Mexico: TPP y su impacto en la Propiedad Intelectual en México

Last Updated: 19 November 2016
Article by Ana Albarrán

El Acuerdo Transpacífico de Cooperación Económica (TPP por sus siglas en inglés), es un acuerdo multilateral de libre comercio, firmado por 12 países, de entre ellos México, y que cuenta con 30 capítulos de diversos temas, entre los cuales se encuentra el de Propiedad Intelectual.

Es importante abordar este tema a nivel local, pues como cualquier otra firma de tratado, la firma de este Acuerdo, conlleva un compromiso por parte de los países firmantes de adecuar sus compendios legislativos domésticos de acuerdo a los estándares mínimos establecidos en el Tratado que corresponda.  

Entrando en materia, tenemos que es un hecho que de entrar en vigor el TPP, nuestra legislación interna en materia de propiedad intelectual deberá ser revisada, así, la Ley de la Propiedad Industrial y su reglamento; la Ley Federal del Derecho de Autor y su Reglamento e incluso debemos mencionar a la Ley Federal de Variedades Vegetales y su regulación, en virtud de la ratificación al Convenio de la UPOV 1991, que se ha obligado México al firmar el TPP; así como, la posibilidad de modificación al Código Penal Federal en su respectivo apartado, por la inclusión de las Medidas Tecnológicas de Protección contempladas en el TPP.  

Así, en materia de Propiedad Industrial, consideramos que las principales modificaciones al ordenamiento respectivo, versará sobre las siguientes figuras:  

1) Marcas, respecto de las cuales el TPP establece que deberán contemplarse también aquellas marcas que no sean necesariamente perceptibles a la vista, tales como las sonoras y las olfativas; así como las marcas de certificación, estas últimas que reconocen que ciertos productos y/o servicios, han cumplido con requisitos definidos dictados en la Norma mexicana aplicable. Asimismo (exclusivo para marcas) el TPP establece la no obligatoriedad de la inscripción de las licencias de uso, para efectos de reconocer su validez; así como para probar el uso efectivo de la marca.  

2) Indicaciones geográficas, al respecto nuestra legislación en la materia solo reconoce a las denominaciones de origen, figura que consideramos más compleja que las indicaciones geográficas, que solo consideran para su reconocimiento, a la reputación de cierto producto por su calidad, proveniente de determinada región; a diferencia de las denominaciones de origen que requieren para su reconocimiento la coincidencia de factores humanos y naturales de cierta región.

Por otra parte, el TPP establece que debe contemplarse un sistema de oposición durante la tramitación de las indicaciones geográficas; así como el procedimiento de nulidad iniciado por un tercero, respecto de aquéllas que ya hayan sido reconocidas. Al respecto, será importante que nuestros legisladores al momento de hacer las modificaciones conducentes, tomen en cuenta que en el caso de la figura existente, que es la denominación de origen, el titular siempre es el Estado Mexicano.  

3) Patentes, el TPP contempla la posibilidad de ajustar la duración de una patente, en aquellos casos en que exista: a) un retraso irrazonable durante la tramitación de la patente; o, b) un retraso injustificado durante el trámite de autorización para la comercialización de productos farmacéuticos sujetos a una patente.  

4) Datos clínicos, el TPP también establece de forma más clara la inclusión de la protección de dichos datos, en la legislación doméstica respectiva; la cual consiste en: a) 5 años para moléculas nuevas, b) 3 años para nuevas indicaciones/formulaciones o 5 años para nuevas combinaciones; y, c) 8 años para productos biológicos. Esta inclusión consideramos debiera ser especificada en nuestro Reglamento de Insumos para la Salud.

