China: 关于国际商事仲裁中"IBA规则与布拉格规则"的比较与思考

Last Updated: 22 November 2019
Article by Yan Shujing
Most Read Contributor in China, November 2019

一、概述

在发生商事争议的场景中,如当事人已约定以仲裁为争议解决方式,则当事人可依据仲裁协议(或仲裁条款),向约定的仲裁机构提起仲裁。 1仲裁机构依据其《仲裁规则》或当事人约定的程序规则管理仲裁程序,当事人约定的仲裁程序规则不得违反仲裁地的法律规定。

大多仲裁机构的仲裁规则或仲裁法中,对仲裁中如何提出、采纳或排除证据没有做出规定,但规定了仲裁庭对查明事实、认定证据等方面拥有裁量权。

由于国际仲裁所涉的国家和法域众多,很难形成统一、强制适用的证据规则。为解决证据规则缺失的问题,1999年国际律师协会(International Bar Association,下称"IBA")制定了《国际律师协会国际仲裁取证规则》(IBA Rules of Taking Evidence in International Arbitration,下称"IBA规则"),目前适用的规则是2010年修订版本。

除IBA规则外,近来引起国际仲裁界关注的另一个证据规则,是2018年12月14日由来自三十多个国家的代表组成的工作组,在捷克共和国首都布拉格通过了《关于高效进行国际仲裁程序的规则》(Rules on the Efficient Conduct of Proceedings in International Arbitration(2018),下称"布拉格规则")。

二、IBA规则与布拉格规则的主要特点与存在问题

(一)IBA规则的主要特点与存在问题

1.IBA规则的主要特点

IBA规则渊源于英美法系的证人制度,是在广泛征求不同法域专业人士意见后总结而成,对来自不同法律背景的专业人士从事国际仲裁活动提供指引,在国际仲裁界具有广泛的影响力。

IBA规则中规定了书证、事实证人、专家证人与检验鉴定等整套取证机制。该规则以辩论式(adversarial)审理为特色,强调发挥当事人双方在取证和举证中的主动性,仲裁庭有一定的裁量权,但在仲裁当事人驱动的程序中处于较为被动的地位。

有批评者认为,IBA规则对当事人使用事实证人与专家证人毫无限制,例如IBA规则第4条第2、10款及第8条规定:

"任何人均可以作为证人作证,包括当事人和当事人的高管、职员或代理人。"

"在仲裁案审结前的任何时候,仲裁庭都可以要求任何当事人促成或者尽最大努力促成任何人(包括尚未提供证言的人)出席证据听证会作证。被要求的一方当事人可依据第9条第2款中规定的理由提出异议"。

"每位证人均应亲自出席开庭,除非仲裁庭允许证人以视频会议或其他类似方式参加开庭。如果已提交证人陈述的证人无正当理由不出席证据听证会作证的,除非各方当事人已有约定,或仲裁庭在特殊情况下另有决定,仲裁庭对该证人陈述应不予考虑。"

2.我国仲裁专家对IBA规则的评价

我国仲裁专家归纳IBA规则存在以下问题: 2

(1)证据开示的范围过于宽泛

根据IBA规则第3.2条规定:"在仲裁庭规定的期限内,任何一方当事人都可以向仲裁庭及对方提交书证出示请求"。第3.3条规定,一方可请求提供特定文件(each requested document sufficient to identify it)或"明确要求的类别文件"(a narrow and specific requested category of Documents)。为避免当事人滥用、借以拖延程序,一方当事人向对方当事人要求出示证据,应满足三项条件:第一,申请方须充分界定要求对方出示的文件的类型(如邮件、信函、合同文本)、时间段、涉及的当事人、文件的性质(比如涉及价格磋商的往来文件)、可搜索的关键词等等,并说明让对方提供所请求的文件材料不会给对方造成不合理的负担;第二,请求出示的文件材料与案件有关联性,且对案件裁判结果有重要性(实质性);第三,有合理理由证明这些文件材料在对方的占有、保管或控制之下。

