Russian Federation: Neue Regelungen zu Prüfungen durch die russische Arbeitsbehörde

Last Updated: 24 November 2017
Article by Alexander Titov, Olga Mokhonko and Anna Fufurina

Prüfungsumfang

Der Umfang der planmäßigen arbeitsrechtlichen Prüfungen, die von der Russischen Staatlichen Arbeitsbehörde durchzuführen sind, wird auf die von der Behörde erarbeiteten Standard-Checklisten beschränkt. Die Checklisten wurden auf der Webseite der Behörde veröffentlicht und sind für die Vorbereitung und Selbstkontrolle geeignet.

Die Checklisten beinhalten 107 Dateien, die verschiedene Aspekte betreffen, vom Abschluss von Arbeitsverträgen bis hin zu Aspekten der Arbeitssicherheit. Einige Checklisten sind nur für bestimmte Wirtschaftszweige relevant.

Die Checklisten werden nach der jeweiligen Risikokategorie des Arbeitsgebers verwendet: ab dem 1. Januar 2018 für Unternehmen mit mäßigem Risiko und ab dem 1. Juli 2018 für sonstige Unternehmen.

Risikokategorien

Unternehmen werden in bestimmte Risikokategorien eingeordnet. Die Risikokategorien werden nach einer besonderen Formel berechnet, die verschiedene objektive Faktoren berücksichtigt (z.B. die Quote von Arbeitsunfällen, berufsbedingte Verletzungen, Personalbestand usw.), und werden im Ergebnis als eine Zahl zwischen 0,1 und 2,0 dargestellt. Insgesamt gibt es fünf Risikokategorien, von hoch bis niedrig.

Bei der Bestimmung des Risikos wird zudem die jeweilige Branche berücksichtigt, z.B. Bergbau – hohes Risiko, Transport – erhebliches Risiko, Agrarsektor und Bildungswesen – mäßiges Risiko.

Wer entscheidet über die Klassifizierung?

Die Entscheidung über die Einordnung eines einzelnen Unternehmens in eine bestimmte Risikokategorie wird von der Leitung der Arbeitsbehörde getroffen: bei Unternehmen mit hohem Risiko auf der föderalen Ebene und bei Unternehmen mit einem Risiko von erheblich bis mäßig auf lokaler Ebene durch die jeweilige Region der Russischen Föderation. Diese Information wird auf der Webseite der Behörde öffentlich zugänglich gemacht.

In Moskau sind zum Beispiel die folgenden Unternehmen der hohen Risikokategorie zugeordnet: RZD (russische Eisenbahngesellschaft), Gazprom, MGTS (örtliche Telefongesellschaft für Moskau), Nestlé Russland, Unilever Rus und OTIS Lift. Zu den Unternehmen mit erheblichem Risiko zählen MTS, VTB24 und Aeroflot.

Wenn Ihr Unternehmen keiner der genannten Kategorien zugeordnet wurde, so ist es als Unternehmen mit niedrigem Risiko anzusehen.

Häufigkeit der planmäßigen Prüfungen

Der Zeitplan der planmäßigen arbeitsrechtlichen Prüfungen bestimmt sich nach der jeweiligen Risikokategorie:

  • hohes Risiko: einmal alle zwei Jahre;
  • erhebliches Risiko: einmal alle drei Jahre;
  • durchschnittliches Risiko: einmal alle fünf Jahre;
  • mäßiges Risiko: einmal alle sechs Jahre;
  • niedriges Risiko: es sind keine planmäßigen Prüfungen vorgesehen.

Der Zeitplan der planmäßigen arbeitsrechtlichen Prüfungen wird auf der Webseite der Behörde zum 1. Juli jedes Kalenderjahres vor der Prüfung veröffentlicht.

 (Geänderte Verordnung: Beschluss der Russischen Regierung Nr. 875 vom 1. September 2012)

The content of this article is intended to provide a general guide to the subject matter. Specialist advice should be sought about your specific circumstances.

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