Mexico: TPP y su impacto en la Propiedad Intelectual en México

Last Updated: 19 November 2016
Article by Ana Albarrán

El Acuerdo Transpacífico de Cooperación Económica (TPP por sus siglas en inglés), es un acuerdo multilateral de libre comercio, firmado por 12 países, de entre ellos México, y que cuenta con 30 capítulos de diversos temas, entre los cuales se encuentra el de Propiedad Intelectual.

Es importante abordar este tema a nivel local, pues como cualquier otra firma de tratado, la firma de este Acuerdo, conlleva un compromiso por parte de los países firmantes de adecuar sus compendios legislativos domésticos de acuerdo a los estándares mínimos establecidos en el Tratado que corresponda.  

Entrando en materia, tenemos que es un hecho que de entrar en vigor el TPP, nuestra legislación interna en materia de propiedad intelectual deberá ser revisada, así, la Ley de la Propiedad Industrial y su reglamento; la Ley Federal del Derecho de Autor y su Reglamento e incluso debemos mencionar a la Ley Federal de Variedades Vegetales y su regulación, en virtud de la ratificación al Convenio de la UPOV 1991, que se ha obligado México al firmar el TPP; así como, la posibilidad de modificación al Código Penal Federal en su respectivo apartado, por la inclusión de las Medidas Tecnológicas de Protección contempladas en el TPP.  

Así, en materia de Propiedad Industrial, consideramos que las principales modificaciones al ordenamiento respectivo, versará sobre las siguientes figuras:  

1) Marcas, respecto de las cuales el TPP establece que deberán contemplarse también aquellas marcas que no sean necesariamente perceptibles a la vista, tales como las sonoras y las olfativas; así como las marcas de certificación, estas últimas que reconocen que ciertos productos y/o servicios, han cumplido con requisitos definidos dictados en la Norma mexicana aplicable. Asimismo (exclusivo para marcas) el TPP establece la no obligatoriedad de la inscripción de las licencias de uso, para efectos de reconocer su validez; así como para probar el uso efectivo de la marca.  

2) Indicaciones geográficas, al respecto nuestra legislación en la materia solo reconoce a las denominaciones de origen, figura que consideramos más compleja que las indicaciones geográficas, que solo consideran para su reconocimiento, a la reputación de cierto producto por su calidad, proveniente de determinada región; a diferencia de las denominaciones de origen que requieren para su reconocimiento la coincidencia de factores humanos y naturales de cierta región.

Por otra parte, el TPP establece que debe contemplarse un sistema de oposición durante la tramitación de las indicaciones geográficas; así como el procedimiento de nulidad iniciado por un tercero, respecto de aquéllas que ya hayan sido reconocidas. Al respecto, será importante que nuestros legisladores al momento de hacer las modificaciones conducentes, tomen en cuenta que en el caso de la figura existente, que es la denominación de origen, el titular siempre es el Estado Mexicano.  

3) Patentes, el TPP contempla la posibilidad de ajustar la duración de una patente, en aquellos casos en que exista: a) un retraso irrazonable durante la tramitación de la patente; o, b) un retraso injustificado durante el trámite de autorización para la comercialización de productos farmacéuticos sujetos a una patente.  

4) Datos clínicos, el TPP también establece de forma más clara la inclusión de la protección de dichos datos, en la legislación doméstica respectiva; la cual consiste en: a) 5 años para moléculas nuevas, b) 3 años para nuevas indicaciones/formulaciones o 5 años para nuevas combinaciones; y, c) 8 años para productos biológicos. Esta inclusión consideramos debiera ser especificada en nuestro Reglamento de Insumos para la Salud.

