South Africa: Pics On Twitter

Last Updated: 25 February 2013
Article by Alicia Castleman

Most Read Contributor in South Africa, September 2016

There was an interesting decision in the US recently about the intellectual property (IP) implications of posting a photo on Twitter.   The facts were that a professional photographer by the name of Daniel Morel – a man who has apparently spent over 25 years in Haiti – posted dramatic photos of the earthquake that struck Haiti in January 2010 shortly after the event. Morel posted his photos on Twitter's Twitpic service, saying that he had 'exclusive earthquake photos'. Although no copyright notice appeared on the photos, the name Morel did appear on the Twitpic page.

Because the earthquake was major news, a number of media companies contacted Morel and asked him for permission to use the pictures.  Agence France-Presse (AFP) - a news agency that offers an international photo service - however simply downloaded 13 of Morel's  photos  on to its 'Image Forum', and then transmitted them to the company Getty Images,  which in turn licensed them to  various newspapers including The Washington Post.  In the circumstances, the court had to decide whether AGP's conduct constituted copyright infringement.

A photograph is protected by the law of copyright and in terms of the South African Copyright Act photos form part of a larger category, namely "artistic works". The owner of the copyright in a photo is generally the photographer, and the owner has the exclusive right to do various things, for example, to reproduce the photo or to publish the photo. There are certain exceptions to the owner's rights as discussed below.

During the court proceedings, AFP did not contest Morel's copyright claims in the photos. The company's argument, however, was that it was entitled to use the photos because they were freely available on Twitter.  As a result, Twitter's Terms of Service became very relevant. These terms included the following:

"By grant us a worldwide, non-exclusive, royalty-free licence... to use, copy... such content", followed by, "Tip: This licence is you authorizing us to make your Tweets available to the rest of the world. But what's yours is yours – you own the content";

"We encourage and permit broad re-usage of content" "Twitter will have the right to make the content available to companies 'who partner with Twitter', as well as a licence to use photos on ' or affiliated sites".

In his judgement the judge said that AFP was neither a partner nor an affiliate of Twitter's.  He said further that, simply because Twitter encourages sharing, it does not follow that the person posting the content has waived all their rights.  He said that Twitter's Terms of Service make it quite clear that the person who posts the photos owns the photos.  He said that, whilst the Terms of Service make it clear that the user who posts photos does allow the re-posting or re-broadcasting of images in certain circumstances, such as re-tweeting, the user does not grant a licence to others for commercial use.  The judge also said that it was self-evident that the unauthorised commercial use of the photos would impair the photographer's ability to license the photos, and dilute the value of their IP.

In the circumstances, APF's defence of having a licence to use the photos failed. The company's defence that it was a so-called 'third party beneficiary' of an agreement between Twitter and Morel also failed because clearly Morel had never understood that Twitter was granting rights to other parties. Therefore, the judge found that Morel's claim of copyright infringement had to succeed.  As for the issue of damages, this was left over for determination by a jury, although it is anticipated that the damages could be in the order of US$1.2 million.

There has been considerable commentary on this case, because it is thought to be the first decision that deals with this issue.  Until now most of the focus has been on the question of whether the people who post material like photos on social media sites may be infringing copyright, rather than whether the people using that material are liable.

It has been pointed out that Twitter could very simply change its Terms of Service to make it quite clear that the person posting content agrees to its use for commercial purposes.  However, there has also been mention of the fact that, when Facebook's photo sharing site, Instagram, made certain changes to its Terms of Service - which were interpreted to mean that Instagram could sell pictures that had been posted on the service, even without the user's permission – there was such an outcry that Facebook quickly backed down.

As mentioned, there are certain exceptions relating to the rights of the owner of the copyright in a photo. The South African Copyright Act states that the 'fair dealing' defence which enable newspapers and other media to make unauthorised use of written works without permission,  provided that they are  used for reporting current events and provided that the source is credited, does also apply to artistic works to the extent that it can. It seems that a 'reporting current events' defence can be applied to photographs. Therefore, the question arises: Would such a defence apply if a case like Morel came up in South Africa? It's hard to say, but I suspect not for one very simple reason – it seems to me that it would not be regarded as 'fair dealing' for a media company to take a photo without paying for it, when it is clearly the industry norm to pay for photos.

