China: 竞争法一周要闻●87期 | 科罗拉多州加入T-Mobile / Sprint和解方案

Last Updated: 22 November 2019
Article by King & Capital Law Firm

国内动态

  1. 市场监管总局对菏泽市汽车行业协会组织达成垄断协议处罚30万
  2. 广东省茂名混凝土垄断案举行行政处罚听证会
  3. 2019年10月21日-10月27日无条件批准经营者集中案件列表
  4. 市场监管总局公布十二件经营者集中简易案件
  5. "锦江之星"诉"美团"商标侵权及不正当竞争

国际动态

  1. 司法部欢迎科罗拉多州加入T-Mobile / Sprint和解方案
  2. 美国司法部就劳动力市场反垄断问题向众议院作证
  3. 用人单位合谋降低治疗师薪资,FTC禁止劳动力市场反竞争行为
  4. FTC:应根据反竞争效果界定相关市场
  5. 在线酒店预订平台涉嫌滥用市场支配地位,印度启动反垄断调查

国内动态

1. 市场监管总局对菏泽市汽车行业协会组织达成垄断协议处罚30万

2019年11月1日,市场监管总局发布了对菏泽市汽车行业协会组织本行业经营者达成垄断协议的行政处罚决定书。

《决定书》指出,近年来,菏泽市汽车行业协会以汽车销售行业竞争激烈、市场混乱、各种车展繁多为由,以协会为实施主体,通过发布通知、召集会员单位开会、组织会员单位签订承诺书等多种方式,要求会员单位不得参加其他车展,否则将不得参与协会活动、取消会员资格等。其行为违反了《反垄断法》和《工商行政管理机关禁止垄断协议行为的规定》,构成行业协会组织本行业经营者实施垄断协议的行为。因此,依据《反垄断法》的相关规定,山东省市场监管局决定对该协会做出上述处罚。

《决定书》特别强调,我国法律支持和保护各类市场主体之间依法自由、平等、公平竞争,禁止各种妨碍市场公平竞争的垄断行为。汽车销售企业将车展作为宣传和销售汽车的一种经营方式,因参加车展而与举办车展的单位产生参展交易关系,参加车展的单位均具有自由参与、公平竞争的权利。当事人作为菏泽市汽车行业具有市场影响力的社团组织,其业务范围包括举办展览展销活动,会员单位也是本地车展的主要参展单位。当事人组织会员单位联合签订"承诺书",属于《反垄断法》所禁止的联合抵制交易的垄断协议。

《决定书》同时指出,该协会作为社团组织,应当遵守法律法规、维护市场公平竞争秩序,应当尊重会员单位的自主经营权和自主选择权。但该协会的行为限制了会员单位自主选择车展的权利,达到了限制其他单位车展的目的。其理由是为了规范车展市场,但实质是限制了其他市场主体公平竞争的权利,破坏了车展各类主体之间的正常交易秩序。尤为严重的是,在山东省市场监管局对其立案调查期间,当事人在已知道其相关行为涉嫌违反《反垄断法》的情况下,不仅未主动消除或减轻违法行为危害后果,其会长还通过发微信、找会员单位负责人等方式,导致其他单位组织的车展参展单位数量大幅减少。虽然有个别会员单位参加了该车展,但却被要求交纳罚款,还有会员单位相关负责人还被要求专门到会长办公室进行"解释说明"。因此,当事人不符合从轻及减轻行政处罚的情形,依据《反垄断法》相关规定决定对其处以30万元罚款。

(来源:国家市场监督管理总局)

http://www.samr.gov.cn/fldj/tzgg/xzcf/201911/t20191101_308050.html

2.广东省茂名混凝土垄断案举行行政处罚听证会

根据12358价格监督举报热线接到实名举报,反映茂名市多家混凝土搅拌站协同提高产品销售价格,区域垄断茂名市混凝土市场。经查,茂名市19家具有相互竞争关系的混凝土企业通过聚会商议、建立微信群互通信息等形式对统一提高混凝土销售价格进行了思想联络并达成了合意,在同一时期内19家涉案企业分别对混凝土销售价格进行了上调。上述行为涉嫌违反了《中华人民共和国反垄断法》第十三条第一项"禁止具有竞争关系的经营者达成下列垄断协议:(一)固定或者变更商品价格"的规定。经报国家市场监督管理总局批准,广东省市场监督管理局依据《中华人民共和国反垄断法》第四十六条"经营者违反本法规定,达成并实施垄断协议的,由反垄断执法机构责令停止违法行为,没收违法所得,并处上一年度销售额百分之一以上百分之十以下的罚款"的规定,拟对茂名市19家混凝土企业进行行政处罚,处罚金额共计764.9837万元。省市场监管局已向19家涉案企业下达了《行政处罚告知书》,现有9家涉案企业提出听证申请。