Con respecto a nuestra Ley Federal del Derecho de Autor, de entrar en vigor el TPP, no vislumbramos necesaria alguna reforma a las figuras que ésta contempla. En este aspecto, el TPP contempla esencialmente una ampliación de la vigencia, respecto los derechos de autor y dos de las figuras de derechos conexos; a saber, a) artistas intérpretes y ejecutantes; y b) productores de fonogramas; siendo de la siguiente forma:

  -  Derecho de autor - 100 años contados a partir de la muerte del autor;
 -  Derecho de artistas intérpretes y ejecutantes y productores de fonogramas – 75 años cada uno, contados a partir de, respecto del primero, la primera fijación en un fonograma o, la primera interpretación o ejecución en obras no grabadas o, la transmisión por primera vez por radio, televisión o cualquier otro medio; y, respecto de la segunda figura (los productores de fonogramas), contados a partir de la primera fijación de los sonidos en el fonograma.

Lo anterior, en virtud de que nuestra legislación, de hecho, ya contempla tales parámetros de vigencia.  

5) Medidas tecnológicas de Protección (MTPs), dicha figura tendrá que incluirse; sin embargo, tendrá que analizarse muy bien en que compendio legislativo sería, si en la Ley Federal del Derecho de Autor o en el Código Penal Federal, o en ambos. Actualmente, se contempla únicamente la protección en contra de dispositivos, sistemas o actos, que desactiven dispositivos electrónicos de protección de un programa de computación o descifren una señal de satélite cifrada, sin autorización del distribuidor legítimo de dicha señal. Sin embargo, la protección que contempla el TPP es en contra de actos que eludan las medidas tecnológicas consideradas efectivas, que los autores, artistas intérpretes o ejecutantes y productores de fonogramas, utilizan en relación con el ejercicio de sus derechos y que restringen actos no autorizados con respecto a sus obras, interpretaciones o ejecuciones y fonogramas.

Es importante recalcar que dichas medidas tecnológicas eludidas, deben tener la característica de ser efectivas, es decir que no puedan ser eludidas por accidente.

Se han mencionado solo algunos de los cambios que tendrían que hacerse en nuestro ordenamiento doméstico de entrar en vigor el TPP. Notar que no se ha hecho mención de la figura de proveedores de servicios de internet, sin embargo, es también importante analizar dicha figura al momento de estudiar este Acuerdo, entre otras figuras más que también requieren un análisis profundo.

Finalmente, no debemos perder de vista que el TPP está aún pendiente de ser aprobado por nuestro Senado, así como por las autoridades homologas en el resto de los países firmantes. En este momento, es importante mencionar que la aprobación en los Estados Unidos de América es esencial para tomar una decisión en nuestro País y quizá también para los otros países firmantes. Lo cierto es que, las elecciones en EUA han hecho que la entrada en vigor del TPP se torne cada vez más incierta.


Clarke, Modet & Co - MEXICO

Ciudad de México, D.F. Av. Insurgentes Sur 1647, Piso 15, Of. 1502, Col. San José Insurgentes, 03900
Tel: +52 55 5340 2300
Email: info@clarkemodet.com.mx

The content of this article is intended to provide a general guide to the subject matter. Specialist advice should be sought about your specific circumstances.

To print this article, all you need is to be registered on Mondaq.com.

Click to Login as an existing user or Register so you can print this article.

Authors
 
Some comments from our readers…
“The articles are extremely timely and highly applicable”
“I often find critical information not available elsewhere”
“As in-house counsel, Mondaq’s service is of great value”

Related Topics
 
Related Articles
 
Related Video
Up-coming Events Search
Tools
Print
Font Size:
Translation
Channels
Mondaq on Twitter
 
Register for Access and our Free Biweekly Alert for
This service is completely free. Access 250,000 archived articles from 100+ countries and get a personalised email twice a week covering developments (and yes, our lawyers like to think you’ve read our Disclaimer).
 
