Italy: Il Trasporto Multimodale Internazionale: Disciplina Applicabile E Limite Di Responsabilità Vettoriale

The International Multimodal Transport: Applicable Rules and Limit Liability Vector

Le nuove tecniche di movimentazione delle merci sviluppate in ambito internazionale ed il crescente utilizzo dei containers nel mondo della logistica, hanno permesso ed agevolato il trasferimento delle merci mediante l'impiego di distinti mezzi di trasporto concepiti unitariamente per il raggiungimento del risultato complessivo.

Ha così acquisito un ruolo fondamentale nei moderni traffici il cosiddetto 'trasporto multimodale', che si caratterizza per essere realizzato in base ad un unico contratto in virtù del quale un singolo operatore si avvale di distinti mezzi di trasporto per la consegna dei beni a destino.

L'unitarietà del contratto stipulato con il committente principale e la differente tipologia di mezzi di movimentazione, ha obbligato la giurisprudenza ad interrogarsi in merito alla disciplina regolatrice della responsabilità vettoriale in caso di ritardo nella consegna, perdita o avaria delle merci trasportiate.

La convivenza di diversi mezzi di trasporto, ognuno con le proprie peculiarità, rende difatti complesso inquadrare una disciplina unitaria che regoli tutte le obbligazioni che si intrecciano dal momento della presa in consegna delle merci sino al momento della riconsegna a destino poiché, evidentemente, ogni singola tipologia di trasporto si è dotata, negli anni, di una specifica normativa di settore (basti pensare alla Convenzione CMR del 1956, alla Convenzione di Bruxelles del 1924, ecc.)

In passato sono emerse nella giurisprudenza italiana posizioni diverse per l'individuazione della legge applicabile al trasporto multimodale, ed in particolare tre diversi orientamenti:

  1. in base ad un primo orientamento il trasporto multimodale deve essere disciplinato (ai sensi dell'art. 1680 cod. civ.) dal codice civile (cd. teoria unitaria),
  2. secondo altra tesi ciascuna tratta di un trasporto multimodale va disciplinata in base alla normativa interna ed uniforme ad essa propria (il cd. network liability system),
  3. in base infine ad un terzo orientamento il trasporto multimodale è assoggettato alla disciplina applicabile alla tratta prevalente di cui è composto (è la cd. teoria dell'assorbimento).

La teoria dell'assorbimento ha trovato ad esempio applicazione in una decisione (piuttosto accurata) del Tribunale Genova del 12 marzo 1992, Costa Container Line S.r.l. c. Metrans S.r.l. nella quale la Corte genovese, ravvisata "l'assoluta prevalenza del tratto marittimo",ha applicato all'intero trasporto la disciplina del codice della navigazione.

L'orientamento tuttavia oggi prevalente prevede (in mancanza di un espresso accordo tra le parti) l'unitaria applicazione della disciplina del codice civile, sul presupposto che il trasporto misto -anche qualora caratterizzato dall'assoluta prevalenza di un specifico mezzo di trasporto- non rientra nell'ambito di alcun delle ipotesi particolari oggetto delle Convenzioni internazionali, ed è dunque disciplinato dal codice civile.

Si tratta di orientamento espresso ormai da tempo dalla giurisprudenza di legittimità e di merito che ne ha confermato l'applicabilità sia in caso di trasporto internazionale marittimo-terrestre sia in caso di trasporto internazionale misto per via aerea e terrestre.

In tempi recenti, la Corte di Cassazione (Sez. III, Sent., 6 agosto 2013, n. 18657, SO.GES.TER. Italiana s.r.l. c. Sharp Electronics (Italia) S.p.A., c. Trenitalia S.p.A.) ha confermato che "il trasporto multimodale di cose per via marittima e terrestre, sebbene caratterizzato dall'assoluta prevalenza del tratto marittimo, non rientra nell'ambito della normativa speciale prevista dalla convenzione di Bruxelles del 1924 sulla polizza di carico riguardante il solo contratto che si svolge esclusivamente per via marittima, ma rimane regolato dalla disciplina del codice civile".

L'applicazione al trasporto multimodale della teoria unitaria (ovvero della disciplina del codice civile) ha però avuto, fino al 2006, effetti particolarmente gravi per il vettore multimodale sotto il profilo della limitazione della responsabilità. Infatti, non prevedendo il codice civile (fino alla riforma dell'articolo 1696 c.c.) alcun limite risarcitorio, era preclusa al vettore multimodale la possibilità di invocare limiti al risarcimento (anche in mancanza di dolo o colpa grave).

Tale stato di fatto produceva un'ulteriore e grave conseguenza in virtù della quale, qualora il vettore multimodale avesse affidato (come di regola accade) l'esecuzione della tratta terrestre, marittima o aerea ad un subvettore, quest'ultimo nell'eventuale azione di regresso avrebbe potuto eccepire i limiti e gli esoneri di responsabilità della disciplina propria del trasporto da esso eseguito, con il conseguente rischio per il vettore multimodale di non poter recuperare per intero quanto posto a suo carico per il risarcimento del danno.

