Guatemala: QIL + 4 Presente En El Primer Congreso De Contratación Mercantil Internacional Celebrado En Guatemala
Last Updated: 2 March 2018

El pasado jueves 1 de febrero de 2018, se llevó a cabo el primer Congreso de Contratación Mercantil Internacional, Tendencias y Retos en Guatemala. Dicha actividad tuvo sede en el Auditorio Milton Friedman de la Universidad Francisco Marroquín, en dónde algunos miembros del equipo de QIL +4 Abogados asistieron y adquirieron más conocimientos sobre las tendencias y los criterios de aplicación respecto de la Convención de las Naciones Unidas sobre los Contratos de Compraventa Internacional de Mercaderías también conocida como Convención de Vienna (CISG por sus siglas en inglés) de la Comisión de las Naciones Unidas para el Derecho Mercantil Internacional (UNCITRAL por sus siglas en inglés) y los Principios Unidroit sobre los contratos comerciales internacionales.

En dicho congreso, se contó con la presencia –como expositores- de algunos de los miembros del Consejo Consultivo de la Convención de las Naciones Unidas sobre los Contratos de Compraventa Mercantil Internacional de Mercaderías, sin excluir otros panelistas de reconocido prestigio a nivel mundial. Dentro de los panelistas, destacaron: Alejandro Garro, Hiroo Sono, Pilar Perales Viscasillas, Sieg Eiselen, Christiana Fountoulakis, Edgardo Muñoz, Jan Kleinheisterkamp, Lauro Gama, Ingeborg Schwenzer, Djakhongir Saidov y Ulrich Schroeter.

¿Qué es la CISG? La CISG es una Convención de las Naciones Unidas que fue creada con el objeto de tener una regulación uniforme, neutral y equitativa para  quienes realizan transacciones comerciales de mercaderías a nivel internacional. Dentro de las principales características de la CISG, se encuentran:

  • Es un instrumento neutro que contiene un adecuado balance entre el sistema anglosajón y el derecho civil, recogiendo disposiciones comunes a ambos sistemas y unificándolas de manera armónica.
  • Cuenta con traducciones a los idiomas de todos los Estados que forman parte de las Naciones Unidas y han ratificado la Convención.
  • La interpretación de sus términos, ha sido definida por muchos expertos, como uniforme y razonable, es decir, no suele dejar vacíos legales o utilizar términos vagos o imprecisos.
  • Existen diversas bases de datos y publicaciones que, en caso de algún conflicto, contribuirían de manera sustancial a una solución pronta y práctica.
  • Todos sus artículos cuentan con comentarios que ayudan a que su interpretación sea uniforme, incluso cuando las partes que la utilicen, usen distintos lenguajes.
  • Únicamente aplica para mercaderías y no para servicios.

Asimismo, con el pasar de los años se han realizado algunas críticas a la CISG, tales como:

  • Exige que las comunicaciones sean  por escrito, sin incluir medios y contratos electrónicos. Aunque algunos expertos afirman la palabra "escrito" presume la admisión de comunicaciones electrónicas, la convención no los admite expresamente y hace referencia a medios de comunicación casi descontinuados como el telefax.
  • No regula nada respecto a la firma de los contratos y tampoco existen opiniones respecto al tema, por lo que existe un poco de incertidumbre y pudiese variar su interpretación depende las distintas jurisdicciones de los contratantes.
  • Dado a que únicamente aplica para venta de mercancías, lo cual implica la existencia un objeto tangible, existen algunos criterios que indican que para transacciones de objetos no tangibles, como lo pudiese ser la venta de un software on-line, no aplicaría.

Recientemente, la Comisión de Economía y Comercio Exterior del Congreso de la República de Guatemala emitió un dictamen en donde recomienda la ratificación de la CISG, pues esta pudiese ser una herramienta muy valiosa para aquellos comerciantes que usualmente realizan negocios con entidades o personas extranjeras. En tal sentido, se espera que próximamente el Congreso de la República conozca esta moción y proceda con su aprobación.

Sin lugar a dudas, la ratificación por parte del Congreso de la República de Guatemala a la CISG dará lugar a que diversos comerciantes guatemaltecos opten por regir sus relaciones comerciales internacionales a esta Convención neutro que pudiese ser más equitativa para las partes. ¡OJO! Para aquellos que asesoren en la celebración de contratos de compraventa internacional de mercaderías, es necesario considerar que, en el caso que Guatemala ratifique la CISG y la compraventa se celebre con personas de otro Estado parte de la CISG, deberán de incluir una cláusula en el contrato correspondiente (si es deseado) en donde se excluya de manera expresa la aplicación de la CISG al contrato respectivo.

¿Qué son los Principios UNIDROIT? Los principios UNIDROIT son una compilación de principios generales mercantiles aplicables a contratos internacionales que han sido detectados como comúnes o habituales en la práctica. También se le conoce como Lex Mercatoria.

Es necesario entender que esta compilación fue creada por el International Institute for the Unification of Private Law, y por ello estos Principios no tienen carácter vinculante, a menos que las partes opten por regir sus contratos bajo dichos Principios.

Algunos datos interesantes respecto de estos principios incluyen:

  • Estos Principios se han destacado porque ayudan a interpretar o complementar instrumentos internacionales o legislación doméstica, por parte de tribunales judiciales y arbitrales.
  • Los principios recogen la libertad de forma en los contratos internacionales, es decir que no hay requerimientos específicos para la celebración o forma de prueba de los contratos.  
  • El deber de la confidencialidad y la buena fe juega un rol muy importante durante el curso de las negociaciones, aún y cuando no se concreten las mismas en un contrato.
  • Esto Principios han sido y pueden ser utilizados como modelo para legisladores nacionales e internacionales.

Los invitamos a conocer más respecto de estas regulaciones en los siguientes links:

http://www.uncitral.org/uncitral/es/uncitral_texts/sale_goods/1980CISG.html

https://www.unidroit.org/instruments/commercial-contracts/unidroit-principles-2016

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