Email Address
Company Name
Password
Confirm Password
Position
Mondaq Topics -- Select your Interests
 Accounting
 Anti-trust
 Commercial
 Compliance
 Consumer
 Criminal
 Employment
 Energy
 Environment
 Family
 Finance
 Government
 Healthcare
 Immigration
 Insolvency
 Insurance
 International
 IP
 Law Performance
 Law Practice
 Litigation
 Media & IT
 Privacy
 Real Estate
 Strategy
 Tax
 Technology
 Transport
 Wealth Mgt
Regions
Africa
Asia
Asia Pacific
Australasia
Canada
Caribbean
Europe
European Union
Latin America
Middle East
U.K.
United States
Worldwide Updates
Registration (you must scroll down to set your data preferences)

Mondaq Ltd requires you to register and provide information that personally identifies you, including your content preferences, for three primary purposes (full details of Mondaq’s use of your personal data can be found in our Privacy and Cookies Notice):

  • To allow you to personalize the Mondaq websites you are visiting to show content ("Content") relevant to your interests.
  • To enable features such as password reminder, news alerts, email a colleague, and linking from Mondaq (and its affiliate sites) to your website.
  • To produce demographic feedback for our content providers ("Contributors") who contribute Content for free for your use.

Mondaq hopes that our registered users will support us in maintaining our free to view business model by consenting to our use of your personal data as described below.

Mondaq has a "free to view" business model. Our services are paid for by Contributors in exchange for Mondaq providing them with access to information about who accesses their content. Once personal data is transferred to our Contributors they become a data controller of this personal data. They use it to measure the response that their articles are receiving, as a form of market research. They may also use it to provide Mondaq users with information about their products and services.

Details of each Contributor to which your personal data will be transferred is clearly stated within the Content that you access. For full details of how this Contributor will use your personal data, you should review the Contributor’s own Privacy Notice.

Please indicate your preference below:

Yes, I am happy to support Mondaq in maintaining its free to view business model by agreeing to allow Mondaq to share my personal data with Contributors whose Content I access
No, I do not want Mondaq to share my personal data with Contributors

Also please let us know whether you are happy to receive communications promoting products and services offered by Mondaq:

Yes, I am happy to received promotional communications from Mondaq
No, please do not send me promotional communications from Mondaq
Terms & Conditions

Mondaq.com (the Website) is owned and managed by Mondaq Ltd (Mondaq). Mondaq grants you a non-exclusive, revocable licence to access the Website and associated services, such as the Mondaq News Alerts (Services), subject to and in consideration of your compliance with the following terms and conditions of use (Terms). Your use of the Website and/or Services constitutes your agreement to the Terms. Mondaq may terminate your use of the Website and Services if you are in breach of these Terms or if Mondaq decides to terminate the licence granted hereunder for any reason whatsoever.

Use of www.mondaq.com

To Use Mondaq.com you must be: eighteen (18) years old or over; legally capable of entering into binding contracts; and not in any way prohibited by the applicable law to enter into these Terms in the jurisdiction which you are currently located.

You may use the Website as an unregistered user, however, you are required to register as a user if you wish to read the full text of the Content or to receive the Services.

You may not modify, publish, transmit, transfer or sell, reproduce, create derivative works from, distribute, perform, link, display, or in any way exploit any of the Content, in whole or in part, except as expressly permitted in these Terms or with the prior written consent of Mondaq. You may not use electronic or other means to extract details or information from the Content. Nor shall you extract information about users or Contributors in order to offer them any services or products.

In your use of the Website and/or Services you shall: comply with all applicable laws, regulations, directives and legislations which apply to your Use of the Website and/or Services in whatever country you are physically located including without limitation any and all consumer law, export control laws and regulations; provide to us true, correct and accurate information and promptly inform us in the event that any information that you have provided to us changes or becomes inaccurate; notify Mondaq immediately of any circumstances where you have reason to believe that any Intellectual Property Rights or any other rights of any third party may have been infringed; co-operate with reasonable security or other checks or requests for information made by Mondaq from time to time; and at all times be fully liable for the breach of any of these Terms by a third party using your login details to access the Website and/or Services

however, you shall not: do anything likely to impair, interfere with or damage or cause harm or distress to any persons, or the network; do anything that will infringe any Intellectual Property Rights or other rights of Mondaq or any third party; or use the Website, Services and/or Content otherwise than in accordance with these Terms; use any trade marks or service marks of Mondaq or the Contributors, or do anything which may be seen to take unfair advantage of the reputation and goodwill of Mondaq or the Contributors, or the Website, Services and/or Content.

