Mexico: Nueva Ley Nacional de Extinción de Dominio

Last Updated: 2 September 2019
Article by Berenice Soto and Jesús Bueno

El pasado 9 de agosto de 2019, se publicó en el Diario Oficial de la Federación el decreto (el "Decreto") por el cual se expide la nueva Ley Nacional de Extinción de Dominio (la "Ley"). El Decreto también reforma y adiciona el Código Nacional de Procedimientos Penales, la Ley Federal para la Administración y Enajenación de Bienes del Sector Público, la Ley de Concursos Mercantiles y la Ley Orgánica de la Administración Pública Federal. La Ley y las disposiciones legales referidas, son de orden público e interés social, así como de aplicación en todo el territorio nacional.

Esta Ley abroga a la Ley Federal de Extinción de Dominio, así como a las leyes de extinción de dominio de los estados de la federación, y deroga todas las disposiciones legales, reglamentarias y administrativas que se opongan a dicha Ley.

La Ley es resultado de los compromisos internacionales asumidos por México, y acorde a la Convención de las Naciones Unidas Contra la Delincuencia Organizada Transnacional, la Convención de las Naciones Unidas Contra la Corrupción, la Convención de las Naciones Unidas contra el Tráfico Ilícito de Estupefacientes y Sustancias Sicotrópicas y demás instrumentos internacionales que regulan el decomiso vinculatorio para México.

La extinción de dominio es la pérdida de derechos que sufre una persona (física o moral) sobre un bien, obtenido de forma ilícita, a favor del gobierno federal o de alguna entidad federativa, declarada por sentencia judicial, sin contraprestación ni derecho a compensación para el propietario, ni para quien posea o detente el bien, cuya procedencia legítima no pudo ser acreditada.

La Ley establece los siguientes hechos o conductas como susceptibles de extinción de dominio:

  • Actividades consideradas como delincuencia organizada en términos del artículo 2º de la Ley Federal Contra la Delincuencia Organizada (incluyendo entre otros, el terrorismo, acopio y tráfico de armas, tráfico de personas, tráfico de órganos, y corrupción de menores de 18 años)
  • Secuestro
  • Delitos en materia de hidrocarburos petrolíferos y petroquímicos
  • Delitos contra la salud
  • Trata de personas
  • Delitos por hechos de corrupción
  • Encubrimiento
  • Delitos cometidos por servidores públicos (hechos de corrupción, ejercicio ilícito de servicio público, delitos cometidos contra la administración de justicia)
  • Robo de vehículos
  • Recursos de procedencia ilícita
  • Extorsión

La Ley prevé dos procesos para la acción de extinción de dominio, uno por la vía civil especial y el otro por la vía penal.

Los elementos de la acción de extinción de dominio son: (i) la existencia de un hecho o conducta ilícita, (ii) la existencia de algún bien de origen o destinación ilícita; (iii) el nexo causal de los dos elementos anteriores y (iv) el conocimiento que tenga o deba haber tenido el titular, del destino del bien al hecho o conducta ilícita, o de que sea producto del ilícito.

Es importante resaltar, que el conocimiento previamente mencionado no se tendrá por cumplido cuando se acredite que el titular estaba impedido para conocerlo.

Dependiendo de las circunstancias del caso, y siempre y cuando se acredite conforme a la Ley, ésta presume de buena fe la adquisición y destino de bienes que pudiesen estar sujetos a la extinción de dominio.

La Ley entró en vigor el pasado 10 de agosto, y las legislaturas de los estados deben armonizar su legislación en relación con la Ley, en un plazo que no exceda de 180 días contados a partir del 10 de agosto del 2019 y la Judicatura Federal tendrá un plazo que no podrá exceder del 10 de febrero del 2020 para crear los juzgados competentes en materia de extinción de dominio.

Originally published on the 29th August, 2019.

The content of this article is intended to provide a general guide to the subject matter. Specialist advice should be sought about your specific circumstances.

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