India: Laws Relating To Social Security In India

Employees Provident Funds and Miscellaneous Provisions Act, 1952

The Employees Provident Funds and Miscellaneous Provisions Act, 1952 (the "EPF Act") provides for the institution of provident funds, pension funds, and deposit-linked insurance funds for employees and applies to all establishments employing 20 or more persons or class of persons. An establishment to which the EPF Act applies shall continue to be governed by this Act, notwithstanding that the number of persons employed therein at any time falls below 20.

On account of 2014 Amendment to the said Act, The definition of "excluded employee" has been amended whereby the members drawing wages exceeding Rs 15,000 per month have been excluded from the provisions of the PF Scheme. Accordingly, the wage ceiling for an employee to be eligible for the PF Scheme has been increased from Rs 6,500 per month to Rs 15,000 per month. It further provides that every employee employed in or in connection with the work of a factory or other establishment is required to become a member of the Provident Fund.

The 2014 Amendment further lays down the following changes:

  1. New members (joining on or after 1 September 2014) drawing wages above Rs 15,000 per month shall not be eligible to voluntarily contribute to the Pension Scheme.
  2. The pensionable salary shall be calculated on the average monthly pay for the contribution period of the last 60 months (earlier 12 months) preceding the date of exit from the membership.
  3. The monthly pension for any existing or future member shall not be less than Rs 1,000 for the financial year 2014-2015.
  4. The contribution payable under the Insurance Scheme shall also be calculated on a monthly pay of Rs 15,000, instead of Rs 6,500.
  5. In the event of death of a member (on or after 1 September 2014), the assurance benefits available under the Insurance Scheme has been increased by twenty percent (20%) in addition to the already admissible benefits.

Contributions to the Provident Fund are to be made at the rate of 12% of the wages by the employers with the employee contributing an equal amount. The employee may voluntarily contribute a higher amount but the employer is not obliged to contribute more than the prescribed amount. Further, the EPF Act contains provisions for transfer of accumulations in case of change of employment.

In terms of power conferred under s 143(11) of the Companies Act, 2013, the Central Government has issued the Companies (Auditor's Report) Order, 2015 (CARO), which came into force on 10 April, 2015. Clause (vii) (a) of Paragraph 3 provides that:

The [Statutory] Auditor has to report, inter alia, on the following:

  1. Is the company regular in depositing undisputed statutory dues, eg, Provident Fund, Investor Education and Protection Fund, Employees' State Insurance, income tax, wealth tax, service tax, sales tax, customs duty, excise duty, cess and any other statutory duties with the appropriate authorities?
  2. If not paid regularly, the extent of the arrears of outstanding statutory dues as on the last day of the financial year concerned for a period of more than six months from the date they became payable, then it shall be indicated in the report.
  3. If such non-payment of dues is on account of any dispute, then the amount involved and for the forum where the dispute is pending should also be mentioned.

The CARO is, however, not applicable to a banking company, an insurance company, s 8 company, one person company, small companies and certain class of private companies, as specified under the CARO.

Employees' State Insurance Act, 1948

The Employees' State Insurance Act, 1948 (the ESI Act) is a social welfare legislation enacted with the objective of providing certain benefits to employees in case of sickness, maternity and employment injury. In terms of the provisions of the ESI Act, the eligible employees will receive medical relief, cash benefits, maternity benefits, pension to dependants of deceased workers and compensation for fatal or other injuries and diseases. It is applicable to establishments where 10 or more persons are employed. All employees, including casual, temporary or contract employees drawing wages less than Rs 15,000 per month, are covered under the ESI Act. This limit has been increased from Rs 10,000 to Rs 15,000 w.e.f. May 1, 2010.

