India: Domain Names: The New Virtual Address

Last Updated: 8 January 2014
Article by Himanshu Sharma and Rangoli Nigam

Most Read Contributor in India, September 2016

"Domains have and will continue to go up in value faster than any other commodity ever known to man" — Bill Gates.

The use of internet at present times has increased manifold and has thus acquired a place in our everyday lives. Consequently,'Domain Names' which were initially mere addresses for communication over the internet are now increasingly being considered as the property and the new virtual address of the owner. A domain name is a word that identifies one or more Internet Protocol addresses (an identifier for a computer or device on a network). Domain names are used in URL (Uniform Resource Locator, the global address of documents and other resource on the World Wide Web).2 Intellectual property (IP) refers to creations of the mind, such as inventions; literary and artistic works; designs; and symbols, names and images used in commerce.3

A trade mark is defined as a mark capable of being represented graphically and which is capable of distinguishing the goods or services of one person from those of others and may include shape of goods, their packaging and combination of colors.4 Domain names, therefore, come within the purview of Trade Marks as they are capable of uniquely identifying or distinguishing the goods or services of one entity from another. Increasingly domain names are being used as tools for marketing consequently consumers are more likely to associate them to particular quality of goods or to the goods or services of a particular entity. Hence, a need for the protection of the domain names is imminent.

The domain name disputes related to the issue of trademark are sometimes termed as cyber squatting or reverse domain name hijacking. Both concepts are related to the misuse of the domain name, but there is a difference between them.

Cyber Squatting And Reverse Domain Name Hijacking: Difference

The concept of Reverse domain name hijacking at the first instance somewhat appears to be similar to that of cyber squatting, but when looked in entirety they have conceptual difference.

Reverse domain name hijacking (also sometimes called reverse cyber squatting) is when a trademark owner who wants to obtain a particular domain name, files a lawsuit against the domain name owner who has acquired the domain name legitimately (either before the trademark owner's mark became famous or distinctive or because of some other legitimate interest in the domain name) in order exert pressure against such owner to turn over the domain name to the trademark owner.

The district court of US in the case of Sporty'sFarmL.L.C v. Sportsman's Market Inc.5 noted;

"cyber squatting" occurs when a person other than the trademark holder registers the domain name similar to a well known trademark and then attempts to profit from this by either ransoming the domain name back to the trademark holder or by using the domain name to divert business from the trademark holder to the domain name holder.

As long as cyber squatter owns the domain name, the trademark owner cannot register its own trademark as a domain name. In this sense the cyber squatter breaches the fundamental right of the trademark owner to use its trademark provided under the Trade Marks Act, 1999.

The basic line of difference between the two is that reverse domain name hijacking is a situation where a properly registered domain is stolen by another person. It is not necessary that this name is a trade mark as compared to cyber squatting.

Domain Name Protection:An International Insight

The Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN) is a not for profit international regulatory authority of domain names and provides for the registration of domain names. It adopted the Uniform Domain Name Disputes Resolution policy (UDRP) which guides the dispute resolutions arising due to registration of domain names.

The ICANN establishes two kinds of disputes with reference to domain names which are:

(i) Disputes between the trade mark owners and domain name owners;

(ii) Disputes between two or more domain name owners.

The prominent rules entailed by the UDRP are as follows:

(a) Rule 2 entails that prior to the registration of a domain name; the applicant must prove that such registration would not be in violation of other entities' trade mark rights.

(b) Rule 4 (a) provides that :

(i) the domain name is confusingly similar to that of the complainant; and

(ii) the registrant does not possess any legitimate interest in the domain name; and

(iii) registration and usage of the domain name was done in bad faith;

are sufficient grounds for transfer of the disputed domain name to the complainant.

(c) Rule 4 (b) provides for cyber-squatting as an act done in bad faith. Act such as selling the disputed domain name to the competitor of the owner of the trade mark, registration of domain name primarily for commercial gain from the trade mark etc come under the purview of cyber-squatting.

(d) Rule 4 (k) provides that the owner of the domain name or the complainant can file a suit in a court of competent jurisdiction either prior to proceeding under the ICANN policy or subsequent to the conclusion of proceedings under the policy.