Con respecto a nuestra Ley Federal del Derecho de Autor, de entrar en vigor el TPP, no vislumbramos necesaria alguna reforma a las figuras que ésta contempla. En este aspecto, el TPP contempla esencialmente una ampliación de la vigencia, respecto los derechos de autor y dos de las figuras de derechos conexos; a saber, a) artistas intérpretes y ejecutantes; y b) productores de fonogramas; siendo de la siguiente forma:

  -  Derecho de autor - 100 años contados a partir de la muerte del autor;
 -  Derecho de artistas intérpretes y ejecutantes y productores de fonogramas – 75 años cada uno, contados a partir de, respecto del primero, la primera fijación en un fonograma o, la primera interpretación o ejecución en obras no grabadas o, la transmisión por primera vez por radio, televisión o cualquier otro medio; y, respecto de la segunda figura (los productores de fonogramas), contados a partir de la primera fijación de los sonidos en el fonograma.

Lo anterior, en virtud de que nuestra legislación, de hecho, ya contempla tales parámetros de vigencia.  

5) Medidas tecnológicas de Protección (MTPs), dicha figura tendrá que incluirse; sin embargo, tendrá que analizarse muy bien en que compendio legislativo sería, si en la Ley Federal del Derecho de Autor o en el Código Penal Federal, o en ambos. Actualmente, se contempla únicamente la protección en contra de dispositivos, sistemas o actos, que desactiven dispositivos electrónicos de protección de un programa de computación o descifren una señal de satélite cifrada, sin autorización del distribuidor legítimo de dicha señal. Sin embargo, la protección que contempla el TPP es en contra de actos que eludan las medidas tecnológicas consideradas efectivas, que los autores, artistas intérpretes o ejecutantes y productores de fonogramas, utilizan en relación con el ejercicio de sus derechos y que restringen actos no autorizados con respecto a sus obras, interpretaciones o ejecuciones y fonogramas.

Es importante recalcar que dichas medidas tecnológicas eludidas, deben tener la característica de ser efectivas, es decir que no puedan ser eludidas por accidente.

Se han mencionado solo algunos de los cambios que tendrían que hacerse en nuestro ordenamiento doméstico de entrar en vigor el TPP. Notar que no se ha hecho mención de la figura de proveedores de servicios de internet, sin embargo, es también importante analizar dicha figura al momento de estudiar este Acuerdo, entre otras figuras más que también requieren un análisis profundo.

Finalmente, no debemos perder de vista que el TPP está aún pendiente de ser aprobado por nuestro Senado, así como por las autoridades homologas en el resto de los países firmantes. En este momento, es importante mencionar que la aprobación en los Estados Unidos de América es esencial para tomar una decisión en nuestro País y quizá también para los otros países firmantes. Lo cierto es que, las elecciones en EUA han hecho que la entrada en vigor del TPP se torne cada vez más incierta.


Clarke, Modet & Co - MEXICO

Ciudad de México, D.F. Av. Insurgentes Sur 1647, Piso 15, Of. 1502, Col. San José Insurgentes, 03900
Tel: +52 55 5340 2300
Email: info@clarkemodet.com.mx

The content of this article is intended to provide a general guide to the subject matter. Specialist advice should be sought about your specific circumstances.

To print this article, all you need is to be registered on Mondaq.com.

Click to Login as an existing user or Register so you can print this article.

Authors
Events from this Firm
20 Aug 2017, Conference, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

Clarke, Modet & Cº will be attending the ABPI's 37th International Congress to be held in Rio de Janeiro (Brazil) this year.

28 Sep 2017, Seminar, Madrid, Spain

La identificación y valoración de los activos intangibles es una nueva realidad, que cobra cada vez mayor protagonismo y proporciona a la organización verdaderas fuentes de creación de valor y diferenciación.

 
Some comments from our readers…
“The articles are extremely timely and highly applicable”
“I often find critical information not available elsewhere”
“As in-house counsel, Mondaq’s service is of great value”

Related Video
Up-coming Events Search
Tools
Print
Font Size:
Translation
Channels
Mondaq on Twitter
 
Register for Access and our Free Biweekly Alert for
This service is completely free. Access 250,000 archived articles from 100+ countries and get a personalised email twice a week covering developments (and yes, our lawyers like to think you’ve read our Disclaimer).
 