Mondaq reserves the right, in its sole discretion, to take any action that it deems necessary and appropriate in the event it considers that there is a breach or threatened breach of the Terms.

Mondaq’s Rights and Obligations

Unless otherwise expressly set out to the contrary, nothing in these Terms shall serve to transfer from Mondaq to you, any Intellectual Property Rights owned by and/or licensed to Mondaq and all rights, title and interest in and to such Intellectual Property Rights will remain exclusively with Mondaq and/or its licensors.

Mondaq shall use its reasonable endeavours to make the Website and Services available to you at all times, but we cannot guarantee an uninterrupted and fault free service.

Mondaq reserves the right to make changes to the services and/or the Website or part thereof, from time to time, and we may add, remove, modify and/or vary any elements of features and functionalities of the Website or the services.

Mondaq also reserves the right from time to time to monitor your Use of the Website and/or services.

Disclaimer

The Content is general information only. It is not intended to constitute legal advice or seek to be the complete and comprehensive statement of the law, nor is it intended to address your specific requirements or provide advice on which reliance should be placed. Mondaq and/or its Contributors and other suppliers make no representations about the suitability of the information contained in the Content for any purpose. All Content provided "as is" without warranty of any kind. Mondaq and/or its Contributors and other suppliers hereby exclude and disclaim all representations, warranties or guarantees with regard to the Content, including all implied warranties and conditions of merchantability, fitness for a particular purpose, title and non-infringement. To the maximum extent permitted by law, Mondaq expressly excludes all representations, warranties, obligations, and liabilities arising out of or in connection with all Content. In no event shall Mondaq and/or its respective suppliers be liable for any special, indirect or consequential damages or any damages whatsoever resulting from loss of use, data or profits, whether in an action of contract, negligence or other tortious action, arising out of or in connection with the use of the Content or performance of Mondaq’s Services.

General

Mondaq may alter or amend these Terms by amending them on the Website. By continuing to Use the Services and/or the Website after such amendment, you will be deemed to have accepted any amendment to these Terms.

These Terms shall be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws of England and Wales and you irrevocably submit to the exclusive jurisdiction of the courts of England and Wales to settle any dispute which may arise out of or in connection with these Terms. If you live outside the United Kingdom, English law shall apply only to the extent that English law shall not deprive you of any legal protection accorded in accordance with the law of the place where you are habitually resident ("Local Law"). In the event English law deprives you of any legal protection which is accorded to you under Local Law, then these terms shall be governed by Local Law and any dispute or claim arising out of or in connection with these Terms shall be subject to the non-exclusive jurisdiction of the courts where you are habitually resident.

You may print and keep a copy of these Terms, which form the entire agreement between you and Mondaq and supersede any other communications or advertising in respect of the Service and/or the Website.

No delay in exercising or non-exercise by you and/or Mondaq of any of its rights under or in connection with these Terms shall operate as a waiver or release of each of your or Mondaq’s right. Rather, any such waiver or release must be specifically granted in writing signed by the party granting it.

If any part of these Terms is held unenforceable, that part shall be enforced to the maximum extent permissible so as to give effect to the intent of the parties, and the Terms shall continue in full force and effect.

Mondaq shall not incur any liability to you on account of any loss or damage resulting from any delay or failure to perform all or any part of these Terms if such delay or failure is caused, in whole or in part, by events, occurrences, or causes beyond the control of Mondaq. Such events, occurrences or causes will include, without limitation, acts of God, strikes, lockouts, server and network failure, riots, acts of war, earthquakes, fire and explosions.

By clicking Register you state you have read and agree to our Terms and Conditions