France: Renforcement de la protection des lanceurs d'alertes : l'apport de la nouvelle législation et des solutions informatiques

Last Updated: 18 March 2019
Article by Jan Stappers

La protection des lanceurs d'alertes est une condition importante pour pouvoir révéler et prévenir les actes répréhensibles. Cambridge Analytica. Panama Papers. Luxleaks. Les scandales causés par un manque de transparence montrent que les lanceurs d'alertes peuvent jouer un rôle important dans la révélation d'activités qui affectent « l'intérêt public et le bien-être de nos citoyens et de la société ». C'est de cette manière que la Commission Européenne explique le raisonnement derrière sa proposition de nouvelles normes pour protéger les lanceurs d'alertes et pour améliorer la protection des lanceurs d'alertes.

Les courageux lanceurs d'alertes sont de plus en plus célèbres. Ceux qui ont le courage de combattre les mauvais comportements et les conduites contraires à l'éthique, tels que le harcèlement sexuel pendant la campagne #metoo, ont un impact significatif sur les changements de comportement dans le monde entier. Les noms d'Antoine Deltour, Chris Wylie et Sherron Watkins sont désormais connus de tous et l'on se souviendra longtemps d'eux comme des lanceurs d'alertes qui ont agi en héros.

Protection des lanceurs d'alertes : défis et opportunités

La protection des lanceurs d'alertes est essentielle, car bien trop souvent les mauvais comportements ne sont pas identifiés en interne, et finissent par être exposés au public, ce qui peut ainsi détruire la réputation d'une organisation. Pourquoi est-ce le cas ? La raison principale en est que la plupart des gens sont réticents à s'exprimer au sein de leur organisation. La peur des représailles et l'impossibilité de s'adresser aux personnes qui doivent être informées des mauvais comportements sont les principaux facteurs qui font que les gens se taisent au sein des sociétés et des autorités étatiques. Une autre raison est la réticence à encourager le signalement en interne de la part de la direction de l'organisation, par crainte que des personnes puissent faire des signalements de mauvaise foi. Néanmoins, même la peur ne peut empêcher la fuite d'informations concernant des actes répréhensibles.
C'est pourquoi le fait d'offrir un espace sécurisé aux employés ou autres parties prenantes pour s'exprimer au sujet d'un conflit d'intérêts, ou d'autres actes répréhensibles, est vital pour la stratégie à long terme de toute organisation. Comme le montrent des études sur les avantages d'un climat d'affaires transparent, le lancement d'alertes joue un rôle important, de même que la protection des lanceurs d'alertes.

Le lancement d'alertes organisationnel justifié : les chiffres

EN 2017, la Commission Européenne a publié un rapport « Estimating the economic benefits of whistleblower protection in public procurement ». Le rapport indique que la protection des lanceurs d'alertes présente un grand intérêt sur le plan économique. Dans l'ensemble des pays étudiés, les bénéfices potentiels tirés du recouvrement de fonds publics détournés dépassaient les coûts de mise en place et de maintien de tels systèmes, rien que pour le domaine des marchés publics. Par exemple, en Irlande, les bénéfices potentiels ont été évalués à environ 2 fois les coûts associés, tandis qu'en Roumanie, les bénéfices potentiels dépassaient de 300 à 500 fois les coûts de mise en place d'une infrastructure convenable.

D'après le Report to the Nations – Global Study on Occupational Fraud and Abuse de 2018 de l'Association of Certified Fraud Examiners, les organisations perdent en moyenne 5 pour cent de leur chiffre d'affaires annuel du fait de la fraude chaque année. Et un système de lancement d'alertes sécurisé est la meilleure solution pour prévenir les malversations : le même rapport indique que les pertes liées à la fraude étaient 50 % moins élevées au sein des organisations ayant des hotlines pour le lancement d'alertes que dans celles qui n'en avaient pas. Nous constatons que ces solutions de lancement d'alerte consistent de plus en plus en un système d'alerte en ligne plutôt que la traditionnelle hotline téléphonique.

Proposition de législation pour la protection des lanceurs d'alertes

Tandis que de plus en plus d'organisations Suvrent à faciliter le lancement d'alertes et à protéger les lanceurs d'alertes des représailles, le facteur de changement principal est la législation. Fin avril 2018, la Commission Européenne a proposé de nouvelles normes applicables à l'ensemble de l'UE visant à accroître la protection des lanceurs d'alertes. La proposition de la CE inclut l'obligation pour les organisations de mettre en place des canaux sécurisés pour le signalement en interne. Les sociétés comprenant plus de 50 employés ou ayant un chiffre d'affaires annuel de plus de 10 millions EUR devront mettre en place une procédure interne pour gérer les rapports de lancement d'alertes. Toutes les administrations étatiques et régionales et les municipalités de plus de plus de 10 000 habitants seront également couvertes par la nouvelle proposition. (Lire notre précédent post pour une analyse plus approfondie de la proposition de Directive sur la Protection des Lanceurs d'Alertes). En outre, le projet de rapport de la Commission des Affaires Juridiques du Parlement Européen sur la proposition de Directive sur la Protection des Lanceurs d'Alertes précise que « des dispositifs de signalement ou de dénonciation anonyme seront mis en place et le signalement ou la dénonciation anonyme ne seront pas interdits ». Selon nous, il s'agit d'une bonne nouvelle.

La protection des lanceurs d'alertes et le rôle des systèmes de lancement d'alertes organisationnel

Nous pensons que pour mettre en place un système de lancement d'alertes digne de confiance, une organisation doit s'assurer que :

  • le système est facile à utiliser et que le lanceur d'alertes peut choisir de rester anonyme ;
  • le plus haut niveau possible de confidentialité des données est appliqué pour protéger les informations sensibles et les données personnelles (conformité au RGPD) ;
  • l'organisation qui gère le dossier et le processus y afférent sont clairement définis et qu'il est fait appel à l'expertise externe nécessaire ;
  • le système et l'ensemble des processus sont conformes au RGPD et aux autres législations applicables ;
  • la communication autour du système est bonne et ce dernier a été correctement mis en Suvre.

N'hésitez pas à consulter notre article dédié à nos meilleurs conseils sur le lancement d'alertes pour davantage d'informations sur les meilleures pratiques pour le lancement d'alertes organisationnel. Consultez nos newsletters et notre tour d'horizon sur notre Blog pour vous tenir au courant de l'actualité de la protection des lanceurs d'alertes.

The content of this article is intended to provide a general guide to the subject matter. Specialist advice should be sought about your specific circumstances.

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Events from this Firm
5 Jan 2019, Webinar, London, UK

Watch the recording of the webinar whenever it suites you best. When it comes to whistleblowing, the most important factor is to build trust in the whistleblowing system and in the process of handling cases. But how is that done?

29 Mar 2019, Webinar, Unknown, France

La confiance est un élément déterminant dans le succès de votre dispositif d’alertes professionnelles. Mais comment générer cette confiance ? Ce sujet est au cœur de notre webinar.

9 Apr 2019, Webinar, Stockholm, Sweden

In this webinar we will share insights and experiences from customers that use our whistleblowing system.

 
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