Defences In The Proceeding By The Respondent

The UDRP provides that certain actions shall not be held as infringement of domain names under Rule 4 (k). Such actions can be taken as defences against contentions of the complainant.They are as follows:

(i) Prior to the notice to the registrant of the domain name, the disputed domain name was in use in relation to the bonafide offering of goods or services;

(ii) The domain name owner has been generally known by the disputed domain name despite no trademark rights or service mark rights in connection with the disputed domain name;

(iii) The domain name is in use by the owner for legitimate and non-commercial purposes only.

In the case of Cardservice International Inc. v. McGee6 it was held that domain names cannot be regarded as mere address on the internet but serves the same function as trademarks. Hence, domain names should be granted the same protection as provided to trademarks under the law.

British Telecommunications Pic v. One in a Million Ltd.7

is a leading case where it was held that the law in relation to passing off was also relevant in case of infringement of domain names. The defendants in the instant case registered the names which were the well known trade names of the plaintiff, it was ruled that such registration was motivated by the goodwill of the trademark names. Hence the court of appeal upheld the order of injunction against the defendant.

Domain Name Protection: Indian Aspect

At present, no specific legislation deals with domain name disputes. However, the country code for top level domain name '.in' is governed by the '.IN' Domain Name Dispute Resolution Policy (INDRP) which is formulated on the principles of the UDNDR policy. A person can also move to the court against the misuse of his trademarks by filing a suit for infringement/ passing-off, if his trademark is registered by a third person in his name as domain name.

The Policies of INDRP are similar to the ICANN's UDRP policies further in the absence of specific legislations; Indian courts have relied on judicial precedents and foreign judgments in deciding various disputes regarding Domain Names in India.

Whether Trade Mark laws are applicable in domain names was answered in the affirmative in Satyam Infoway Ltd v Sifynet Solutions Pvt Ltd.8 It was observed be the Hon'ble Court that since a domain name should necessarily be peculiar and unique it becomes necessary to maintain its exclusive identity. Hence, the Hon'ble Supreme Court held that Trade Mark Law is applicable to domain names, as a domain name falls within the meaning of the term 'services' as defined under Section 2(z) of the Trade Marks Act, 1999. Also, since a domain name could possess all the properties of a Trade Mark, remedies for an action of passing off are also available in respect of domain names.

The courts in various decisions have established that in order to establish passing off of a well known trademark, the conditions in Rule 4(a) in the UDNDR Policy should be fulfilled. In Hindustan petroleum Corporation Ltd

V. Mr Ram Swamy, arbitration proceedings were initiated under the INDR Policy against the impugned domain name ''. The second level domain name was similar to that of the respondents with the only difference being the top level domain name. It was held that such registration of domain names would leave well known marks unprotected hence mere difference in top level domain name cannot be used to the benefit of the owner of the impugned domain name.The impugned domain name was held to be confusingly similar to the domain name '' of the complainants and was held to be registered in bad faith.

In Acqua Minerals Ltd v. Promod Borsey and Anr9 the Hon'ble court opined that unless a person is able to establish bonafide intentions for registering a particular name, which has been in use previously for a long duration such that it has gained goodwill, as its domain name, it shall be presumed that the registration of such a name was with the intention to gain from the goodwill of the trade name. The plaintiff in the instant case was successful in obtaining an injunction against the defendant for using the mark BISLERI or BISLERI.COM as the plaintiff was its registered owner.

Also, common English words can be protected under Trade Mark laws if the trademark has acquired a secondary meaning and people only recognize goods and services of the owner from the trademark itself. Thus in General media Communications Inc v. Deepak Daftari10 a complaint to INDRP is filed by the complainant and the impugned domain name 'www.' was held to be confusingly similar to the domain name ''. The contention by the respondent that the word penthouse was generic / common word was set aside by the arbitrator.

More recently in Tata Sons Ltd & Anr v Arno Palmen & Anr11 the Hon'ble High court of Delhi observed that it was a case of cyber squatting as the defendant registered the domain name in bad faith with the objective of selling the impugned domain name to the plaintiff. The Court hence granted an injunction in favour of the plaintiff against using the domain name 'WWW.TATAINFOTECH.IN' as it was held to be deceptively similar to the plaintiff's trademark 'TATA'. Also, the defendant no 2, Key- Systems GmBH was directed to cancel the registration of the impugned domain name in favor of the defendant.


