Germany: 在德国经商:您应该知道的事情

Last Updated: 11 February 2019
Article by Ursula Rutovitz

德国是世界上最受到条规监管的国家之一。德国的官僚主义和语言往往会令新进企业却步。这方面您可以问问部分刚抵达德国的叙利亚难民。

此文章最初乃刊载于GlobalTradeMag.com。

德国媒体报道,难民对于在德国当地取得房屋、保健和银行户口轮候及审批需时感到惊讶。其中一名难民也表示看不懂德文的房屋补贴申请表格。

报道称,一群积极的叙利亚难民报名参加编码课程,冀望一展所长。他们设计了一个手机应用程式,能下载特定文件、配对相关办公室的位置以及将官方文件翻译为阿拉伯文和英文,并将程式命名为"Bureaucrazy"。

企业可以将本身的经验与难民的经验联系起来。在德国,曾一度有"设置电灯开关的地方"和"垃圾桶形状"的职场条例。然而现在情况已有所改善,因为政府发现太多的繁文缛节会阻碍经济发展。

根据世界银行的研究,在2004年,于 德国成立一家企业平均需要45天的时间;时至2018年,则平均只需10.5天。这是一个良好的进展,因许多申请和提交的程序均已电子化。不过相较于平均只需要4至4.5天的英国和美国,德国的表现仍相对落后。

惟对于德国而言,10.5天的时间已经算是较理想的情况。小型企业或许能在短时间内成立,但要成立规模较大的公司,过程则比较复杂。我们建议您寻求一名本地伙伴的协助,确保准备好正确的文件、授权书、公证及验证,这样才不会让您在商业的努力付之一炬。

为了加快整个过程,空壳公司不失为一个可行的方案。对于那些需要迫切落实交易、签署重要合约、准时给德国客户开具发票、避免延误的国际企业或企业家而言,空壳公司是理想的办法。基于拥有企业银行户口和合法的注册地址,空壳公司已随时准备好营运。

尽管德国被形式化的商业方式所约束,但法律和条规却保护了其他人的利益,如雇员、消费者和环境。强大而历史悠久的贸易联盟、雇员工会,已经为雇员争取很多好处,包括较高薪酬、优后的退休福利、严谨的健康与安全条规等。为提升个人消费,德国在2015年推行全国最低薪金制。

不过,主张自由市场体系的支持者则是反对最低薪金制,并指这会导致工作机会减少,且限制了雇主的灵活度。然而,这些担忧并不确实存在。从2014年12月至2018年2月的三年多以来,整体失业率从4.9%下降至3.5%。消费者开支也有所提升,去年更上升至3.6%,乃自1994年以来的最大涨幅。

虽然面临行政和条例的负累,但德国仍是欧盟最强稳及规模最大的经济体。其质量和效率能在贸易统计中得到证实。根据世界贸易组织,在2017年,德国共占世界商品出口的8.17%,仅在中国和美国之后。当中,制成品更占德国总出口的85%以上。那些想要进军德国的企业和企业家,可以免费下载这 国家简介指南

另外,德国与美国之间的贸易顺差,也显现出该国的竞争力。美国对德国制的汽车、医疗设备和机械均有很高的需求。惟不幸的是,这贸易失衡的情况也造成美国的政治问题。市场也担忧,美国总统特朗普会否持续通过征收进口汽车关税来进行胁逼。

德国政府长久以来对研发的支持,也在该国的工业领域发挥了效用。不仅如此,这也反映在蓬勃发展的科技初创领域上,因科学和制造业主导的企业正吸引着美元投资。受惠于合理的租金、低薪和进口技能,柏林成为欧洲两大初创枢纽之一。

为了迎合市场对技术纯熟员工的需求,柏林一家非盈利机构正为避难者(如叙利亚人)提供培训。而他们也成功创立了Bureaucrazy,说明他们已融入德国的创新精神。

我们拥有本地知识,可以协助您在德国成立企业或精简您在德国的营运, 欢迎与我们联系

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