Russian Federation: Schaden für einen Arbeitgeber, der durch einen Arbeitnehmer verursacht wurde: Entscheidung des Obersten Gerichtshofes Russlands

Last Updated: 13 March 2019
Article by Anna Fufurina, Olga Mokhonko and Alexander Titov

Im Dezember 2018 fasste der Oberste Gerichthof der Russischen Föderation die Rechtsprechung zur Haftung des Arbeitnehmers für dem Arbeitgeber zugefügte Schäden zusammen.

Der Oberste Gerichtshof erklärte, dass zur Sicherstellung einer einheitlichen Rechtsprechung folgende rechtliche Aspekte bei der Behandlung von Fällen über Schadenersatz zu berücksichtigen sind:

Beweislast

Eine der wesentlichen vertraglichen Pflichten des Arbeitnehmers ist es, das Eigentum seines Arbeitgebers sorgfältig zu behandeln; dazu gehört auch das Eigentum Dritter, das sich im Besitz des Arbeitgebers befindet, wenn der Arbeitgeber für die Verwahrung dieses Eigentums verantwortlich ist. Bevor der Arbeitgeber eine Entscheidung über den von einem bestimmten Arbeitnehmer zu leistenden Schadensersatz fällt, ist der Arbeitgeber verpflichtet, eine Untersuchung durchzuführen und die schriftlichen Erklärungen des Arbeitnehmers einzuholen (auch wenn das Arbeitsverhältnis des betreffenden Arbeitnehmers bereits beendet wurde).

Der Oberste Gerichtshof betont, dass der Arbeitgeber die Beweislast dafür trägt, dass das Verfahren bezüglich der Feststellung einer Haftung des Arbeitnehmers eingehalten wird.

Haftungsreduzierung

Der Oberste Gerichtshof hat auch darauf hingewiesen, dass die allgemeinen zivilrechtlichen Bestimmungen nicht auf Vereinbarungen über die freiwillige Leistung von Schadensersatz durch Arbeitnehmer anwendbar sind. Daher müssen derartige Vereinbarungen dem russischen Arbeitsrecht unterliegen. Dies hat beispielsweise zur Konsequenz, dass die Haftung des Arbeitnehmers stark begrenzt ist.

Der Oberste Gerichtshof wies darauf hin, dass der einem Arbeitgeber zustehende Schadenersatz von einem Gericht nicht nur auf Antrag des betreffenden Arbeitnehmers, sondern auch auf Veranlassung des Gerichts selbst verringert werden kann. Der Oberste Gerichtshof erinnert jedoch daran, dass es gesetzlich vorgesehene Fälle gibt, in denen der Schaden nicht reduziert werden kann, z.B. wenn der Schaden durch eine in eigennütziger Absicht begangene Straftat verursacht wurde.

Wahl des Gerichtsstandes

Unabhängig von der Höhe des Anspruchs auf Leistung von Schadensersatz durch den Arbeitnehmer für dem Arbeitgeber entstandene Schäden müssen sämtliche Streitigkeiten beim zuständigen Amtsgericht eingereicht und von diesem entschieden werden. Dies gilt auch für Ansprüche, die weniger als RUB 50.000 (ca. EUR 660) betragen und deshalb nach der allgemeinen Zivilprozessordnung von einem Amtsgericht entschieden werden.

Der Oberste Gerichtshof entschied zudem, dass Arbeitsverträge keine Bestimmung enthalten dürfen, die besagt, dass Streitigkeiten über die Geltendmachung von Schadensersatzansprüchen eines Arbeitnehmers am Sitz des Arbeitgebers entschieden werden. Ein Anspruch auf Leistung von Schadenersatz durch den Arbeitnehmer kann entweder am Wohnort des Arbeitnehmers oder am Ort der Ausführung des jeweiligen Arbeitsvertrags geltend gemacht werden.

Verjährungsfrist

Der Arbeitgeber hat den Schadensersatzanspruch innerhalb eines Jahres gerichtlich geltend zu machen. Diese Ein-Jahres-Frist beginnt ab dem Tag, an dem der Arbeitgeber den Schaden entdeckt. Die Aufnahme eines Ermittlungsverfahrens gegen eine nicht identifizierte Person und nicht gegen einen bestimmten Mitarbeiter im Zusammenhang mit dem Schaden gilt nicht als Grund für den erneuten Beginn der Verjährungsfrist.

The content of this article is intended to provide a general guide to the subject matter. Specialist advice should be sought about your specific circumstances.

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