Questo stato di cose è recentemente mutato grazie alla riforma portata dal Dlgs 286/2005.

Come noto, infatti, il codice civile ora prevede al suo articolo 1696 c.c. un limite risarcitorio a favore del vettore, limite che (per ogni chilo di merce perduta o danneggiata) è pari ad un euro nel trasporto nazionale, oppure a 8.33 Diritti Speciali di Prelievo per il trasporto internazionale.

Pertanto, ferma restando l'interpretazione unitaria, e quindi l'applicabilità della disciplina del codice civile al trasporto misto, il vettore multimodale potrà oggi quanto meno invocare il limite sopra indicato.

The content of this article is intended to provide a general guide to the subject matter. Specialist advice should be sought about your specific circumstances.

To print this article, all you need is to be registered on Mondaq.com.

Click to Login as an existing user or Register so you can print this article.

Authors
 
Some comments from our readers…
“The articles are extremely timely and highly applicable”
“I often find critical information not available elsewhere”
“As in-house counsel, Mondaq’s service is of great value”

Related Topics
 
Related Articles
 
Up-coming Events Search
Tools
Print
Font Size:
Translation
Channels
Mondaq on Twitter
 
Register for Access and our Free Biweekly Alert for
This service is completely free. Access 250,000 archived articles from 100+ countries and get a personalised email twice a week covering developments (and yes, our lawyers like to think you’ve read our Disclaimer).
 
Email Address
Company Name
Password
Confirm Password
Position
Mondaq Topics -- Select your Interests
 Accounting
 Anti-trust
 Commercial
 Compliance
 Consumer
 Criminal
 Employment
 Energy
 Environment
 Family
 Finance
 Government
 Healthcare
 Immigration
 Insolvency
 Insurance
 International
 IP
 Law Performance
 Law Practice
 Litigation
 Media & IT
 Privacy
 Real Estate
 Strategy
 Tax
 Technology
 Transport
 Wealth Mgt
Regions
Africa
Asia
Asia Pacific
Australasia
Canada
Caribbean
Europe
European Union
Latin America
Middle East
U.K.
United States
Worldwide Updates
Registration (you must scroll down to set your data preferences)

Mondaq Ltd requires you to register and provide information that personally identifies you, including your content preferences, for three primary purposes (full details of Mondaq’s use of your personal data can be found in our Privacy and Cookies Notice):

  • To allow you to personalize the Mondaq websites you are visiting to show content ("Content") relevant to your interests.
  • To enable features such as password reminder, news alerts, email a colleague, and linking from Mondaq (and its affiliate sites) to your website.
  • To produce demographic feedback for our content providers ("Contributors") who contribute Content for free for your use.

Mondaq hopes that our registered users will support us in maintaining our free to view business model by consenting to our use of your personal data as described below.

Mondaq has a "free to view" business model. Our services are paid for by Contributors in exchange for Mondaq providing them with access to information about who accesses their content. Once personal data is transferred to our Contributors they become a data controller of this personal data. They use it to measure the response that their articles are receiving, as a form of market research. They may also use it to provide Mondaq users with information about their products and services.

Details of each Contributor to which your personal data will be transferred is clearly stated within the Content that you access. For full details of how this Contributor will use your personal data, you should review the Contributor’s own Privacy Notice.

Please indicate your preference below:

Yes, I am happy to support Mondaq in maintaining its free to view business model by agreeing to allow Mondaq to share my personal data with Contributors whose Content I access
No, I do not want Mondaq to share my personal data with Contributors

Also please let us know whether you are happy to receive communications promoting products and services offered by Mondaq:

Yes, I am happy to received promotional communications from Mondaq
No, please do not send me promotional communications from Mondaq
Terms & Conditions

Mondaq.com (the Website) is owned and managed by Mondaq Ltd (Mondaq). Mondaq grants you a non-exclusive, revocable licence to access the Website and associated services, such as the Mondaq News Alerts (Services), subject to and in consideration of your compliance with the following terms and conditions of use (Terms). Your use of the Website and/or Services constitutes your agreement to the Terms. Mondaq may terminate your use of the Website and Services if you are in breach of these Terms or if Mondaq decides to terminate the licence granted hereunder for any reason whatsoever.

Use of www.mondaq.com

To Use Mondaq.com you must be: eighteen (18) years old or over; legally capable of entering into binding contracts; and not in any way prohibited by the applicable law to enter into these Terms in the jurisdiction which you are currently located.

You may use the Website as an unregistered user, however, you are required to register as a user if you wish to read the full text of the Content or to receive the Services.

