Mexico: Financiamiento a la innovación

Last Updated: 23 February 2017
Article by Patricia Conelly

La innovación es un proceso complejo de adaptación en el que se juntan factores como el conocimiento, la creatividad, la experiencia y la voluntad de resolver un problema de una forma diferente con el fin de obtener un producto o servicio que sea susceptible de un lanzamiento comercial. 

Un factor importante para medir el grado de innovación en México es la cantidad de patentes presentadas y concedidas ante el Instituto Mexicano de la Propiedad Industrial (IMPI), según datos del mismo instituto 1, de enero a septiembre de 2016 se concedieron 319 patentes mexicanas 2 lo que representa el 5 % del total de patentes concedidas. En cuanto a la presentación de patentes sólo el 6 % de un total de 12,938, fueron mexicanas.

El dato anterior indica que la innovación mexicana corresponde a un porcentaje menor al 10 %, confirmando que en México aún es incipiente la "cultura de la innovación" y, por otro lado, la dependencia con el extranjero en materia de tecnología e innovación está fuertemente consolidada.

Una de las causas principales por la que los mexicanos escasamente consideran a la innovación como un mecanismo certero para desarrollar y lanzar sus productos/servicios al mercado es la falta de financiamiento; sin embargo, en ocasiones son desconocidos para los innovadores los diferentes mecanismos para obtener fondos dedicados a esta actividad. Algunas formas de financiar proyectos de innovación son las siguientes:

Fondos gubernamentales

El gobierno mexicano a través del Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología (CONACyT), a menudo en alianza con otras instituciones, lanza convocatorias federales y estatales de acceso a fondos y programas orientados a diferentes actividades económicas para atender problemas de trascendencia sectorial, nacional y/o regional; las características de estos montos varían con respecto a la convocatoria y pueden llegar a cubrir la totalidad del proyecto. La convocatoria más destacada es la del Programa de Estímulos a la Innovación (PEI) la cual incentiva el esquema de triple hélice academia-industria-gobierno al considerar vinculaciones con universidades y centros de investigación para la realización integral del proyecto.

Financiamiento interno

Para empresas consolidadas o en proceso de consolidación, el tener un sistema interno de gestión de la tecnología/conocimiento puede ser una forma de financiar la innovación. Para lograrlo se necesita de una planeación y estrategia que incluya protección de la propiedad intelectual (marcas, patentes, secretos industriales, etc.) y esquemas de transferencia de tecnología (licenciamiento, comercialización de paquetes tecnológicos) que permitan identificar e incrementar fácilmente su competitividad. Es decir, la finalidad de la innovación es acercar un beneficio a la sociedad al mismo tiempo que se consigue un rendimiento económico por ello. Invertir poco en la innovación y desconocer sus beneficios, puede llevar a la pérdida de oportunidades reales de crecimiento y desarrollo empresarial.

Premios

En México existen diferentes instituciones que premian la innovación en una gran variedad de ámbitos. Dichos reconocimientos se dan de forma continua por diversas instituciones tanto públicas como privadas. Los premios son otorgados de forma monetaria y/o con un paquete de beneficios y asesoría complementaria dependiendo de la convocatoria. Algunos de los premios relevantes son el Premio Nacional de Tecnología e Innovación y el Premio Nacional del Emprendedor. Estos certámenes, reconocen a innovadores en varias categorías como: innovación en productos, procesos, mercadotecnia, gestión de la tecnología, idea innovadora, mujer emprendedora, emprendimiento de alto impacto, estudiante emprendedor, entre otros. Para participar en ellos se debe estar al tanto de las convocatorias y reunir una cantidad de requisitos mínimos dependiendo de la categoría.

Otros

El financiamiento también puede provenir de instituciones crediticias, las cuales además de tener esquemas tradicionales como los "Fondos de capital privado" pueden contar con programas de fomento a la innovación. Ejemplos de estos estímulos son los otorgados por Nacional Financiera (Nafin), Banco Nacional de Comercio Exterior (Bancomext) y Fideicomisos Instituidos en Relación con la Agricultura (FIRA), que, a través de un sistema de banca de desarrollo, otorgan financiamiento a personas físicas o morales innovadoras. Estos apoyos se otorgan de manera continua y por solicitud del usuario. Los montos se pueden ajustar de acuerdo a las necesidades y al programa en el que se participe e incluyen asesoría financiera en todo el proceso de innovación, pero principalmente están dirigidos a emprendedores y PyMES.

Adicionalmente existen los programas internacionales de fomento a la innovación (Trejo, 2016) los cuales se aplican en alianza con otros países o regiones como Estados Unidos, Chile, Alemania, Uruguay, Canadá, Israel, Reino Unido, Italia, Unión Europea, Caribe, entre otros, además de instituciones como el Banco Interamericano de Desarrollo; dichos programas promueven la innovación por medio de una cooperación técnica bilateral que beneficia a ambas naciones. Estos incentivos se otorgan dependiendo del país por medio de convocatorias o de forma continua.

En México, ante panoramas adversos, es cada vez de mayor importancia que las personas/empresas conozcan las formas de financiamiento y se beneficien de la innovación en todos los ámbitos productivos. Como parte de la vinculación de doble y triple hélice, CONACyT certificó del año 2012 al 2014, 117 oficinas de transferencia de conocimiento (OTC) las cuales cuentan con las competencias para incentivar la innovación y vinculación entre la academia y las empresas. Además de brindar asesoría, en algunos casos facilitan el financiamiento.

Con el empleo de estos recursos, es posible disminuir la dependencia económica con el extranjero, fortalecer la economía y garantizar el posicionamiento de los productos o servicios innovadores mexicanos en mercados nacionales e internacionales.

Referencias

Trejo, B. A. (2016). Catálogo de programas para el fomento a la innovación y la vinculación en las empresas 2016. México: Fondo Consultivo Científico y Tecnológico, AC.

Footnotes

1 http://www.gob.mx/cms/uploads/attachment/file/170914/IMPI_en_CIFRAS_ene_sep_2016.pdf consultada el día 05/01/2017

2 Se consideran patentes mexicanas si la nacionalidad del titular es México


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