The Government enacted as the Employees' State Insurance (Amendment) Act, 2010 (No.18 of 2010). All the provisions of the ESI (Amendment) Act 2010 (except s 18) have come into effect from June 1, 2010. The salient features of the ESI (Amendment) Act are as under:

  • facilitating coverage of smaller factories;
  • enhancing age limit of dependent children for eligibility to dependants benefit;
  • extending medical benefit to dependant minor brother/sister in case of insured persons not having own family and whose parents are also not alive;
  • streamlining the procedure for assessment of dues from defaulting employers;
  • providing an Appellate Authority within the ESI Corporation against assessment to avoid unnecessary litigation;
  • continuing medical benefit to insured persons retiring under VRS scheme or taking premature retirement;
  • treating commuting accidents as employment injury;
  • streamlining the procedure for grant of exemptions;
  • third party participation in commissioning and running of the hospitals;
  • opening of medical/ dental/ paramedical/ nursing colleges to improve quality of medical care;
  • making an enabling provision for extending medical care to other beneficiaries against payment of user charges to facilitate providing of medical care from under utilised ESI Hospitals to the BPL families covered under the Rashtriya Swasthaya Bima Yojana introduced by the Ministry of Labour & Employment w.e.f. 1.4.2008;
  • reducing duration of notice period for extension of the Act to new classes of establishments from six months to one month;
  • empowering State Governments to set up autonomous Corporations for administering medical benefit in the States for bringing autonomy and efficiency in the working.

The employer should get his factory or establishment registered with the Employees' State Insurance Corporation (ESIC) within 15 days after the Act becomes applicable to it, and obtain the employer's code number.

The employer is required to contribute at the rate of 4.75% of the wages paid/ payable in respect of every wage period. The employees are also required to contribute at the rate of 1.75% of their wages.

It is the responsibility of the employer to deposit such contributions (employer's and employees') in respect of all employees (including the contract labour) into the ESI account.

Labour Welfare Fund Act (of respective States)

The [State] Labour Welfare Fund Act provides for the constitution of the Labour Welfare Fund to promote and carry out various activities conducive to the welfare of labour in the State so as to ensure full and appropriate utilisation of the Fund.

Payment of Gratuity Act, 1972

The Payment of Gratuity Act, 1972 (the Gratuity Act) applies to (i) every factory, mine, oilfield, plantation, port and railway company; (ii) every shop or establishment within the meaning of any law, for the time being in force, in relation to shops and establishments in a State, in which 10 or more persons are employed or were employed on any day of the preceding twelve months; and (iii) such other establishments or classes of establishments, in which 10 or more persons are employed or were employed on any day of the preceding twelve months, as the Central Government may, by notification, specify in this behalf.

The Gratuity Act provides for a scheme for the payment of gratuity to employees engaged in factories, mines, oilfields, plantations, ports, railway companies, shops or other establishments. The Gratuity Act enforces the payment of "gratuity", a reward for long service, as a statutory retiral benefit.

Every employee, who has completed continuous service of five years or more, irrespective of his wages, is entitled to receive gratuity upon termination of his employment, on account of (i) superannuation; or (ii) retirement; or (iii) death or disablement due to accident or disease. However, the completion of continuous service of five years shall not be necessary where the termination of employment of any employee is due to death or disablement.

The gratuity is payable even to an employee who resigns after completing at least five years of service.

The gratuity is payable at the rate of fifteen days wages for every year of completed service, subject to an aggregate amount of Rupees ten lacs only. However, if an employee has the right to receive higher gratuity under a contract or under an award, then the employee is entitled to get higher gratuity.

Sulekha Kaul, Principal Associate, Vaish Associates Advocates
Phone: +91 11 42492516 Email: sulekha@vaishlaw.com

© 2017, Vaish Associates Advocates,
All rights reserved
Advocates, 1st & 11th Floors, Mohan Dev Building 13, Tolstoy Marg New Delhi-110001 (India).

The content of this article is intended to provide a general guide to the subject matter. Specialist professional advice should be sought about your specific circumstances. The views expressed in this article are solely of the authors of this article.

To print this article, all you need is to be registered on Mondaq.com.

Click to Login as an existing user or Register so you can print this article.

Authors
Similar Articles
Relevancy Powered by MondaqAI
Vaish Associates Advocates
 
In association with
Related Topics
 
Similar Articles
Relevancy Powered by MondaqAI
Vaish Associates Advocates
Related Articles
 
Related Video
Up-coming Events Search
Tools
Print
Font Size:
Translation
Channels
Mondaq on Twitter
 
Register for Access and our Free Biweekly Alert for
This service is completely free. Access 250,000 archived articles from 100+ countries and get a personalised email twice a week covering developments (and yes, our lawyers like to think you’ve read our Disclaimer).
 
