Germany: 德国专家谈无人驾驶汽车所带来的机遇与挑战

Last Updated: 6 March 2018
Article by AFD China Intellectual Property

德国一直以其汽车厂商(诸如,梅赛德斯、宝马、奥迪以及大众)而闻名全球。但是,不仅仅只有上述这几个大企业才 能代表德国的汽车行业。因为从汽车供应行业的角度来看,中小型企业(Mittelstand)才经常会被看成是德国的经济引擎,并在 整个行业中占据着主导地位。德国的这些中小型企业主要是由一些拥有非常特别的领导风格以及强大区域基地的小型与中型家族 企业组成,并且在全球范围内经常会成为各自业务领域的隐形冠军企业。

截止到目前,德国汽车行业是本国最重要的一个产业部门。2016 年,德国汽车产业的营业额已达到4050 亿欧元,并且 创造出超过80 万个工作岗位。

下文将着重介绍新技术的涌现将会为德国汽车行业中的各家企业带来哪些机遇,以及全球科技企业将会为德国企业带来 哪些挑战。

机遇

1.政府支持

早在2015 年9 月份,德国政府便对外公布了其自动驾驶以及互联驾驶的战略,该战略主要侧重于基础设施、法律、创 新、信息技术(IT)安全以及数据保护。出台该战略的目的是为了帮助德国在自动驾驶与互联驾驶领域成为世界领先的供应商以 及市场。

2016 年12 月,为了贯彻落实上述战略,德国联邦交通和数字基础设施部拨款1 亿欧元用来补贴无人驾驶技术的研发项 目,这也是其"公路交通自动化与互连"计划的组成部分。截止到2017 年7 月,已经有6920 万欧元获得了批准。

除了上述德国联邦交通和数字基础设施部的行动之外,德国联邦经济与技术部也为那些涉足无人电子驾驶领域的中小型 企业提供了一定的补贴措施。

2.良好的投资环境

就海外投资者来讲,德国对于来自海外的直接投资一直秉持着开放与欢迎的态度。根据德国的《外商投资控制法》规定, 德国国内的有关机构只能介入或者叫停那些被视为对公共政策或安全构成威胁的交易。不过,2017 年7 月,德国针对与安全有关 的技术制定了一些新的规定,对现有政策稍微收紧了一些。

挑战

1.知识产权保护

根据德国经济研究所于2017 年8 月开展的调研结果,在全球范围内递交的各种涉及无人驾驶技术的专利当中,有52% 的专利均来自于德国制造商。德国的博世公司、奥迪公司以及大陆集团是无人驾驶领域的3 大领军企业。而在供给部门,更是有 76%的相关专利来自于德国。由于专利技术在无人驾驶领域的重要性不言而喻,因此那些企业巨头以及金融投资者们往往会试图 通过收购企业来获得相关专利与技术。

举例而言,那些涉及通信技术的专利经常会通过所谓的标准必要专利(standard-essential patent)来获得保护。上述"标 准必要专利"指的就是全部竞争者在设计符合该专利相关标准的产品时必须要用到的专利。显然,使用这种专利需要获得相应的 许可。而标准必要专利的所有人也有义务在收取到一笔公平、合理以及非歧视性的许可费(FRAND 条款)后对外许可相应的专 利,并且该名专利所有人还要向相关的标准化工作机构做出承诺。但是,目前还没有出现针对FRAND 条款所做出的清晰定义。 因此,德国汽车制造商协会希望有关部门能够为自动汽车专利制定出相关的法律细则。

2.数据保护

2017 年6 月,德国对其《道路交通法》进行了修订,并要求汽车厂商为拥有自动驾驶功能的车辆配备专门的"黑匣子"。 除了各种数据,这个"黑匣子"还会记录下到底是司机还是软件在驾驶着汽车。如果车辆未遭遇任何事故,该数据的保存期限不会 超过6 个月。而如果出现了交通事故,上述数据将会保存至最高3 年的时间。而且不仅有关机构可以请求访问该数据,同时如果 任何第三方能够提供出需要该数据的合理理由(例如,用于在涉及该车辆的事故中提出指控或者进行抗辩等),那么其也能够获 得数据。借助此类条款,汽车不仅成为其司机的目击证人,同时也有助于事故原因的调查。而且在事故调查行动中,更多的数据 还能够以匿名格式交由第三方进行处理。

 不过,这条新的法规遭到了来自数据保护专家们的严厉抨击。德国联邦数据保护与信息自由保护委员会已指责新的规定 过于笼统,特别是有关向第三方转移数据的规定太模糊了。

根据德国道德委员会在2017 年公布的指南意见,德国政府已经决定通过制定更多举措来在数据处理(以安全为目的或 者以促进创新与公平竞争为目的)与个体数据保护权利之间达成平衡。根据德国社会的一般准则,应该是由司机来对其数据的使 用进行决策,而且应该尽量避免那种能够实施全面监控的系统。但是,若考虑到司机往往并不是车辆的购买者,并且也不会在购 买车辆时便同意他人对其数据进行处理,因此从这个角度来看,数据保护仍然是个大难题。

而另一个来自技术层面以及法律层面的难题则是如何在最大程度上保护自动驾驶系统免于遭受到他人操控以及黑客攻 击。(编译自lexology.com)

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