Email Address
Company Name
Password
Confirm Password
Position
Mondaq Topics -- Select your Interests
 Accounting
 Anti-trust
 Commercial
 Compliance
 Consumer
 Criminal
 Employment
 Energy
 Environment
 Family
 Finance
 Government
 Healthcare
 Immigration
 Insolvency
 Insurance
 International
 IP
 Law Performance
 Law Practice
 Litigation
 Media & IT
 Privacy
 Real Estate
 Strategy
 Tax
 Technology
 Transport
 Wealth Mgt
Regions
Africa
Asia
Asia Pacific
Australasia
Canada
Caribbean
Europe
European Union
Latin America
Middle East
U.K.
United States
Worldwide Updates
Check to state you have read and
agree to our Terms and Conditions

Terms & Conditions and Privacy Statement

Mondaq.com (the Website) is owned and managed by Mondaq Ltd and as a user you are granted a non-exclusive, revocable license to access the Website under its terms and conditions of use. Your use of the Website constitutes your agreement to the following terms and conditions of use. Mondaq Ltd may terminate your use of the Website if you are in breach of these terms and conditions or if Mondaq Ltd decides to terminate your license of use for whatever reason.

Use of www.mondaq.com

You may use the Website but are required to register as a user if you wish to read the full text of the content and articles available (the Content). You may not modify, publish, transmit, transfer or sell, reproduce, create derivative works from, distribute, perform, link, display, or in any way exploit any of the Content, in whole or in part, except as expressly permitted in these terms & conditions or with the prior written consent of Mondaq Ltd. You may not use electronic or other means to extract details or information about Mondaq.com’s content, users or contributors in order to offer them any services or products which compete directly or indirectly with Mondaq Ltd’s services and products.

Disclaimer

Mondaq Ltd and/or its respective suppliers make no representations about the suitability of the information contained in the documents and related graphics published on this server for any purpose. All such documents and related graphics are provided "as is" without warranty of any kind. Mondaq Ltd and/or its respective suppliers hereby disclaim all warranties and conditions with regard to this information, including all implied warranties and conditions of merchantability, fitness for a particular purpose, title and non-infringement. In no event shall Mondaq Ltd and/or its respective suppliers be liable for any special, indirect or consequential damages or any damages whatsoever resulting from loss of use, data or profits, whether in an action of contract, negligence or other tortious action, arising out of or in connection with the use or performance of information available from this server.

The documents and related graphics published on this server could include technical inaccuracies or typographical errors. Changes are periodically added to the information herein. Mondaq Ltd and/or its respective suppliers may make improvements and/or changes in the product(s) and/or the program(s) described herein at any time.

Registration

Mondaq Ltd requires you to register and provide information that personally identifies you, including what sort of information you are interested in, for three primary purposes:

  • To allow you to personalize the Mondaq websites you are visiting.
  • To enable features such as password reminder, newsletter alerts, email a colleague, and linking from Mondaq (and its affiliate sites) to your website.
  • To produce demographic feedback for our information providers who provide information free for your use.

Mondaq (and its affiliate sites) do not sell or provide your details to third parties other than information providers. The reason we provide our information providers with this information is so that they can measure the response their articles are receiving and provide you with information about their products and services.

If you do not want us to provide your name and email address you may opt out by clicking here .

If you do not wish to receive any future announcements of products and services offered by Mondaq by clicking here .

Information Collection and Use

We require site users to register with Mondaq (and its affiliate sites) to view the free information on the site. We also collect information from our users at several different points on the websites: this is so that we can customise the sites according to individual usage, provide 'session-aware' functionality, and ensure that content is acquired and developed appropriately. This gives us an overall picture of our user profiles, which in turn shows to our Editorial Contributors the type of person they are reaching by posting articles on Mondaq (and its affiliate sites) – meaning more free content for registered users.

