Mexico: Las consecuencias del acuerdo comercial entre EE.UU. y México

Last Updated: 10 October 2018
Article by TMF Group

Los Estados Unidos y México están más cerca de consolidar un nuevo acuerdo comercial que revisará y actualizará el Tratado de Libre Comercio de América del Norte.

Canadá es parte del acuerdo tripartito pero no ha estado involucrado en la redacción del mismo. Tanto México como EE.UU. consideran que se trata de un acuerdo completo y la presión está puesta en Canadá para que lo firme sin realizar cambios.

El significado del acuerdo para los negocios de EE.UU. y México

Este acuerdo tendrá un gran efecto en la industria automotriz y los empleos relacionados con el sector. El acuerdo resuelve uno de los problemas controversiales que recae en el Tratado de Libre Comercio de América del Norte (TLCAN) respecto de las reglas de origen para automóviles. El TLCAN requiere que un determinado porcentaje de autopartes corresponda a países dentro de la región TLCAN, a fin de evitar aranceles comerciales y aduaneros.

Bajo este nuevo acuerdo, el 75% del valor de un automóvil debe ser fabricado en Estados Unidos, superando el nivel actual del TLCAN correspondiente al 62.5%. Asimismo, se requerirá que entre el 40% y el 45% del armado del automóvil lo realicen los trabajadores que perciban un salario más alto, de al menos US$16 la hora. Ambos cambios, entre otros, generarían más empleos y salarios más altos para los trabajadores del sector automotriz en los EE.UU. No obstante, el resultado puede generar costos más elevados para productores y proveedores de automóviles y, en última instancia, más gastos para los consumidores al momento de comprar.

El nuevo acuerdo también establece la modernización de las leyes sobre el comercio digital, que es un área dentro de la cual Estados Unidos considera que sus innovadores productos y servicios tienen una ventaja competitiva significativa. Asimismo, el acuerdo propuesto:

  • prohíbe la imposición de impuestos aduaneros a productos digitales distribuidos de forma electrónica
  • asegura la transferencia de información más allá de las fronteras
  • minimiza los límites de almacenamiento y procesamiento de información a fin de mejorar y proteger el ecosistema digital
  • garantiza que la protección del consumidor se aplique al mercado digital
  • se enfoca en varios elementos que ayudarán a la industria a progresar en lugar de tener restricciones.

El nuevo acuerdo va a mantener los aranceles nulos sobre productos agrícolas e incluirá biotecnología avanzada para apoyar las innovaciones agrícolas.

El acuerdo parece ser útil para algunos elementos demográficos clave en los EE.UU. y, sobretodo, no parece ser excesivamente perjudicial para las compañías que ya invirtieron en México. Puede beneficiar a dicho país ampliamente, dado que el acuerdo es de largo plazo y va a promover la estabilidad económica mexicana.

Existe una posibilidad de eliminar el Capítulo 19 del TLCAN relacionado con el mecanismo de resolución de disputas. Esta sección permitió que Canadá creara un panel independiente para resolver disputas sobre obligaciones de antidumping (medidas de defensa comercial) y compensaciones en productos importados a EE.UU. (en lugar de usar el proceso de revisión judicial estadounidense). Los Estados Unidos quieren eliminar el Capítulo 19 dado que podría infringir potencialmente la soberanía de ese país. Esta sección ha sido importante para las industrias porcina y maderera canadienses, por lo cual Canadá peleará para mantener vigente dicho Capítulo.

El nuevo acuerdo tendrá validez por 16 años y se hará una revisión cada seis años que podría extender el acuerdo por otros 16 años más.

TMF Group

Como especialistas en recursos humanos y productos transfronterizos, TMF Group puede ayudar a su compañía a comprender las consecuencias que generan los cambios en acuerdos comerciales. Con oficinas en los EE.UU, Canadá y México, nuestros expertos locales cuentan con el conocimiento y la experiencia para que su negocio progrese.

Para más información, contáctenos.

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