Domain names are such an important tool in the modern business world that it has become the virtual address of an organization.They are secondary to none when its contribution is valued in the balance sheet of an organization in comparison to other assets, and hence, requires all protection in order to take the maximum benefits out of it. Even though there is no specific law which deals with the dispute related to the domain names, but the mechanism provided under INDRP for the settlement of disputes related to the domain names can help in protection of domain name in addition to protection under the common law and law of trademarks.


1.Student of Symbiosis Law School and Intern at Singh and Associates.


3. Available at html retrieved on 11/12/2013 at 1:54 IST

4. Section 2 (zb) of the Trade Marks Act, 1999

5. 202 F.3d 489 493 (2d Cir.2000).

6. 2 42 USPQ 2d 1850

7. (1999) FSR 1 (CA)

8. 2002) 6 SCC 145

9.AIR 2001 Del 463

10.INDRP/466 dated 09/05/2013

11.2013(54) PTC 424 ( Del)

The content of this article is intended to provide a general guide to the subject matter. Specialist advice should be sought about your specific circumstances.

To print this article, all you need is to be registered on

Click to Login as an existing user or Register so you can print this article.

In association with
Up-coming Events Search
Font Size:
Mondaq on Twitter
Register for Access and our Free Biweekly Alert for
This service is completely free. Access 250,000 archived articles from 100+ countries and get a personalised email twice a week covering developments (and yes, our lawyers like to think you’ve read our Disclaimer).
Email Address
Company Name
Confirm Password
Mondaq Topics -- Select your Interests
 Law Performance
 Law Practice
 Media & IT
 Real Estate
 Wealth Mgt
Asia Pacific
European Union
Latin America
Middle East
United States
Worldwide Updates
Check to state you have read and
agree to our Terms and Conditions

Terms & Conditions and Privacy Statement (the Website) is owned and managed by Mondaq Ltd and as a user you are granted a non-exclusive, revocable license to access the Website under its terms and conditions of use. Your use of the Website constitutes your agreement to the following terms and conditions of use. Mondaq Ltd may terminate your use of the Website if you are in breach of these terms and conditions or if Mondaq Ltd decides to terminate your license of use for whatever reason.

Use of

You may use the Website but are required to register as a user if you wish to read the full text of the content and articles available (the Content). You may not modify, publish, transmit, transfer or sell, reproduce, create derivative works from, distribute, perform, link, display, or in any way exploit any of the Content, in whole or in part, except as expressly permitted in these terms & conditions or with the prior written consent of Mondaq Ltd. You may not use electronic or other means to extract details or information about’s content, users or contributors in order to offer them any services or products which compete directly or indirectly with Mondaq Ltd’s services and products.


Mondaq Ltd and/or its respective suppliers make no representations about the suitability of the information contained in the documents and related graphics published on this server for any purpose. All such documents and related graphics are provided "as is" without warranty of any kind. Mondaq Ltd and/or its respective suppliers hereby disclaim all warranties and conditions with regard to this information, including all implied warranties and conditions of merchantability, fitness for a particular purpose, title and non-infringement. In no event shall Mondaq Ltd and/or its respective suppliers be liable for any special, indirect or consequential damages or any damages whatsoever resulting from loss of use, data or profits, whether in an action of contract, negligence or other tortious action, arising out of or in connection with the use or performance of information available from this server.

The documents and related graphics published on this server could include technical inaccuracies or typographical errors. Changes are periodically added to the information herein. Mondaq Ltd and/or its respective suppliers may make improvements and/or changes in the product(s) and/or the program(s) described herein at any time.


Mondaq Ltd requires you to register and provide information that personally identifies you, including what sort of information you are interested in, for three primary purposes:

  • To allow you to personalize the Mondaq websites you are visiting.
  • To enable features such as password reminder, newsletter alerts, email a colleague, and linking from Mondaq (and its affiliate sites) to your website.
  • To produce demographic feedback for our information providers who provide information free for your use.

Mondaq (and its affiliate sites) do not sell or provide your details to third parties other than information providers. The reason we provide our information providers with this information is so that they can measure the response their articles are receiving and provide you with information about their products and services.

If you do not want us to provide your name and email address you may opt out by clicking here .

If you do not wish to receive any future announcements of products and services offered by Mondaq by clicking here .

