Russian Federation: Wichtige Gesetzesänderungen für Auslandsinvestitionen in Russland

Last Updated: 3 August 2017
Article by Stefan Wolfgang Weber, Artem Kara and Tatiana Dovgan
Most Read Contributor in Russian Federation, August 2017

Am 05. Juli 2017 hat die Staatsduma der Russischen Föderation ein Gesetz erlassen, mit dem das Bundesgesetz Nr. 160-FZ Über Auslandsinvestitionen in der Russischen Föderation" (das Auslandsinvestitionsgesetz") und das Bundesgesetz Nr. 57-FZ Über das Verfahren bei Auslandsinvestitionen in Unternehmen von strategischer Bedeutung für die nationale Verteidigung und die Sicherheit des Staates" (das Gesetz über strategische Investitionen") substanziell geändert werden.

Nach dem derzeit geltenden Auslandsinvestitionsgesetz unterliegt der Erwerb von mehr als 25% der Stimmrechtsanteile oder sonstiger Sperrrechte bezüglich eines russischen Unternehmens durch einen von einem ausländischen Staat(en) oder einer internationalen Organisation(en) kontrollierten ausländischen Investor der staatlichen Kontrolle und muss vor der Umsetzung der Transaktion ein staatliches Genehmigungsverfahren durchlaufen. Genehmigungsanträge müssen beim Föderalen Antimonopoldienst (FAS) gestellt werden, der diese Anträge bearbeitet und in bestimmten Fällen an die Regierungskommission zur Überwachung von Auslandsinvestitionen weiterleitet.

Aufgrund der jüngsten Änderungen des Auslandsinvestitionsgesetzes kann der Vorsitzende der Regierungskommission zur Überwachung von Auslandsinvestitionen (der Premierminister der Russischen Föderation) beschließen, dass eine Auslandsinvestition gemäß den Verfahren für Investitionen in strategische" Unternehmen nach dem Gesetz über strategische Investitionen genehmigt werden muss. Diese Option besteht nicht nur hinsichtlich der Investitionen von staatlich kontrollierten ausländischen Unternehmen, sondern auch von sonstigen ausländischen Unternehmen. Somit verfügt die Regierungskommission über ein weitreichendes Ermessen hinsichtlich der Frage, ob ihr eine bestimmte Transaktion, selbst wenn es sich um die Investition eines Privatunternehmens handelt, im Rahmen eines zeitraubenden und komplizierten Verfahren gemäß dem Gesetz über strategische Investitionen zur Prüfung vorgelegt werden muss, anstelle des einfacheren Verfahrens gemäß dem Auslandsinvestitionsgesetz.

Eine weitere wichtige Änderung betrifft die Rechtsfolgen eines Verstoßes gegen die Verpflichtung zur Einholung der Genehmigung des FAS für eine der vorstehend genannten Transaktionen: Transaktionen die unter Verstoß gegen das Auslandsinvestitionsgesetz geschlossen wurden, sind als null und nichtig zu betrachten. Vor den jüngsten Entwicklungen beschränkten sich die negativen Folgen auf eine Geldbuße in Höhe von RUB 1.000.000.

Durch die Änderungen wird auch der Anwendungsbereich des Gesetzes über strategische Investitionen erweitert, das jetzt auch für weitere Arten von Aktivitäten gilt, die von nun an als strategische" Aktivitäten anzusehen sind. So sind u.a. die Aktivitäten des Betreibers einer elektronischen Handelsplattform für das öffentliche Beschaffungswesen als strategische" Aktivitäten anzusehen. Sofern es unterlassen wird, eine Übernahme von mehr als 5% der Geschäftsanteile eines strategischen" Unternehmens anzuzeigen, kann das Gericht dem ausländischen Investor auf Antrag des FAS in Hauptversammlungen die Stimmrechte entziehen.

Schließlich müssen ausländische Investoren dem FAS innerhalb von 90 Tagen nach Inkrafttreten des Änderungsgesetzes Informationen über existierende Beteiligungen von mehr als 5% des Gesellschaftskapitals eines in der Republik Krim oder in Sewastopol registrierten strategischen" Unternehmens vorlegen. Wird diese Anforderung nicht erfüllt, kann FAS gerichtlich beantragen, dass der dieser Aufforderung nicht Folge leistende ausländische Investor seine Stimmrechte in Hauptversammlungen der betreffenden juristischen Person nicht ausüben darf.

The content of this article is intended to provide a general guide to the subject matter. Specialist advice should be sought about your specific circumstances.

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