Email Address
Company Name
Password
Confirm Password
Position
Mondaq Topics -- Select your Interests
 Accounting
 Anti-trust
 Commercial
 Compliance
 Consumer
 Criminal
 Employment
 Energy
 Environment
 Family
 Finance
 Government
 Healthcare
 Immigration
 Insolvency
 Insurance
 International
 IP
 Law Performance
 Law Practice
 Litigation
 Media & IT
 Privacy
 Real Estate
 Strategy
 Tax
 Technology
 Transport
 Wealth Mgt
Regions
Africa
Asia
Asia Pacific
Australasia
Canada
Caribbean
Europe
European Union
Latin America
Middle East
U.K.
United States
Worldwide Updates
Registration (you must scroll down to set your data preferences)

Mondaq Ltd requires you to register and provide information that personally identifies you, including your content preferences, for three primary purposes (full details of Mondaq’s use of your personal data can be found in our Privacy and Cookies Notice):

  • To allow you to personalize the Mondaq websites you are visiting to show content ("Content") relevant to your interests.
  • To enable features such as password reminder, news alerts, email a colleague, and linking from Mondaq (and its affiliate sites) to your website.
  • To produce demographic feedback for our content providers ("Contributors") who contribute Content for free for your use.

Mondaq hopes that our registered users will support us in maintaining our free to view business model by consenting to our use of your personal data as described below.

Mondaq has a "free to view" business model. Our services are paid for by Contributors in exchange for Mondaq providing them with access to information about who accesses their content. Once personal data is transferred to our Contributors they become a data controller of this personal data. They use it to measure the response that their articles are receiving, as a form of market research. They may also use it to provide Mondaq users with information about their products and services.

Details of each Contributor to which your personal data will be transferred is clearly stated within the Content that you access. For full details of how this Contributor will use your personal data, you should review the Contributor’s own Privacy Notice.

Please indicate your preference below:

Yes, I am happy to support Mondaq in maintaining its free to view business model by agreeing to allow Mondaq to share my personal data with Contributors whose Content I access
No, I do not want Mondaq to share my personal data with Contributors

Also please let us know whether you are happy to receive communications promoting products and services offered by Mondaq:

Yes, I am happy to received promotional communications from Mondaq
No, please do not send me promotional communications from Mondaq
Terms & Conditions

Mondaq.com (the Website) is owned and managed by Mondaq Ltd (Mondaq). Mondaq grants you a non-exclusive, revocable licence to access the Website and associated services, such as the Mondaq News Alerts (Services), subject to and in consideration of your compliance with the following terms and conditions of use (Terms). Your use of the Website and/or Services constitutes your agreement to the Terms. Mondaq may terminate your use of the Website and Services if you are in breach of these Terms or if Mondaq decides to terminate the licence granted hereunder for any reason whatsoever.

Use of www.mondaq.com

To Use Mondaq.com you must be: eighteen (18) years old or over; legally capable of entering into binding contracts; and not in any way prohibited by the applicable law to enter into these Terms in the jurisdiction which you are currently located.

You may use the Website as an unregistered user, however, you are required to register as a user if you wish to read the full text of the Content or to receive the Services.

You may not modify, publish, transmit, transfer or sell, reproduce, create derivative works from, distribute, perform, link, display, or in any way exploit any of the Content, in whole or in part, except as expressly permitted in these Terms or with the prior written consent of Mondaq. You may not use electronic or other means to extract details or information from the Content. Nor shall you extract information about users or Contributors in order to offer them any services or products.

