France: Commande Publique : Passage Au 100% Numérique Le 1er Octobre 2018

Last Updated: 7 October 2018
Article by Vincent Brenot and Emmanuelle Mignon

A compter du 1er octobre, la passation des marchés publics d'un montant égal ou supérieur à 25 000 € HT sera à 100% dématérialisée.

Les offres déposées en format papier ou sous clé USB après cette date seront irrégulières. L'acheteur public pourra inviter le candidat à régulariser son offre par le dépôt d'une offre dématérialisée. Il ne s'agira toutefois que d'une simple faculté et non d'une obligation. L'absence de dépôt d'une offre dématérialisée pourra donc conduire au rejet automatique de l'offre.

La dématérialisation concerne toutes les étapes de la procédure de commande publique :

- la mise à disposition des documents de la consultation ;

- la réception des candidatures et des offres (à l'exception des maquettes, modèles réduits, prototypes ou des échantillons qui ne pourraient être dématérialisés) ;

- tous les échanges avec l'entreprise (questions/réponses) ;

- les notifications des décisions (lettre de rejet, etc.)

Une exception à la dématérialisation : les appels d'offres en matière de concessions. L'ensemble de la procédure et les actes, qui doivent être signés à l'effet de conclure un contrat de concession, peuvent donc parfaitement l'être de façon manuscrite classique.

Recommandations pratiques :

- il est recommandé (bien que cela ne soit pas obligatoire) aux candidats de s'identifier sur la plateforme de l'acheteur public avant de télécharger un DCE (Dossier de Consultation des Entreprises). Cette identification permettra aux candidats d'être informés en temps réel de toute modification apportée au DCE en cours de procédure ;

- l'entreprise peut modifier sa candidature ou son offre dématérialisée jusqu'à la date « butoir » de remise des plis ;

- en cas de consultation allotie, sauf mention contraire dans les documents de la consultation, le candidat peut déposer une offre lot par lot ou dans le cadre d'un envoi unique. Dans ce dernier cas, il importe de bien identifier le ou les lots auxquels il est répondu et les offres doivent pouvoir aisément être séparées lot par lot.

- l'offre ne doit pas contenir de virus informatique. Si tel est le cas, l'offre pourra être considérée comme irrégulière (Rép. Min. N°15803, JO Sénat 3 février 2005, p.257) ;

- une copie de sauvegarde (sous format papier ou clé USB) peut utilement être transmise à l'acheteur, avant la date limite de remise des offres. Cela permet de pallier les conséquences d'une difficulté informatique affectant l'offre originale ;

- par prudence (et bon sens), il est préconisé de ne pas attendre la date limite de remise des candidatures et offres, une difficulté informatique pouvant intervenir à tout moment sans que la date limite de dépôt des documents puisse être modifiée !

Focus sur la signature électronique

La signature électronique n'est pas (encore) obligatoire, mais elle est toutefois fortement recommandée.

A la différence d'une signature manuscrite apposée sur un document papier ensuite scanné, qui n'a valeur que de simple copie, la signature électronique confère la qualité d'original au document. Attention, la signature d'un fichier compressé (type « .zip ») n'est pas assimilée à la signature de chacun des documents contenus dans le fichier compressé. Chacun des documents contenus dans un tel fichier doit donc être signé.

Une fois signé électroniquement, le document ne peut plus être modifié sans que la modification soit signalée. Son intégrité est donc garantie.

Pour pouvoir signer électroniquement, l'entreprise doit s'équiper d'une signature électronique de niveau 2 au sens du règlement dit « eIDAS » n° 910/2014 du Parlement européen et du Conseil du 23 juillet 2014. Il s'agit de se doter du dispositif de création de signature électronique (un logiciel qui permet d'apposer sa signature électronique sur les documents) et d'un certificat de forme électronique (carte à puce ou clé USB), qui permet de s'assurer de l'identité du signataire, conforme à l'article 2 de l'arrêté du 12 avril 2018 (NOR : ECOM 1800780A) relatif à la signature électronique. De nombreux prestataires délivrent ces certificats.

Le certificat qui est strictement nominatif, est délivré à une seule personne ayant le pouvoir engager l'entreprise et non à l'entreprise en elle-même. Le certificat est en général délivré pour une durée d'un à trois ans et peut être utilisé autant de fois que nécessaire pendant cette période.

En cas de groupement d'entreprises, sauf mention contraire dans les documents de consultation, il n'est pas nécessaire que l'acte habilitant le mandataire à engager les autres membres du groupement soit signé électroniquement. Un document papier signé par les membres du groupement puis scanné est donc en principe suffisant (à condition que le mandataire puisse produire l'original si l'acheteur public lui en fait la demande).

Pour en savoir plus : https://www.economie.gouv.fr/daj/dematerialisation-commande-publique

Les avocats de notre département Public Réglementaire Environnement sont à votre disposition pour vous assister dans le cadre de la gestion de vos appels d'offres.

PS : inutile d'imprimer ce flash, lui-même 100% dématérialisé !

The content of this article is intended to provide a general guide to the subject matter. Specialist advice should be sought about your specific circumstances.

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