但在实践中,类别文件条款仍然经常被滥用,当事人宽泛地描述类别文件,使大量文件被归为某一类别从而被要求披露。此外,当事人根据IBA规则对电子取证(e-discovery)的请求也变得相当普遍,一方可请求另一方提供与特定搜索条件相匹配的所有电子邮件或其他电子存储的文档。仲裁庭基于正当程序和裁决可执行性的考虑,通常无法拒绝当事人提出的证据开示请求。因此在IBA规则下,文件披露往往非常昂贵和耗时。

(2)允许有太多的事实证人和专家证人且规定对证人证言要求

根据IBA规则第8.1条,"每一方应将其请求出庭的证人告知仲裁庭和另一方当事人",即最终由当事人而不是仲裁庭决定在开庭时将有多少证人出庭,在此证人包括事实证人与专家证人。

根据IBA规则第4.4条,如果证人出庭,仲裁庭可以要求证人在规定的时间提交书面陈述。第4.5条明确,每份证言所须具备的五项内容:(a)证人基本信息;(b)对事实完整且详细的描述;(c)最初准备证言所使用的语言和仲裁程序中应当使用的语言;(d)证人对真实性的确认;(e)签字及日期和地点。

(3)允许交叉盘问使得开庭变得冗长

IBA规则的第8.3条规定了口头证言的一般程序,也规定了交叉盘问。仲裁程序的进行由仲裁庭自由裁量。该规则第5至6条规定了当事人指定专家证人与仲裁庭指定专家证人出席证据听证会问题,第8.3之(c)(d)规定了对当事人指定专家进行交叉盘问,仲裁庭可以向其聘请的专家询问,仲裁庭聘请的专家也需接受当事人或其律师的盘问等。

如果双方当事人分别指定专家证人及提交专家报告,与仲裁庭聘请的专家及其提交专家报告,将不可避免发生多个交叉盘问,事实上IBA规则下的交叉盘问通常占用仲裁开庭的多数时间。

综上,IBA规则在国际仲裁案件审理中得到广泛适用,但亦存在程序冗长与法律费用居高不下的问题,并因此招致批评。

(二)布拉格规则的产生、主要特点与其问题

1.布拉格规则的产生

《布拉格规则》扉页所载的《工作组说明》,对布拉格规则的缘起作了注解:

如今,仲裁使用者对仲裁程序中所花费的时间和费用感到不满已成司空见惯。

提高仲裁程序效率的途径之一是鼓励仲裁庭在仲裁程序方面发挥更为积极的作用(如同许多大陆法系国家的传统做法一样)。

考虑到这一点,由来自大约30个国家(主要是大陆法系国家)的代表组成本工作组。工作组的成员名单载于《布拉格规则》附录一。工作组成员对其各自国家的国际仲裁程序传统做法进行了调查。填写并交回调查表的人员名单载于《布拉格规则》附录二。在此次调查的基础上,工作组起草了《规则》初稿,并于2018年1月对外发布。

《规则》草案在仲裁从业人员当中引起了激烈辩论,世界各地举行的仲裁活动也对《规则》草案进行了讨论,尤其是在奥地利、白俄罗斯、中华人民共和国、法国、格鲁吉亚、波兰、葡萄牙、西班牙、俄罗斯、拉脱维亚、立陶宛、瑞典、英国、乌克兰和美国。这些讨论还表明,最初拟用于解决大陆法系国家企业间争议的《规则》,实际上可用于任何仲裁程序中,只要其争议本质或争议金额需要仲裁庭的积极主导以精简仲裁程序,而该做法受到仲裁使用者的普遍欢迎。

仲裁从业人员的反馈意见使得《规则》草案得到了进一步的完善,并于2018年12月14日在布拉格开放签署......