The content of this article is intended to provide a general guide to the subject matter. Specialist advice should be sought about your specific circumstances.

To print this article, all you need is to be registered on

Click to Login as an existing user or Register so you can print this article.

Some comments from our readers…
“The articles are extremely timely and highly applicable”
“I often find critical information not available elsewhere”
“As in-house counsel, Mondaq’s service is of great value”

Mondaq Advice Centre (MACs)
Related Video
Up-coming Events Search
Font Size:
Mondaq on Twitter
Register for Access and our Free Biweekly Alert for
This service is completely free. Access 250,000 archived articles from 100+ countries and get a personalised email twice a week covering developments (and yes, our lawyers like to think you’ve read our Disclaimer).
Email Address
Company Name
Confirm Password
Mondaq Topics -- Select your Interests
 Law Performance
 Law Practice
 Media & IT
 Real Estate
 Wealth Mgt
Asia Pacific
European Union
Latin America
Middle East
United States
Worldwide Updates
Check to state you have read and
agree to our Terms and Conditions

Terms & Conditions and Privacy Statement (the Website) is owned and managed by Mondaq Ltd and as a user you are granted a non-exclusive, revocable license to access the Website under its terms and conditions of use. Your use of the Website constitutes your agreement to the following terms and conditions of use. Mondaq Ltd may terminate your use of the Website if you are in breach of these terms and conditions or if Mondaq Ltd decides to terminate your license of use for whatever reason.

Use of

You may use the Website but are required to register as a user if you wish to read the full text of the content and articles available (the Content). You may not modify, publish, transmit, transfer or sell, reproduce, create derivative works from, distribute, perform, link, display, or in any way exploit any of the Content, in whole or in part, except as expressly permitted in these terms & conditions or with the prior written consent of Mondaq Ltd. You may not use electronic or other means to extract details or information about’s content, users or contributors in order to offer them any services or products which compete directly or indirectly with Mondaq Ltd’s services and products.


Mondaq Ltd and/or its respective suppliers make no representations about the suitability of the information contained in the documents and related graphics published on this server for any purpose. All such documents and related graphics are provided "as is" without warranty of any kind. Mondaq Ltd and/or its respective suppliers hereby disclaim all warranties and conditions with regard to this information, including all implied warranties and conditions of merchantability, fitness for a particular purpose, title and non-infringement. In no event shall Mondaq Ltd and/or its respective suppliers be liable for any special, indirect or consequential damages or any damages whatsoever resulting from loss of use, data or profits, whether in an action of contract, negligence or other tortious action, arising out of or in connection with the use or performance of information available from this server.

The documents and related graphics published on this server could include technical inaccuracies or typographical errors. Changes are periodically added to the information herein. Mondaq Ltd and/or its respective suppliers may make improvements and/or changes in the product(s) and/or the program(s) described herein at any time.


Mondaq Ltd requires you to register and provide information that personally identifies you, including what sort of information you are interested in, for three primary purposes:

  • To allow you to personalize the Mondaq websites you are visiting.
  • To enable features such as password reminder, newsletter alerts, email a colleague, and linking from Mondaq (and its affiliate sites) to your website.
  • To produce demographic feedback for our information providers who provide information free for your use.

Mondaq (and its affiliate sites) do not sell or provide your details to third parties other than information providers. The reason we provide our information providers with this information is so that they can measure the response their articles are receiving and provide you with information about their products and services.

If you do not want us to provide your name and email address you may opt out by clicking here .

If you do not wish to receive any future announcements of products and services offered by Mondaq by clicking here .

Information Collection and Use

We require site users to register with Mondaq (and its affiliate sites) to view the free information on the site. We also collect information from our users at several different points on the websites: this is so that we can customise the sites according to individual usage, provide 'session-aware' functionality, and ensure that content is acquired and developed appropriately. This gives us an overall picture of our user profiles, which in turn shows to our Editorial Contributors the type of person they are reaching by posting articles on Mondaq (and its affiliate sites) – meaning more free content for registered users.

