France: Le Droit Nouveau De La Lutte Anti-Blanchiment

 Il faut remonter à l'article 118 de la loi « Urvoas » n° 2016-731 du 3 juin 2016 renforçant la lutte contre le crime organisé, le terrorisme et leur financement, et améliorant l'efficacité et les garanties de la procédure pénale. Le Gouvernement y est en effet habilité à prendre par voie d'ordonnances un certain nombre de mesures anti-blanchiment.

La première pierre a été posée par l'ordonnance n° 2016-1575 du 24 novembre 2016 portant réforme du dispositif du gel des avoirs. L'ensemble du dispositif est réécrit, sous le nouvel intitulé « Dispositions relatives au gel des avoirs et à l'interdiction de mise à disposition », aux articles L. 562-1 à L. 562-11 du Code monétaire et financier (CMF)1.

L'objectif est d'étendre le champ des avoirs susceptibles d'être gelés, la définition des personnes assujetties au respect des mesures de gel et d'interdiction de mise à disposition des fonds au bénéfice des personnes visées par une mesure de gel des avoirs, ainsi que le champ des échanges d'informations nécessaires à la préparation et à la mise en oeuvre des mesures de gel. Il est enfin de préciser les modalités de déblocage des avoirs gelés.

 La matière étant aride, on se contentera de relever que l'article L. 562-1 introduit des définitions bienvenues de l' « acte de terrorisme », des « fonds », des « ressources économiques », etc. Et de préciser que l'ordonnance entrera en vigueur à une date fixée par décret « et au plus tard le 1er juillet 2017 ».

Mais allez donc trouver la date d'entrée en vigueur de l'ordonnance n° 2016-1635 du 1er décembre 2016 renforçant le dispositif français de lutte contre le blanchiment et le financement du terrorisme ! Ce qui est certain, en revanche, est que la France est (très) en avance sur le calendrier européen de transposition de la 4e directive anti-blanchiment (l'échéance est fixée au 26 juin 2017)2, y compris dans son anticipation prévue par une proposition de 4e directive bis (1er janvier 2017)3. Y compris encore en adoptant tout récemment le décret n° 2016-1523 du 10 novembre 2016 relatif à la lutte contre le terrorisme, qui réécrit en particulier l'article R. 561-16 du CMF sur les conditions d'anonymay de la monnaie électronique.

Que retenir, principalement, de ce texte ? D'abord et avant tout une recomposition de la liste des personnes assujetties aux obligations de lutte contre le blanchiment des capitaux et le financement du terrorisme (LCB-FT). Y apparaissent ainsi :

  • les « succursales » des établissements de crédit, d'établissements de paiement et d'établissements de monnaie électronique ;
  • les mêmes établissements, européens, lorsqu'ils exercent sur le territoire français, par voie d'agents de services de paiement ou de distributeurs de monnaie électronique (et les prestataires de services d'investissement (PSI) ayant recours à des agents liés) ;
  • les intermédiaires en opérations de banque et en services de paiement (IOBSP) lorsqu'ils agissent sur mandat délivré par un client (de même pour les intermédiaires d'assurance sauf lorsqu'ils exercent sous l'entière responsabilité de l'organisme ou du courtier d'assurance) ;
  • les plateformes de conversion de monnaies virtuelles (au bénéfice de cette curieuse définition : « Toute personne qui, à titre de profession habituelle, soit se porte elle-même contrepartie, soit agit en tant qu'intermédiaire, en vue de l'acquisition ou de la vente de tout instrument contenant sous forme numérique des unités de valeur non monétaire pouvant être conservées ou être transférées dans le but d'acquérir un bien ou un service, mais ne représentant pas de créance sur l'émetteur ») ;
  • les commerçants de certains biens précieux acceptant des paiements en espèces ou au moyen de monnaie électronique d'un montant supérieur à un seuil fixé par décret (CMF, art. L. 561-2 nouv.).

Quelle autre modification majeure peut-on encore relever ? Sans doute l'article L. 561-4-1 nouveau du CMF, qui fait entrer de plein pied l'approche fondée sur les risques dans notre législation. Jugeons-en : « Les personnes mentionnées à l'article L. 561-2 appliquent les mesures de vigilance destinées à mettre en oeuvre les obligations qu'elles tiennent du présent chapitre en fonction de l'évaluation des risques présentés par leurs activités en matière de blanchiment de capitaux et de financement du terrorisme. / À cette fin, elles définissent et mettent en place des dispositifs d'identification et d'évaluation des risques de blanchiment des capitaux et de financement du terrorisme auxquels elles sont exposées ainsi qu'une politique adaptée à ces risques. Elles élaborent en particulier une classification des risques en question en fonction de la nature des produits ou services offerts, des conditions de transaction proposées, des canaux de distribution utilisés, des caractéristiques des clients, ainsi que du pays ou du territoire d'origine ou de destination des fonds ».

On n'oubliera pas, enfin, un remaniement substantiel des prérogatives de Tracfin (le Rapport au Président de la République accompagnant l'ordonnance observe à cet égard que cela se situe en dehors du cadre fixé par la directive mais, peu importe, celle-ci étant d'harmonisation minimale) ; d'importantes précisions relatives au partage d'informations au sein des groupes financiers et non-financiers ; la création d'un registre des bénéficiaires effectifs, sans oublier la réécriture des articles L. 561-36 et suivants du CMF relatifs aux autorités de contrôle et aux sanctions administratives.

Sans oublier, non plus, cette modification à la marge du II de l'article L. 548-2 du CMF, qui impose – cela était une faculté – aux plateformes de crowdfunding sous forme de dons de prendre statut d'intermédiaire en financement participatif, IFP assujetti à la LCB-FT.

Footnotes

 1 Sont par conséquent caduques les pourtant toutes récentes (juin 2016) lignes directrices conjointes de la Direction générale du Trésor et de l'ACPR sur la mise en oeuvre des mesures de gel des avoirs.

 2 Dir. (UE) 2015/847, 20 mai 2015. Cf. P. Storrer, Lutte anti-blanchiment : le pas de deux du législateur européen, Revue Banque n° 786, juill.-août 2015, p. 72.

3 Cf. P. Storrer, Lutte anti-blanchiment : vers une 4e directive bis, Revue Banque n° 801, nov. 2016, p. 70 ?

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