Information Collection and Use

We require site users to register with Mondaq (and its affiliate sites) to view the free information on the site. We also collect information from our users at several different points on the websites: this is so that we can customise the sites according to individual usage, provide 'session-aware' functionality, and ensure that content is acquired and developed appropriately. This gives us an overall picture of our user profiles, which in turn shows to our Editorial Contributors the type of person they are reaching by posting articles on Mondaq (and its affiliate sites) – meaning more free content for registered users.

We are only able to provide the material on the Mondaq (and its affiliate sites) site free to site visitors because we can pass on information about the pages that users are viewing and the personal information users provide to us (e.g. email addresses) to reputable contributing firms such as law firms who author those pages. We do not sell or rent information to anyone else other than the authors of those pages, who may change from time to time. Should you wish us not to disclose your details to any of these parties, please tick the box above or tick the box marked "Opt out of Registration Information Disclosure" on the Your Profile page. We and our author organisations may only contact you via email or other means if you allow us to do so. Users can opt out of contact when they register on the site, or send an email to with “no disclosure” in the subject heading

Mondaq News Alerts

In order to receive Mondaq News Alerts, users have to complete a separate registration form. This is a personalised service where users choose regions and topics of interest and we send it only to those users who have requested it. Users can stop receiving these Alerts by going to the Mondaq News Alerts page and deselecting all interest areas. In the same way users can amend their personal preferences to add or remove subject areas.


A cookie is a small text file written to a user’s hard drive that contains an identifying user number. The cookies do not contain any personal information about users. We use the cookie so users do not have to log in every time they use the service and the cookie will automatically expire if you do not visit the Mondaq website (or its affiliate sites) for 12 months. We also use the cookie to personalise a user's experience of the site (for example to show information specific to a user's region). As the Mondaq sites are fully personalised and cookies are essential to its core technology the site will function unpredictably with browsers that do not support cookies - or where cookies are disabled (in these circumstances we advise you to attempt to locate the information you require elsewhere on the web). However if you are concerned about the presence of a Mondaq cookie on your machine you can also choose to expire the cookie immediately (remove it) by selecting the 'Log Off' menu option as the last thing you do when you use the site.

Some of our business partners may use cookies on our site (for example, advertisers). However, we have no access to or control over these cookies and we are not aware of any at present that do so.

Log Files

We use IP addresses to analyse trends, administer the site, track movement, and gather broad demographic information for aggregate use. IP addresses are not linked to personally identifiable information.


This web site contains links to other sites. Please be aware that Mondaq (or its affiliate sites) are not responsible for the privacy practices of such other sites. We encourage our users to be aware when they leave our site and to read the privacy statements of these third party sites. This privacy statement applies solely to information collected by this Web site.

Surveys & Contests

From time-to-time our site requests information from users via surveys or contests. Participation in these surveys or contests is completely voluntary and the user therefore has a choice whether or not to disclose any information requested. Information requested may include contact information (such as name and delivery address), and demographic information (such as postcode, age level). Contact information will be used to notify the winners and award prizes. Survey information will be used for purposes of monitoring or improving the functionality of the site.


If a user elects to use our referral service for informing a friend about our site, we ask them for the friend’s name and email address. Mondaq stores this information and may contact the friend to invite them to register with Mondaq, but they will not be contacted more than once. The friend may contact Mondaq to request the removal of this information from our database.


This website takes every reasonable precaution to protect our users’ information. When users submit sensitive information via the website, your information is protected using firewalls and other security technology. If you have any questions about the security at our website, you can send an email to

Correcting/Updating Personal Information

If a user’s personally identifiable information changes (such as postcode), or if a user no longer desires our service, we will endeavour to provide a way to correct, update or remove that user’s personal data provided to us. This can usually be done at the “Your Profile” page or by sending an email to

Notification of Changes

If we decide to change our Terms & Conditions or Privacy Policy, we will post those changes on our site so our users are always aware of what information we collect, how we use it, and under what circumstances, if any, we disclose it. If at any point we decide to use personally identifiable information in a manner different from that stated at the time it was collected, we will notify users by way of an email. Users will have a choice as to whether or not we use their information in this different manner. We will use information in accordance with the privacy policy under which the information was collected.

How to contact Mondaq

You can contact us with comments or queries at

If for some reason you believe Mondaq Ltd. has not adhered to these principles, please notify us by e-mail at and we will use commercially reasonable efforts to determine and correct the problem promptly.