In your use of the Website and/or Services you shall: comply with all applicable laws, regulations, directives and legislations which apply to your Use of the Website and/or Services in whatever country you are physically located including without limitation any and all consumer law, export control laws and regulations; provide to us true, correct and accurate information and promptly inform us in the event that any information that you have provided to us changes or becomes inaccurate; notify Mondaq immediately of any circumstances where you have reason to believe that any Intellectual Property Rights or any other rights of any third party may have been infringed; co-operate with reasonable security or other checks or requests for information made by Mondaq from time to time; and at all times be fully liable for the breach of any of these Terms by a third party using your login details to access the Website and/or Services

however, you shall not: do anything likely to impair, interfere with or damage or cause harm or distress to any persons, or the network; do anything that will infringe any Intellectual Property Rights or other rights of Mondaq or any third party; or use the Website, Services and/or Content otherwise than in accordance with these Terms; use any trade marks or service marks of Mondaq or the Contributors, or do anything which may be seen to take unfair advantage of the reputation and goodwill of Mondaq or the Contributors, or the Website, Services and/or Content.

Mondaq reserves the right, in its sole discretion, to take any action that it deems necessary and appropriate in the event it considers that there is a breach or threatened breach of the Terms.

Mondaq’s Rights and Obligations

Unless otherwise expressly set out to the contrary, nothing in these Terms shall serve to transfer from Mondaq to you, any Intellectual Property Rights owned by and/or licensed to Mondaq and all rights, title and interest in and to such Intellectual Property Rights will remain exclusively with Mondaq and/or its licensors.

Mondaq shall use its reasonable endeavours to make the Website and Services available to you at all times, but we cannot guarantee an uninterrupted and fault free service.

Mondaq reserves the right to make changes to the services and/or the Website or part thereof, from time to time, and we may add, remove, modify and/or vary any elements of features and functionalities of the Website or the services.

Mondaq also reserves the right from time to time to monitor your Use of the Website and/or services.

Disclaimer

The Content is general information only. It is not intended to constitute legal advice or seek to be the complete and comprehensive statement of the law, nor is it intended to address your specific requirements or provide advice on which reliance should be placed. Mondaq and/or its Contributors and other suppliers make no representations about the suitability of the information contained in the Content for any purpose. All Content provided "as is" without warranty of any kind. Mondaq and/or its Contributors and other suppliers hereby exclude and disclaim all representations, warranties or guarantees with regard to the Content, including all implied warranties and conditions of merchantability, fitness for a particular purpose, title and non-infringement. To the maximum extent permitted by law, Mondaq expressly excludes all representations, warranties, obligations, and liabilities arising out of or in connection with all Content. In no event shall Mondaq and/or its respective suppliers be liable for any special, indirect or consequential damages or any damages whatsoever resulting from loss of use, data or profits, whether in an action of contract, negligence or other tortious action, arising out of or in connection with the use of the Content or performance of Mondaq’s Services.

General

Mondaq may alter or amend these Terms by amending them on the Website. By continuing to Use the Services and/or the Website after such amendment, you will be deemed to have accepted any amendment to these Terms.

These Terms shall be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws of England and Wales and you irrevocably submit to the exclusive jurisdiction of the courts of England and Wales to settle any dispute which may arise out of or in connection with these Terms. If you live outside the United Kingdom, English law shall apply only to the extent that English law shall not deprive you of any legal protection accorded in accordance with the law of the place where you are habitually resident ("Local Law"). In the event English law deprives you of any legal protection which is accorded to you under Local Law, then these terms shall be governed by Local Law and any dispute or claim arising out of or in connection with these Terms shall be subject to the non-exclusive jurisdiction of the courts where you are habitually resident.

You may print and keep a copy of these Terms, which form the entire agreement between you and Mondaq and supersede any other communications or advertising in respect of the Service and/or the Website.

No delay in exercising or non-exercise by you and/or Mondaq of any of its rights under or in connection with these Terms shall operate as a waiver or release of each of your or Mondaq’s right. Rather, any such waiver or release must be specifically granted in writing signed by the party granting it.

If any part of these Terms is held unenforceable, that part shall be enforced to the maximum extent permissible so as to give effect to the intent of the parties, and the Terms shall continue in full force and effect.

Mondaq shall not incur any liability to you on account of any loss or damage resulting from any delay or failure to perform all or any part of these Terms if such delay or failure is caused, in whole or in part, by events, occurrences, or causes beyond the control of Mondaq. Such events, occurrences or causes will include, without limitation, acts of God, strikes, lockouts, server and network failure, riots, acts of war, earthquakes, fire and explosions.

By clicking Register you state you have read and agree to our Terms and Conditions