Germany: 3D-Druck und Produkthaftung: wer haftet?

Last Updated: 1 November 2018
Article by Oliver Korte
Most Read Contributor in Germany, November 2018

Nach dem Produkthaftungsrecht in der Europäischen Union haften Hersteller von Produkten verschuldensunabhängig, wenn ein Produkt unsicher ist und dies zu einer Verletzung bestimmter Rechtsgüter führt (Leben, Körper, Gesundheit, privat genutzte Gegenstände). Andere Personen als Hersteller haften nur unter zusätzlichen Voraussetzungen.

Der Herstellerbegriff ist daher zentral im Produkthaftungsrecht. Werden Produkte im 3D-Druck hergestellt, ändern sich ggf. die Rollen, die es in der herkömmlichen Wertschöpfungskette (Zulieferer-Hersteller-Händler-Nutzer) gibt. Groß- und Einzelhändler kommen ggf. nicht vor, dafür kommen weitere Akteure dazu, wie der Ersteller der CAD-Datei, die die individuellen Befehle zur Steuerung des 3D-Druckers enthält und derjenige, der das Endprodukt ausdruckt (ein privater oder gewerblicher Nutzer oder ein zusätzlich eingeschalteter Dienstleister).

Das Produkthaftungsrecht – das gilt für Deutschland, aber auch alle anderen EU-Staaten – geht dagegen von der herkömmlichen Wertschöpfungskette aus und enthält Regelungen, die unmodifiziert diesen veränderten Rollen nicht gerecht werden. U.a. aus Gründen der richtigen Anreizsetzung (derjenige, der ein Risiko verhindern oder minimieren kann, sollte Anreize erhalten, dies im Rahmen des ökonomisch Vernünftigen zu tun), aber auch aus Gerechtigkeitserwägungen heraus, ist daher eine einerseits weite Auslegung des Herstellerbegriffs angezeigt. Andererseits scheint eine Einschränkung der Haftung der so einbezogenen Personen auf von ihnen beherrschte Herstellungsbereiche sachgerecht. Das führt zu folgenden Thesen:

  1. Der Ersteller einer mit einem 3D-Scanner eingescannten Vorlage, als deren Abbild dann später das Endprodukt ausgedruckt wird, ist nicht Hersteller dieses Endprodukts.
  2. Der Ersteller der CAD-Datei ist Hersteller des später ausgedruckten Endprodukts, was sich insbesondere daraus rechtfertigt, dass die CAD-Datei die den Druckvorgang steuernden Befehle enthält, die der Drucker sklavisch" abarbeitet. Seine Haftung beschränkt sich aber auf Fehler der CAD-Datei, die dann später auf das Endprodukt durchschlagen.
  3. Auch derjenige, der das Produkt ausdruckt, ist Hersteller. Er haftet sowohl für Fehler, die aus einer fehlerhaften CAD-Datei folgen als auch für solche, die aufgrund von Fehlern beim Ausdruckvorgang selbst auftreten.
  4. Setzt derjenige, der das Produkt ausdrucken will, dazu einen externen Dienstleister ein, bleibt er Hersteller, sofern er dem Dienstleister die Datei liefert und haftet für die Fehler des Endprodukts, unabhängig davon, ob diese schon in der CAD-Datei angelegt waren oder nicht.
  5. Aber auch der den Drucker bedienende Dienstleister ist Hersteller; er haftet aber nicht für Fehler der ihm vorgegebenen CAD-Datei, die auf das Endprodukt durchschlagen.

Näheres zum Ganzen – auch unter dogmatischer Herleitung dieser Thesen – kann unserem Aufsatz: Korte/Istrefi, 3D-Druck und Produkthaftung, Der Betrieb 2018, Seite 2482-2486, entnommen werden.

The content of this article is intended to provide a general guide to the subject matter. Specialist advice should be sought about your specific circumstances.

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