page. We and our author organisations may only contact you via email or other means if you allow us to do so. Users can opt out of contact when they register on the site, or send an email to unsubscribe@mondaq.com with “no disclosure” in the subject heading

    Mondaq News Alerts

    In order to receive Mondaq News Alerts, users have to complete a separate registration form. This is a personalised service where users choose regions and topics of interest and we send it only to those users who have requested it. Users can stop receiving these Alerts by going to the Mondaq News Alerts page and deselecting all interest areas. In the same way users can amend their personal preferences to add or remove subject areas.


    A cookie is a small text file written to a user’s hard drive that contains an identifying user number. The cookies do not contain any personal information about users. We use the cookie so users do not have to log in every time they use the service and the cookie will automatically expire if you do not visit the Mondaq website (or its affiliate sites) for 12 months. We also use the cookie to personalise a user's experience of the site (for example to show information specific to a user's region). As the Mondaq sites are fully personalised and cookies are essential to its core technology the site will function unpredictably with browsers that do not support cookies - or where cookies are disabled (in these circumstances we advise you to attempt to locate the information you require elsewhere on the web). However if you are concerned about the presence of a Mondaq cookie on your machine you can also choose to expire the cookie immediately (remove it) by selecting the 'Log Off' menu option as the last thing you do when you use the site.

    Some of our business partners may use cookies on our site (for example, advertisers). However, we have no access to or control over these cookies and we are not aware of any at present that do so.

    Log Files

    We use IP addresses to analyse trends, administer the site, track movement, and gather broad demographic information for aggregate use. IP addresses are not linked to personally identifiable information.


    This web site contains links to other sites. Please be aware that Mondaq (or its affiliate sites) are not responsible for the privacy practices of such other sites. We encourage our users to be aware when they leave our site and to read the privacy statements of these third party sites. This privacy statement applies solely to information collected by this Web site.

    Surveys & Contests

    From time-to-time our site requests information from users via surveys or contests. Participation in these surveys or contests is completely voluntary and the user therefore has a choice whether or not to disclose any information requested. Information requested may include contact information (such as name and delivery address), and demographic information (such as postcode, age level). Contact information will be used to notify the winners and award prizes. Survey information will be used for purposes of monitoring or improving the functionality of the site.


    If a user elects to use our referral service for informing a friend about our site, we ask them for the friend’s name and email address. Mondaq stores this information and may contact the friend to invite them to register with Mondaq, but they will not be contacted more than once. The friend may contact Mondaq to request the removal of this information from our database.


    From time to time Mondaq may send you emails promoting Mondaq services including new services. You may opt out of receiving such emails by clicking below.

    *** If you do not wish to receive any future announcements of services offered by Mondaq you may opt out by clicking here .


    This website takes every reasonable precaution to protect our users’ information. When users submit sensitive information via the website, your information is protected using firewalls and other security technology. If you have any questions about the security at our website, you can send an email to webmaster@mondaq.com.

    Correcting/Updating Personal Information

    If a user’s personally identifiable information changes (such as postcode), or if a user no longer desires our service, we will endeavour to provide a way to correct, update or remove that user’s personal data provided to us. This can usually be done at the “Your Profile” page or by sending an email to EditorialAdvisor@mondaq.com.

    Notification of Changes

    If we decide to change our Terms & Conditions or Privacy Policy, we will post those changes on our site so our users are always aware of what information we collect, how we use it, and under what circumstances, if any, we disclose it. If at any point we decide to use personally identifiable information in a manner different from that stated at the time it was collected, we will notify users by way of an email. Users will have a choice as to whether or not we use their information in this different manner. We will use information in accordance with the privacy policy under which the information was collected.

    How to contact Mondaq

    You can contact us with comments or queries at enquiries@mondaq.com.

    If for some reason you believe Mondaq Ltd. has not adhered to these principles, please notify us by e-mail at problems@mondaq.com and we will use commercially reasonable efforts to determine and correct the problem promptly.

    By clicking Register you state you have read and agree to our Terms and Conditions