Mexico: Limitación Al Derecho De Autor En Beneficio De Personas Con Discapacidad En México

Last Updated: 1 November 2016
Article by Eder Gutiérrez and Ana Albarrán

Como consecuencia de la negociación y firma del "Tratado de Marrakech para facilitar el acceso a las obras publicadas a las personas ciegas, con discapacidad visual o con otras dificultades para acceder al texto impreso" (en adelante "Tratado de Marrakech") –que recién entró en vigor, México, como país firmante, procedió a incorporar en su Ley Federal del Derecho de Autor (en adelante "LFDA"), regulación al respecto. Dicha inclusión fue publicada en el Diario Oficial de la Federación, el 17 de marzo de 2015, y consistió en agregar una fracción VIII al artículo 148 de la LFDA (en adelante "artículo 148 VIII LFDA"); esta fracción contempla la posibilidad de publicarse, sin autorización del titular del derecho patrimonial y sin remuneración, obras artísticas y literarias para personas con discapacidad, siempre y cuando no se afecte la explotación normal de la obra, se cite la fuente y no se altere la obra.

No obstante, si bien a primera vista pareciera que la inclusión en la LFDA cumple con los estándares establecidos en el Tratado de Marrakech, consideramos que el legislador quiso limitar por un lado, pero también ir más allá por el otro; dejando entonces una limitación que dista de ser clara y explicativa, lo que conlleva a dejar en el aire detalles importantes.  

En particular, llama la atención que la limitación se circunscriba únicamente a uno de los derechos patrimoniales de autor, como lo es la "publicación", dejando fuera otros derechos patrimoniales tales como, la reproducción y la distribución. De hecho, el mismo Tratado de Marrakech determina que la limitación deberá ser relativa al derecho de reproducción, al derecho de distribución y el derecho de puesta a disposición del público (ver artículo 4. 1. a), además que, impone obligaciones sobre el intercambio transfronterizo de las obras (lo cual concierne a la distribución e incluso importación). Es cuestionable que no se hayan incluido tales derechos en el artículo 148 VIII LFDA, ya que la ausencia de su mención hace susceptible que se susciten controversias alrededor del tipo de actividad amparada, así como en relación con el cumplimiento del Estado Mexicano para con el Tratado de Marrakech.   

Asimismo, existe también discrepancia respecto al tipo de obras amparadas. El artículo 148 VIII LFDA habla genéricamente de obra artística y literaria, sin especificar el formato o soporte de la misma. En contraste, el Tratado de Marrakech se circunscribe a obras literarias, en forma de texto, notación y/o ilustraciones, incluyendo obras literarias en forma de audio. Claramente, el alcance del artículo 148 VIII LFDA es más amplio pues incluye obras no literarias que pudieren adaptarse para ser accesibles y percibidas por personas discapacitadas.   

De igual forma, el artículo 148 VIII LFDA no especifica el tipo de discapacidad que deben tener los beneficiados para poder gozar de dicha limitación. Al respecto el Tratado de Marrakech acota dicha limitante en beneficio de personas ciegas, que padezcan de discapacidad visual que no pueda corregirse y para quien es imposible leer.   

Lo anterior, ha conllevado a que recientemente haya sido emitida una Jurisprudencia al respecto, mediante la cual nuestra Suprema Corte de Justicia de la Nación, ha intentado dilucidar lo amplio y ambiguo del texto incluido. De la interpretación de dicha Jurisprudencia se deriva que, las obras amparadas tienen que haber sido adecuadas, es decir, adaptadas o modificadas para cumplir con los requerimientos especiales y específicos de personas que, por su discapacidad, no son capaces de acceder a la obra en formato estándar. No obstante, respecto a los beneficiarios de dicha limitante, no específica mucho al respecto, puesto que incluye de manera general a cualquier persona con cualquier tipo o grado de discapacidad, lo cual deja ambigua nuevamente, la aplicación de este precepto.  

Como se ha visto, existen diferencias entre el alcance del artículo 148 VIII de la LFDA y el Tratado de Marrakech. Por un lado, el artículo 148 VIII parece resultar limitado pues sólo se refiere a la publicación de las obras; y por otro lado, dicho artículo es más amplio que el Tratado de Marrakech pues podría amparar obras no literarias adecuadas para personas con discapacidad. Adicionalmente, es posible que existan controversias alrededor de su interpretación y aplicación, en la ausencia de mayor contexto o definiciones dentro de la LFDA. En su caso, se sugiere que se utilice como guía lo dispuesto en los tratados internacionales, en este caso el de Marrakech, sin olvidar, por supuesto, el origen fundamentalmente humanitario que tiene dicha limitación, en consonancia con los principios de derechos humanos expuestos en la Declaración Universal de Derechos Humanos y en la Convención de las Naciones Unidas sobre los Derechos de las Personas con Discapacidad.


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