2.布拉格规则的特点

大陆法系存在任何人不必出示对自己不利证据的文化传统,原则上要求当事人就自己的主张举证。2018年开放签署的布拉格规则,其内容体现了更多的大陆法元素,譬如明确提出鼓励仲裁庭主导,严格限制证据开示等。

我国仲裁专家将布拉格规则的特点归纳为: 3(1)明确鼓励仲裁庭发挥积极主动作用

布拉格规则第2条规定,仲裁庭在召开案件管理会议(case management conference)、指示当事人明确请求和证据、与当事人分享仲裁庭对有关请求、证据和举证责任的初步看法(preliminary views)等方面,应发挥积极主动的作用(proactive role)。仲裁庭在仲裁过程中与当事人分享初步看法,与大陆法国家法官行使释明权有相似之处,它有助于聚焦争议问题,减少无效争辩,甚至于促进和解。

为防止仲裁庭发表初步看法带来负面效果,布拉格规则第2.4条规定仲裁庭表达初步观点本身不应被视为仲裁庭缺乏独立性和公正性,也不构成仲裁员失职。

布拉格规则第7条"仲裁员知法"(Jura Novit Curia)4的规定体现了鲜明的大陆法特色。第7.2条规定"如有必要,仲裁庭可以适用当事人未曾主张的法律,包括但不限于公共政策。""法官知法"原则适用于大陆法系国家纠问式的诉讼,在以辩论式诉讼为主的普通法国家并不适用。

布拉格规则将Jura Novit Curia引入国际仲裁,使当事人通过选择适用布拉格规则,合意授予仲裁庭在法律适用方面享有更大权力,可在一定程度上减少对法律问题进行调查取证和开庭辩论的工作量。

但是,基于法律文化传统的不同,来自普通法系和大陆法系的当事人对"仲裁员知法"原则的认同度迥异,即便在当事人作出合意选择的情形下,仲裁庭如何才能恰到好处地适用该原则,颇值商榷。

(2)对文件披露与证据开示作出限制

与IBA规则明显不同,布拉格规则第4.2条规定了"鼓励仲裁庭和当事人避免任何形式的文件披露,包括电子取证。"第4.3条规定了当事人不能请求披露"一类类别的文件",而只能请求披露特定文件。关于证据开示的时点,布拉格规则在第4.4条规定,如果当事人认为有必要要求另外一方提供特定文件(certain documents),必须在案件管理会议(case management conference)上提出,并说明其要求对方提供证据的理由。当事人在案件管理会议后提出的任何文件披露请求将不被获准,除非仲裁庭认为申请方确实无法在案件管理会议上提出此请求。

(3)对事实证人作出一定限制

布拉格规则第5.2条规定,完全由仲裁庭决定哪些证人需出庭接受询问;第5.5条规定,仲裁庭可要求一方当事人提供某一证人的证言而不参加开庭;第5.3至5.9条规定,如果证人证言与其他证人重复、与案情不相关或者给程序造成不合理的负担,则允许仲裁庭拒绝该等证人出庭,但对不出庭证人的证言,仲裁庭也可予以适当考虑加以采信。

关于盘问证人的方法,布拉格规则没有明确排除交叉盘问。但布拉格规则第5.9条规定了仲裁庭对庭审的掌控,即"对事实证人的盘问应在仲裁庭的指示和控制下进行"。据此,如仲裁庭认为询问的问题与案件无关、多余、不影响案件结果或基于其它原因,则可驳回此类问题。

布拉格规则将决定是否允许证人出庭的权力授予仲裁庭,可以达到限制出庭证人数量、有效缩短开庭时间和节省费用的目的。

(4)规定仲裁庭有权自行聘请专家

布拉格规则第6条虽未排除一方当事人提交其指定专家作出的专家报告,但该条更倾向于由仲裁庭指定的专家对需要专业知识的争议问题提交报告。布拉格规则第6.7条规定,鼓励当事人指定的专家与仲裁庭指定的专家举行会议签署联合报告,及向仲裁庭说明:(a)专家意见一致的问题清单;(b)专家意见不同的问题清单;(c)如有可能,专家意见不同的原因。