根据《行政处罚法》、《市场监督管理行政处罚案件听证暂行办法》、《广东省行政处罚听证程序实施办法》相关规定,依当事人申请,广东省市场监督管理局于2019年10月29日举行9家涉案企业行政处罚公开听证,保障和便利当事人依法行使陈述权和申辩权。听证会上,案件调查人员提出了当事人违法的事实、证据、行政处罚建议及依据,当事人和委托代理人进行了陈述和申辩,案件调查人员、当事人和委托代理对证据和案件情况发表了意见并进行了互相辩论,最后听证主持人按照案件调查人员、当事人的先后顺序征询了各方最后意见。

听证结束后,听证主持人将组织听证会组成人员依法对案件做出独立、客观、公正的判断,并撰写《听证报告》连同听证笔录一并上报审批后作出决定。

(来源:广东省市场管理监督局(知识产权局))

http://amr.gd.gov.cn/zwdt/xwfbt/content/post_2661135.html

3. 2019年10月21日-10月27日无条件批准经营者集中案件列表

2019年10月29日,市场监管总局公布2019年10月21日-10月27日无条件批准经营者集中案件列表,批准案件共计12件。

(来源:国家市场监督管理总局反垄断局)

http://www.samr.gov.cn/fldj/zwgk/201910/t20191029_307983.html

4. 市场监管总局公布十二件经营者集中简易案件

  1. 中国永达汽车服务控股有限公司收购英之杰亚洲太平洋有限公司股权案
  2. 北京海淀科技金融资本控股集团股份有限公司通过合同取得仁东控股股份有限公司的控制权案
  3. 丰田汽车株式会社与中升(大连)集团有限公司等经营者新设合营企业案
  4. 丹化化工科技股份有限公司收购江苏斯尔邦石化有限公司股权案
  5. 普洛斯中国控股有限公司收购招商局资本投资有限责任公司股权案
  6. 达尔科技股份有限公司收购敦南科技股份有限公司股权案
  7. 法国存托银行收购法国邮政公司股权案
  8. Manulife PADREF有限公司与ESR开曼有限公司收购铭粤物流有限公司等4家公司股权案
  9. 华润电力控股有限公司与宜兴市交通产业集团有限公司等经营者新设合营企业案
  10. 陕西建工控股集团有限公司收购陕西延长石油化建股份有限公司股权案
  11. KDDI股份公司与伊藤忠技术解决方案公司新设合营企业案
  12. 长锦商船株式会社收购兴亚海运株式会社部分业务案

http://www.samr.gov.cn/fldj/jyajgs/index.html

5. "锦江之星"诉"美团"商标侵权及不正当竞争

因认为对方未经许可在经营的酒店内外将"锦江之星"商标相近似的文字及图形作为店面名称使用,并将其注册为企业名称,锦江之星旅馆有限公司将南阳市宛城区锦海之星智选酒店及网络宣传平台北京三快科技有限公司诉至法院,要求被告立即停止侵权,并赔偿经济损失50万元。日前,海淀法院受理了此案。

原告锦江之星旅店诉称,其是"锦江之星"商标的独占使用权人,"锦江之星"商标为中国驰名商标。经过多年的投入和经营,"锦江之星"相关标志已经成为了公司的核心无形资产,具有非常高的知名度和品牌价值。

后经调查发现,锦海之星智选酒店未经合法许可,在其经营的酒店内外将与"锦江之星"注册商标相近似的文字及图形作为其店面名称使用,并将其注册为企业名称。上述行为致使相关公众误认为锦海之星智选酒店提供的酒店服务与"锦江之星"具有特定关系,并以此获得了高额利润。锦海之星智选酒店的侵权行为侵害了锦江之星旅店的商标权,其将"锦海之星"注册为其企业名称误导消费者认为其是锦江之星旅店的直营或加盟酒店,其行为具有不正当竞争性。同时,锦海之星智选酒店在美团网及其他网络平台上宣传推广侵犯"锦江之星"商标权的服务,北京三快科技有限公司未尽到合理审查义务,属于共同侵权行为。

