Italy: 一带一路 / 新丝绸之路:2019年的新事件,对意大利的有利之处

Last Updated: 15 April 2019
Article by Arnone & Sicomo

"带一路"/"丝绸之路 ",及其重要性所在  

为更好地了解2019年"一带一路"亦"新丝绸之路"的最新发展,让我们退后一步:古代的丝绸之路一直从中国长安/洛阳延伸到中亚的哲图苏地区。它在公元前2世纪到公元1世纪之间形成,并一直被使用到16世纪,将众多文明联系起来,并 实现了贸易往来。海上丝路沿南亚国家延伸超过5000公里。它不是一条单一的道路,而是一系列穿越海洋,河流和大陆不同地区的路线和行程。

不仅如此,丝绸之路也促进了宗教信仰传播,科学知识进步,技术创新,文化习俗和艺术的发展。在今天,丝绸之路受到联合国教科文组织的保护。重走丝绸之路算得上是游客最向往的冒险之一。

现在我们所谈论的"带一路"也即"丝绸之路"倡议是在2013年正式确立的。2013年9月,中国领导人习近平在访问哈萨克斯坦时第一次提出共同建设"丝绸之路经济带"。同年10月,他在印度尼西亚国会演讲时提出共同建设21世纪"海上丝绸之路"。同年11月,中共十八届三中全会把"一带一路"升级为国家战略。

"带一路"分为" 丝绸之路经济带"(简称"一带")和" 21纪海上丝绸之路"(简称"一路")两大部分。"一带"从中国大陆出发,连接亚太地区与欧洲,中间经过的中亚地区。"一路"从中国大陆由沿海港口过南海到印度洋,延伸至欧洲,或是从中国大陆沿海港口过南海到南太平洋。意大利威尼斯就是"一路"上的主要港口之一。

"一带一路"覆盖了全世界65%的人口,三分之一的GDP,四分之一的货物与服务流通。这正是"一带一路"的核心—— 一条加 强全球合作互通的 贸易路线。为了支持"一带一路"的发展,中国起头成立了 亚投行丝路基金,为"一带一路"沿线国家的基建、开发、产业合作等项目提供融资。意大利也于2015年加入亚投行,成为创始成员国。中外企业和政府就础建设、能源供应、通讯服务、制造、贸易、金融、咨询、文化、教育领域,在"一带一路"上已经广泛展开项目。

"带一路 " / "丝绸之路 " 习近平访问意大利  

中国国家主席习近平将于3月21日至26日对意大利进行访问。 2019年是中意全面 战略伙伴关系建立 15周年,习近平主席此访是中国国家元首时隔十年再次访意,对双边关系发展具有承前启后、继往开来的重要意义。同时随行中国代表团还就 关税、大学合作、研究和技 术领域合作,以及中国资具有战略价值的意大利公司等方面达成协议。

意大利总理朱塞佩 "孔特计划在中国国家主席习近平访问罗马时签署 谅解备忘录,此举将让意大利成 首个加入"带一路"议的七国集团(G7)国家及欧盟创始国。尽管意大利力量党Forza Italia以及Salvini萨尔维尼对所谓的"中国殖民化"危险提出了许多顾虑,但意大利总理和新政府认为"新丝绸之路"可以为意大利带来巨大的利益,无论是在经济、商业或政治上。

意大利副总理及五星运动领导人马约Luigi Di Maio这是" 意大利制造 "的大好机遇。他还在工业部内成立了一个中国工作小组,目标是让意大利成为"一带一路"中具有独特优势的合作伙伴。

意大利总统塞尔焦 "马塔雷拉今天也发言支持中国"一带一路",并称中国对 全球气候变化有决定性影响。美国退出巴黎大气合约的做法,的确把重要的话语权转交给了中国。

中华人民共和国主席习近平认为他这次对意大利的访问(包括罗马和巴勒莫)是两国加强合作的绝佳机会,希望消除对该协议的疑虑,这绝非巧合。

中国进入意大利的另一个主要倡导者是巴勒莫教授、意大利政府经济发展部副部长、中国工作小组主导人 米歇" 杰拉奇Michele Geraci。杰拉奇是西西里人,精通中文,曾在中国生活了10年,在浙江大学、西南财经大学、宁波诺丁汉大学等中国高校讲过学。

意大利加入"带一路"议:意大利与中国合作的前景如何?两国就 "带一路 "有哪些具体 计划?这对意大利与中国的经贸关系有什么益处?  

意大利将与中国建立关于 "带一路 "的一系列共同目标、原则和合作方法框架,旨在实现重要的欧亚大陆连通性。这份 谅解备忘录本身并没有法律约束力,是意大利与中国谈判好几个月后的结果,标志着两国之间合作的达成,尤其是对双方均互惠互利。

意大利对北京的期望是其在经济、社会甚至环境可持续性方面对意大利的贡献。

新丝绸之路必将为意大利贸易的发展做出贡献。多年来,意大利对亚洲国家的出口贸易在程序上受到不少限制。考虑到中国政府并没有阻碍过出口货物,则主要问题来自于欧洲国家。

孔特总理本人相信,与北京的商业关系应该重新寻求平衡,允许更多的 意大利产品进入中国市场,从农业综合企业(葡萄酒,油,面食,小麦,莫扎里拉奶酪,奶酪等)到奢侈品, 以及服务行业。

但还有更多。

新丝绸之路将提高意大利港口的知名度,这将在货物进出口系统中发挥重要作用,尤其是热那亚、的里雅斯特和威尼斯港口,它们将成为丝绸之路的欧洲终点码头。意大利港口将使得中国在欧洲的贸易和货物运输更容易,更快捷。

意大利的地理位置保 证了我们港口的战略性作用,并且通过欧洲最快的通关程序,构成了通往所有欧洲国家的便捷通道。每天有众多货物通过意大利港口并通过海关清关。如今, 中国和欧洲之 90%的贸易运输都是经过海上丝绸之路

鉴于全球贸易的很大一部分都通过我们的海域,这是一个有利于整个地中海的机会。在地中海地区,来自中国的集装箱船数量近年来增长迅速,因此处理好意大利主要港口的货物运输将符合中国公司的利益。

而且,在涉及中国投资基金的众多项目中,还有 巴勒莫港,中国投资者期望注入50亿欧元参与该港口的建设。来自上海的投资基金将投资在巴勒莫建设一个大型海运货运平台,从而扩大货运承接量,帮助该地区退出经济危机。

"带一路 " / "丝绸之路 " 2019年意大利与中国的 谅解备忘录 

记载意大利 - 中国新协议目标的 谅解备忘录将在3月21日中国国家主席习近平访问意大利期间签署,并将包含一系列针对意大利各个部门的投资:基础设施公路,铁路和海上能源,运输和绿色经济。

如果布鲁塞维和斯特拉斯堡仍然怀疑意大利政府的意图,那么必须补充说明意大利和中国之间的备忘录不包括任何有关5G技术的协议。

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