将需要专家发表意见的问题进行清理,列出清单,将有助于缩小争议范围,减少当事人和仲裁庭的工作量,加快仲裁程序。对于专家们能够达成一致意见的问题,当事人甚至无需进一步辩论或在庭审中讨论。专家联席会议和专家联合报告是高效组织仲裁程序的好工具。

3.关于布拉格规则的适用情况

来自俄罗斯的Roman Zykov5在关于布拉格规则的讲座中介绍,布拉格规则迄今在德国、立陶宛等几个欧洲国家已有实际适用,但目前尚未取得仲裁裁决书,无法获知其适用效果。

Roman Zykov认为,比较而言,IBA规则在解决争议金额大、案情复杂的国际仲裁案件时具有相当优势;但在处理为数众多的小型商事仲裁案件中,布拉格规则因其更加灵活及鼓励仲裁庭发挥主动积极作用,将更有利于提高国际仲裁的效率,降低居高不下的法律费用。

三、布拉格规则的创新性及其借鉴意义

(一)我国学者对布拉格规则的评价

我国仲裁法专家、外交学院卢松教授在讲座中发表了对布拉格规则的如下评价: 6

一方面,国际商业社会对国际仲裁中适用IBA规则导致的耗时与费用高昂问题已提出批评,对此,布拉格规则工作组在起草条款时通过对证据开示、事实证人与专家证人等规则作出限制的方式,试图改进IBA规则存在的两个主要问题。布拉格规则工作组致力于提高国际仲裁效率的努力,值得赞赏。

另一方面,布拉格规则鼓励仲裁庭在仲裁审理中采取积极主动态度,例如鼓励仲裁庭在程序管理会议上发表对案件实体问题的意见等,由于程序管理会议上当事人提交的文件通常主要涉及仲裁审理程序相关问题,在此阶段仲裁庭就案件实体问题发表意见,涉及客观上是否可行以及仲裁庭如何保持公正与中立的问题。

此外,布拉格规则不仅包含了证据规则,也包含仲裁程序管理规则,如规定仲裁费用分担等。由此可见,布拉格规则与IBA规则,在规则结构上亦有所不同。

(二)布拉格规则与ICC《案件管理办法》的相似性

在国际仲裁领域,IBA规则长期以来适用于审理国际商事仲裁与投资条约仲裁案件的取证环节;而布拉格规则自2018年12月开放签署至今不满一年,尚未形成广泛的应用,亦谈不到发展成熟。事实上,签署布拉格规则的国家地区大部分保有大陆法系传统,布拉格规则,在一定程度上反映了大陆法系国家仲裁参与者对取证环节的期望与建议。

经阅读国际商会国际仲裁院(The International Chamber of Commerce,下称ICC)2012年版《仲裁规则》(2017年修订并生效),笔者发现,在致力于提高仲裁效率、控制仲裁时间与费用方面,ICC同样付出很大努力。

2017年修订版《ICC仲裁规则》附件四《案件管理方法》指出,"在所有案件中适当控制时间和费用是至关重要的",并列举了可由仲裁庭与当事人用来控制时间和费用的方法,如:

"识别出那些可以在当事人或其专家之间通过协议达成解决的事项"(b条);"识别出那些仅仅依据书面文件、而非通过口头证据或庭审辩论即可认定的事项"(c条);"书面证据的出示:(i)要求当事人在提交意见时出示其所依赖的文件;(ii)在适宜时,避免要求出示文件,以便控制时间和费用;(iii)对于认为适于要求当事人出示文件的案件,应将所要求出示的文件限制在对案件审理结果具有相关性和重要性的文件或文件种类上......"(d条);"对于提交的书面材料以及书面和口头的证人证言(包括事实证人和专家),应对其长度和范围加以限制,以避免发生重复,并保持专注于关键问题"(e条);"组织当事人与仲裁庭召开庭审前会议,在会上就庭审各项安排进行讨论并达成一致意见,仲裁庭可以向当事人指明其希望当事人在庭审当中集中讨论的问题"(g条)等。