目前,此案正在进一步审理中。

(来源:海淀法院网)

国际动态

1. 司法部欢迎科罗拉多州加入T-Mobile / Sprint和解方案

当地时间2019年10月28日,美国司法部公告称科罗拉多州已退出纽约及加利福尼亚州对T-Mobile / Sprint交易的诉讼,转而加入司法部的和解计划。司法部称科罗拉多州正在寻求加入美国政府、佛罗里达州、堪萨斯州、路易斯安那州、内布拉斯加州、俄亥俄州、俄克拉荷马州和南达科他州对T-Mobile和Sprint的和解方案,以解决就T-Mobile和Sprint拟议合并相关的赔偿问题。达成和解协议要求提出重要资产的剥离方案,并使有实力的以设施为基础的竞争者加入市场。此外,该和解协议将有助于迅速部署多个高质量的5G网络,从而造福于美国消费者和企业家。

司法部反垄断局和现有八个原告州已起诉阻止这项交易,并同意根据拟议的和解方案停止诉讼。如果得到法院的批准,该项和解协议将消除司法部及各原告州的竞争关切。

根据拟议中的和解条款,T-Mobile和Sprint必须将Sprint的预付费业务(包括Boost Mobile,Virgin Mobile和Sprint预付费)出售给位于科罗拉多州的卫星电视提供商Dish Network Corp.。拟议的和解协议还规定将某些频谱资产剥离给Dish公司。此外,T-Mobile和Sprint必须为Dish提供至少20,000个蜂窝站点和数百个零售站点。在Dish建立自己的5G网络的同时,T-Mobile还必须为Dish提供对T-Mobile网络的强大访问权限,该项方案履行期限为七年。

T-Mobile US Inc.是一家特拉华州公司,总部位于华盛顿州贝尔维尤。T-Mobile在2018年的收入超过430亿美元。总部位于德国波恩的德国公司Deutsche Telekom AG是T-Mobile US Inc.的控股股东。

Sprint Corporation是特拉华州的一家公司,总部位于堪萨斯州的欧弗兰帕克。2018年,其公布的收入超过320亿美元。Sprint由总部位于日本东京的日本公司SoftBank Group Corp.控制。

(来源:美国司法部)

https://www.justice.gov/opa/pr/justice-department-welcomes-colorado-joining-t-mobilesprint-settlement

2. 美国司法部就劳动力市场反垄断问题向众议院作证

当地时间2019年10月29日,美国司法部反垄断局助理检察长顾问就劳工市场的反垄断问题向众议院司法委员会进行作证。

并购案件中的劳动力垄断问题

联邦反垄断机构在各种对并购案件的调查中(包括对拟议的或完成的交易的调查)都遇到了劳动力领域的反垄断问题。在对并购案件的调查中,反垄断局会特别考虑相关交易是否有可能违反《克莱顿法》第7条(《美国法典》第15卷第18条)的规定,从而加强垄断势力。垄断权实质上是买方对商品或服务向卖方行使的市场支配力。(略)由于合并企业的雇员劳动力也可以看作并购交易中的买方购买获得的部分劳动力资源,因此反垄断局也会评估拟议交易是否会使相关领域劳动力市场中的竞争大幅减少,以及并购后的实体是否利用其议价能力压低工人的工资和福利,包括薪水、佣金和报销。

并购交易很可能以牺牲劳动者的利益来建立或增强企业自身垄断能力,因此反垄断局多年来持续对该领域采取执法行动。

共谋和协同行为

在就并购案件中的劳动力垄断问题提出挑战之外,反垄断局还根据《谢尔曼法》第1条(《美国法典》第15卷第1条)对雇主之间的反竞争协议提出挑战,从而阻止限制贸易性的合同、串通和共谋行为。