We are only able to provide the material on the Mondaq (and its affiliate sites) site free to site visitors because we can pass on information about the pages that users are viewing and the personal information users provide to us (e.g. email addresses) to reputable contributing firms such as law firms who author those pages. We do not sell or rent information to anyone else other than the authors of those pages, who may change from time to time. Should you wish us not to disclose your details to any of these parties, please tick the box above or tick the box marked "Opt out of Registration Information Disclosure" on the Your Profile page. We and our author organisations may only contact you via email or other means if you allow us to do so. Users can opt out of contact when they register on the site, or send an email to with “no disclosure” in the subject heading

Mondaq News Alerts

In order to receive Mondaq News Alerts, users have to complete a separate registration form. This is a personalised service where users choose regions and topics of interest and we send it only to those users who have requested it. Users can stop receiving these Alerts by going to the Mondaq News Alerts page and deselecting all interest areas. In the same way users can amend their personal preferences to add or remove subject areas.


A cookie is a small text file written to a user’s hard drive that contains an identifying user number. The cookies do not contain any personal information about users. We use the cookie so users do not have to log in every time they use the service and the cookie will automatically expire if you do not visit the Mondaq website (or its affiliate sites) for 12 months. We also use the cookie to personalise a user's experience of the site (for example to show information specific to a user's region). As the Mondaq sites are fully personalised and cookies are essential to its core technology the site will function unpredictably with browsers that do not support cookies - or where cookies are disabled (in these circumstances we advise you to attempt to locate the information you require elsewhere on the web). However if you are concerned about the presence of a Mondaq cookie on your machine you can also choose to expire the cookie immediately (remove it) by selecting the 'Log Off' menu option as the last thing you do when you use the site.

Some of our business partners may use cookies on our site (for example, advertisers). However, we have no access to or control over these cookies and we are not aware of any at present that do so.

Log Files

We use IP addresses to analyse trends, administer the site, track movement, and gather broad demographic information for aggregate use. IP addresses are not linked to personally identifiable information.


This web site contains links to other sites. Please be aware that Mondaq (or its affiliate sites) are not responsible for the privacy practices of such other sites. We encourage our users to be aware when they leave our site and to read the privacy statements of these third party sites. This privacy statement applies solely to information collected by this Web site.

Surveys & Contests

From time-to-time our site requests information from users via surveys or contests. Participation in these surveys or contests is completely voluntary and the user therefore has a choice whether or not to disclose any information requested. Information requested may include contact information (such as name and delivery address), and demographic information (such as postcode, age level). Contact information will be used to notify the winners and award prizes. Survey information will be used for purposes of monitoring or improving the functionality of the site.


If a user elects to use our referral service for informing a friend about our site, we ask them for the friend’s name and email address. Mondaq stores this information and may contact the friend to invite them to register with Mondaq, but they will not be contacted more than once. The friend may contact Mondaq to request the removal of this information from our database.


This website takes every reasonable precaution to protect our users’ information. When users submit sensitive information via the website, your information is protected using firewalls and other security technology. If you have any questions about the security at our website, you can send an email to

Correcting/Updating Personal Information

If a user’s personally identifiable information changes (such as postcode), or if a user no longer desires our service, we will endeavour to provide a way to correct, update or remove that user’s personal data provided to us. This can usually be done at the “Your Profile” page or by sending an email to

Notification of Changes

If we decide to change our Terms & Conditions or Privacy Policy, we will post those changes on our site so our users are always aware of what information we collect, how we use it, and under what circumstances, if any, we disclose it. If at any point we decide to use personally identifiable information in a manner different from that stated at the time it was collected, we will notify users by way of an email. Users will have a choice as to whether or not we use their information in this different manner. We will use information in accordance with the privacy policy under which the information was collected.

How to contact Mondaq

You can contact us with comments or queries at

If for some reason you believe Mondaq Ltd. has not adhered to these principles, please notify us by e-mail at and we will use commercially reasonable efforts to determine and correct the problem promptly.