由此可见,IBA规则、布拉格规则及ICC规则附件的《案件管理方法》,虽然根植于不同法域的法律文化传统,但均坚持仲裁庭审理案件应秉持公正、中立立场,在此前提下追求高效解决争议,值得我们赞赏和学习。

(三)对布拉格规则的借鉴方式与路径

布拉格规则的前言,为我们如何进行规则借鉴提供了很好的建议:

《布拉格规则》旨在通过鼓励仲裁庭在程序管理方面发挥更积极作用的方式,为仲裁庭和当事人提供一套提高仲裁效率的架构及/或指引。

《布拉格规则》无意取代各个机构已制定的仲裁规则,而是针对特定争议中,为当事人合意采用的程序或者当事人不能达成合意时仲裁庭所采用的程序提供补充。

当事人和仲裁庭可决定将《布拉格规则》作为具约束力的文件或指引性文件,适用于仲裁程序的全过程或任何部分环节,也可以排除《布拉格规则》任何部分的适用或决定仅适用其中的一部分。

布拉格规则的起草者鼓励仲裁当事人根据争议具体情况,选择布拉格规则中的部分或全部条款,使之成为当事人约定仲裁程序规则的有益补充,由此助力提高仲裁程序的效率。

至于布拉格规则建议的另一方式,即仲裁庭可决定将布拉格规则作为有约束力的文件或指引性文件,适用于仲裁程序的全过程或任何部分环节,笔者认为,这一建议虽与布拉格规则鼓励仲裁庭发挥积极主动作用的观点一脉相承,但与当事人意义自治原则会存在一定冲突,可能导致在程序管理中出现困难。

笔者认为,对于新鲜出炉的布拉格规则,不免存在有待完善改进的空间。但关注该规则的创新点,观察其在国际仲裁中的实践效果,择其优点拿来借鉴,对我们法律人而言是一项有意义有挑战的工作。

主要参考资料:

1. R. Zachary Torres-Fowler, The Prague Rules: What U.S. Practitioners Need to Know About the Civil Law World's Answer to the IBA Rules on the Taking of Evidence in International Arbitration, THE CONSTRUCTION LAWYER, pp 18-26.

2. International Bar Association, IBA Rules on the Taking of Evidence in International Arbitration (May 29, 2010).

3. Rules on the Efficient Conduct of Proceedings in International Arbitration (Prague Rules) (Dec. 14, 2018).

4. Rules of Arbitration of the International Chamber of Commerce (In force as from 1 March 2017)5.王生长、费宁:《IBA规则与布拉格规则的主要差异》,载汇仲律师事务所公众号2019年1月9日文章。

6.叶渌、陈仪婷、孙亚翔:《介绍》, See http://www.cqlsw.net/news/overseas/2019041632092.html

Footnotes

1. 因我国《仲裁法》未规定临时仲裁,故本文讨论中使用的概念术语不包含临时仲裁。

2.[3.王生长、费宁:《IBA规则与布拉格规则的主要差异》,载汇仲律师事务所公众号2019年1月9日文章。

4. Jura Novit Curia是拉丁语,本意为"法官知法",即对法律问题有争议的当事人无需主张和证明相应的法律,法官可依其法律知识并依职权进行裁判。法官裁判时虽不受限于当事人提出的法律辩论意见,但裁判主文仍需在当事人的请求项内作成。

5. Roman Zykov, Secretary General, RAA Partner, Mansors。

6. 本文未与卢松教授确认本文对其发言观点归纳整理的准确性。

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