Germany: EuGH lässt Beschränkung im Onlinehandel für Luxusmarken zu

Last Updated: 7 December 2017
Article by Sascha Dethof

Der EuGH hat heute über Beschränkungen im Onlinehandel für Luxusmarken entschieden. Ein Anbieter von Luxuswaren kann seinen autorisierten Händlern verbieten, die Waren im Internet über eine Drittplattform wie Amazon zu verkaufen.
Das Bundeskartellamt hat in einer ersten Stellungnahme gewarnt, dieses als generelle Erlaubnis von Beschränkungen im Hinblick auf den Handel über Online Plattformen zu verstehen. Das sei nach Auffassung des Bundeskartellamtes nicht der Fall.

Der Fall "Coty"

Der Parfümhersteller Coty verbot seinen Händlern den Verkauf seiner Premiumdüfte auf gewissen Plattformen. Den Händlern wurde untersagt, unter anderem Düfte der Marken Hugo Boss, Jil Sander und Davidoff auf Plattformen wie Amazon zu verkaufen. Die Marken würden entwertet und ihre Zugehörigkeit zum Luxusmarkt verlieren, wenn diese auf Plattformen verkauft werden, die auch Waren minderwertiger Qualität verkaufen.
Einen Händler, der sich nicht an das Verbot hielt, verklagte Coty vor dem OLG Frankfurt. Dieses legte dem EuGH verschiedene Fragen zu der Zulässigkeit solcher Beschränkungen vor. Dieser hatte zu entscheiden, ob es sich um eine verbotene Wettbewerbsbeschränkung nach Art. 101 Abs. 1 AEUV handelt, ob es sich um eine verbotene Kernbeschränkung nach Artikel 4 der Gruppenfreistellungsverordnung Nr. 330/2010 (Vertikal-GVO) handelt, oder ob es sich doch um eine zulässige vertikale Beschränkung im Sinne von Artikel 2 Vertikal-GVO handelt.


Der EuGH hat nun entschieden: für Luxusprodukte kann das Verbot des Verkaufs auf Drittplattformen zulässig sein. Begründet wird dies im Wesentlichen mit dem Schutz des Luxusimage der Produkte.Zulässig ist laut dem EuGH ein selektives Vertriebssystem für Luxuswaren, welches primär der Imagewahrung dient, sofern die Beschränkung der Wiederverkäufer anhand objektiver Gesichtspunkte qualitativer Art erfolgt. Diese müssen einheitlich und ohne Diskriminierung für alle Wiederverkäufer festgelegt werden und erforderlich sein.
Um das Luxusimage der Waren sicherzustellen, darf den Händlern des Vertriebssystems auch verboten werden, beim Verkauf der Luxuswaren nach außen erkennbar Drittplattformen einzuschalten. Das Verbot muss ebenfalls einheitlich festgelegt und verhältnismäßig sein und diskriminierungsfrei angewendet werden. Ob dies im Fall Cory der Fall ist hat nun das OLG Frankfurt zu entscheiden.
Eine Kernbeschränkung im Rahmen einer Kundengruppenbeschränkung nach Artikel 4 b oder eine Beschränkung des passiven Verkaufs an Endverbraucher nach Artikel 4 c der Vertikal-GVO stellt das konkrete Verbot laut EuGH nicht dar.


Der EuGH hat mit der Entscheidung das Tor zur Beschränkung des Onlinehandels über bestimmte Plattformen für sämtliche Luxuswarenhersteller weit geöffnet. Ob die Verbote tatsächlich auch vor den nationalen Gerichten halten, ist eine Frage des Einzelfalls und bleibt abzuwarten. Auch wird das Bundeskartellamt möglicherweise noch einen umfangreicheren Kommentar dazu abgeben mit weiteren Hinweisen.

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