We are only able to provide the material on the Mondaq (and its affiliate sites) site free to site visitors because we can pass on information about the pages that users are viewing and the personal information users provide to us (e.g. email addresses) to reputable contributing firms such as law firms who author those pages. We do not sell or rent information to anyone else other than the authors of those pages, who may change from time to time. Should you wish us not to disclose your details to any of these parties, please tick the box above or tick the box marked "Opt out of Registration Information Disclosure" on the Your Profile page. We and our author organisations may only contact you via email or other means if you allow us to do so. Users can opt out of contact when they register on the site, or send an email to unsubscribe@mondaq.com with “no disclosure” in the subject heading

Mondaq News Alerts

In order to receive Mondaq News Alerts, users have to complete a separate registration form. This is a personalised service where users choose regions and topics of interest and we send it only to those users who have requested it. Users can stop receiving these Alerts by going to the Mondaq News Alerts page and deselecting all interest areas. In the same way users can amend their personal preferences to add or remove subject areas.

Cookies

A cookie is a small text file written to a user’s hard drive that contains an identifying user number. The cookies do not contain any personal information about users. We use the cookie so users do not have to log in every time they use the service and the cookie will automatically expire if you do not visit the Mondaq website (or its affiliate sites) for 12 months. We also use the cookie to personalise a user's experience of the site (for example to show information specific to a user's region). As the Mondaq sites are fully personalised and cookies are essential to its core technology the site will function unpredictably with browsers that do not support cookies - or where cookies are disabled (in these circumstances we advise you to attempt to locate the information you require elsewhere on the web). However if you are concerned about the presence of a Mondaq cookie on your machine you can also choose to expire the cookie immediately (remove it) by selecting the 'Log Off' menu option as the last thing you do when you use the site.

Some of our business partners may use cookies on our site (for example, advertisers). However, we have no access to or control over these cookies and we are not aware of any at present that do so.

Log Files

We use IP addresses to analyse trends, administer the site, track movement, and gather broad demographic information for aggregate use. IP addresses are not linked to personally identifiable information.

Links

This web site contains links to other sites. Please be aware that Mondaq (or its affiliate sites) are not responsible for the privacy practices of such other sites. We encourage our users to be aware when they leave our site and to read the privacy statements of these third party sites. This privacy statement applies solely to information collected by this Web site.

Surveys & Contests

From time-to-time our site requests information from users via surveys or contests. Participation in these surveys or contests is completely voluntary and the user therefore has a choice whether or not to disclose any information requested. Information requested may include contact information (such as name and delivery address), and demographic information (such as postcode, age level). Contact information will be used to notify the winners and award prizes. Survey information will be used for purposes of monitoring or improving the functionality of the site.

Mail-A-Friend

If a user elects to use our referral service for informing a friend about our site, we ask them for the friend’s name and email address. Mondaq stores this information and may contact the friend to invite them to register with Mondaq, but they will not be contacted more than once. The friend may contact Mondaq to request the removal of this information from our database.

Security

This website takes every reasonable precaution to protect our users’ information. When users submit sensitive information via the website, your information is protected using firewalls and other security technology. If you have any questions about the security at our website, you can send an email to webmaster@mondaq.com.

Correcting/Updating Personal Information

If a user’s personally identifiable information changes (such as postcode), or if a user no longer desires our service, we will endeavour to provide a way to correct, update or remove that user’s personal data provided to us. This can usually be done at the “Your Profile” page or by sending an email to EditorialAdvisor@mondaq.com.

Notification of Changes

If we decide to change our Terms & Conditions or Privacy Policy, we will post those changes on our site so our users are always aware of what information we collect, how we use it, and under what circumstances, if any, we disclose it. If at any point we decide to use personally identifiable information in a manner different from that stated at the time it was collected, we will notify users by way of an email. Users will have a choice as to whether or not we use their information in this different manner. We will use information in accordance with the privacy policy under which the information was collected.

How to contact Mondaq

You can contact us with comments or queries at enquiries@mondaq.com.

If for some reason you believe Mondaq Ltd. has not adhered to these principles, please notify us by e-mail at problems@mondaq.com and we will use commercially reasonable efforts to determine and correct the problem promptly.