You may not modify, publish, transmit, transfer or sell, reproduce, create derivative works from, distribute, perform, link, display, or in any way exploit any of the Content, in whole or in part, except as expressly permitted in these Terms or with the prior written consent of Mondaq. You may not use electronic or other means to extract details or information from the Content. Nor shall you extract information about users or Contributors in order to offer them any services or products.

In your use of the Website and/or Services you shall: comply with all applicable laws, regulations, directives and legislations which apply to your Use of the Website and/or Services in whatever country you are physically located including without limitation any and all consumer law, export control laws and regulations; provide to us true, correct and accurate information and promptly inform us in the event that any information that you have provided to us changes or becomes inaccurate; notify Mondaq immediately of any circumstances where you have reason to believe that any Intellectual Property Rights or any other rights of any third party may have been infringed; co-operate with reasonable security or other checks or requests for information made by Mondaq from time to time; and at all times be fully liable for the breach of any of these Terms by a third party using your login details to access the Website and/or Services

however, you shall not: do anything likely to impair, interfere with or damage or cause harm or distress to any persons, or the network; do anything that will infringe any Intellectual Property Rights or other rights of Mondaq or any third party; or use the Website, Services and/or Content otherwise than in accordance with these Terms; use any trade marks or service marks of Mondaq or the Contributors, or do anything which may be seen to take unfair advantage of the reputation and goodwill of Mondaq or the Contributors, or the Website, Services and/or Content.

Mondaq reserves the right, in its sole discretion, to take any action that it deems necessary and appropriate in the event it considers that there is a breach or threatened breach of the Terms.

Mondaq’s Rights and Obligations

Unless otherwise expressly set out to the contrary, nothing in these Terms shall serve to transfer from Mondaq to you, any Intellectual Property Rights owned by and/or licensed to Mondaq and all rights, title and interest in and to such Intellectual Property Rights will remain exclusively with Mondaq and/or its licensors.

Mondaq shall use its reasonable endeavours to make the Website and Services available to you at all times, but we cannot guarantee an uninterrupted and fault free service.

Mondaq reserves the right to make changes to the services and/or the Website or part thereof, from time to time, and we may add, remove, modify and/or vary any elements of features and functionalities of the Website or the services.

Mondaq also reserves the right from time to time to monitor your Use of the Website and/or services.

Disclaimer

The Content is general information only. It is not intended to constitute legal advice or seek to be the complete and comprehensive statement of the law, nor is it intended to address your specific requirements or provide advice on which reliance should be placed. Mondaq and/or its Contributors and other suppliers make no representations about the suitability of the information contained in the Content for any purpose. All Content provided "as is" without warranty of any kind. Mondaq and/or its Contributors and other suppliers hereby exclude and disclaim all representations, warranties or guarantees with regard to the Content, including all implied warranties and conditions of merchantability, fitness for a particular purpose, title and non-infringement. To the maximum extent permitted by law, Mondaq expressly excludes all representations, warranties, obligations, and liabilities arising out of or in connection with all Content. In no event shall Mondaq and/or its respective suppliers be liable for any special, indirect or consequential damages or any damages whatsoever resulting from loss of use, data or profits, whether in an action of contract, negligence or other tortious action, arising out of or in connection with the use of the Content or performance of Mondaq’s Services.

General

Mondaq may alter or amend these Terms by amending them on the Website. By continuing to Use the Services and/or the Website after such amendment, you will be deemed to have accepted any amendment to these Terms.

These Terms shall be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws of England and Wales and you irrevocably submit to the exclusive jurisdiction of the courts of England and Wales to settle any dispute which may arise out of or in connection with these Terms. If you live outside the United Kingdom, English law shall apply only to the extent that English law shall not deprive you of any legal protection accorded in accordance with the law of the place where you are habitually resident ("Local Law"). In the event English law deprives you of any legal protection which is accorded to you under Local Law, then these terms shall be governed by Local Law and any dispute or claim arising out of or in connection with these Terms shall be subject to the non-exclusive jurisdiction of the courts where you are habitually resident.

You may print and keep a copy of these Terms, which form the entire agreement between you and Mondaq and supersede any other communications or advertising in respect of the Service and/or the Website.

No delay in exercising or non-exercise by you and/or Mondaq of any of its rights under or in connection with these Terms shall operate as a waiver or release of each of your or Mondaq’s right. Rather, any such waiver or release must be specifically granted in writing signed by the party granting it.

If any part of these Terms is held unenforceable, that part shall be enforced to the maximum extent permissible so as to give effect to the intent of the parties, and the Terms shall continue in full force and effect.

Mondaq shall not incur any liability to you on account of any loss or damage resulting from any delay or failure to perform all or any part of these Terms if such delay or failure is caused, in whole or in part, by events, occurrences, or causes beyond the control of Mondaq. Such events, occurrences or causes will include, without limitation, acts of God, strikes, lockouts, server and network failure, riots, acts of war, earthquakes, fire and explosions.

By clicking Register you state you have read and agree to our Terms and Conditions