互不挖角协议和固定工资协议

互不挖角协议是两个或两个以上雇主之间约定的不得相互挖角、推销电话、招募、面试,或以其他方式竞争获得对方劳动者的一项协议。该协议可以是正式的或非正式的,书面的或非书面的,并且存在于任何行业。固定工资协议是两个或多个存在竞争劳动者的雇主之间就员工工资、福利或其他补偿条款(在特定级别或范围内)达成一致的协议。(略)这些类型的协议具有反竞争性,因为它们限制劳动者的流动性,并且扭曲了正常的讨价还价和定价机制,而这些机制原本适用于劳动力市场环境。

对"典型的"互不挖角协议和固定工资协议的刑事执法

反垄断局在调查互不挖角协议和固定工资协议方面具有丰富的经验。"典型的"互不挖角协议和固定工资协议与固定产品价格或分配客户的协议一样,具有排除竞争且无法补救的效果。该结论反映了对这种安排可能产生的实际危害的考虑,包括较低的工资和降低的劳动者流动性。而且,该等协议剥夺了为更好的工作机会和就业条件而讨价还价的机会,从而扭曲了竞争,损害了雇员的利益。

从2016年10月开始,反垄断局发表了一些公开声明称其计划对"典型的"互不挖角协议和固定工资协议提起刑事诉讼。特别是对2016年10月以后开始或继续存在的上述协议进行刑事起诉。

信息交换

即使缺乏明示或暗示的协议,公司之间相互共享有关雇用条款和条件的信息仍然可能违反反垄断法。例如,在美国诉犹他州医疗保健人力资源管理协会(United States v. Utah Society for Healthcare Human Resources Administration)中,司法部起诉了犹他州医院的一群人力资源专业人员,以密谋交换有关注册护士的非公开性预期的和当前工资信息。这次交换导致被告医院的工资进行了匹配,从而人为地使盐湖县和犹他州其他地方的注册护士的工资较低。

(来源:美国司法部)

3. 用人单位合谋降低治疗师薪资,FTC禁止劳动力市场反竞争行为

当地时间2019年10月31日,美国联邦贸易委员会(FTC)批准了对一项指控的最终命令。该指控涉及一家向家庭健康机构提供治疗师人员服务的得克萨斯州人力资源公司、及该公司的所有者,串通其竞争对手的前所有者,协商一致同意降低治疗师的薪资标准,并邀请其他竞争者就薪资标准进行合谋。

根据最初于2018年7月宣布的指控,两名公司所有者同意将治疗师薪资标准降低到相同水平,并怂恿其他几家竞争对手降低薪资标准,以防止治疗师转而使用薪水更高的人力资源公司。指控称,他们在得知一家家庭健康机构计划向治疗师人力资源公司支付更低的费用以获得治疗师服务后达成了一份协议。

上述命令禁止当事方与竞争对手就支付其雇员或独立承包商的报酬进行串通;禁止与任何人订立或组织协议,以降低、固定、维持或稳定在相互竞争的治疗师或其他种类的雇员和独立承包商的过程中他们或其他人支付或愿意支付的报酬;禁止他们怂恿竞争对手签订此类协议,以及与竞争对手交换与雇员和独立承包商的报酬有关的信息。

(来源:美国联邦贸易委员会)

4. FTC:应根据反竞争效果界定相关市场

当地时间2019年10月28日,美国联邦贸易委员会(FTC)称其已就Staley诉吉利德科学公司(Gilead Sciences Inc.,吉利德)反垄断案向法庭提交了关于市场界定的"法庭之友"简报,该案将由美国加利福尼亚州北区地方法院审理。

原告称,吉利德和其他三家品牌HIV药物制造商采取了各种反竞争措施,导致被称为联合抗逆转录病毒治疗药物的产品价格上涨。原告诉称,至少有两个产品市场与反竞争效果的评估有关,因为涉案行为以多种方式损害了竞争。

被告吉利德已请求法院驳回起诉,部分原因是由于其认为所界定的重叠市场互相矛盾,因此在法律上是不适当的。

FTC称,吉利德关于市场界定的论述与反垄断案件中规范市场界定的核心法律原则不一致。FTC指出,市场界定仅仅是帮助确定涉案行为是否可能产生反竞争效果的工具,因此,当指称存在多种类型的反竞争损害时,可能涉及多个市场。市场界定总是需要足够的事实支持,但界定不同的产品市场以评估不同的损害理论既不是"矛盾的",也没有法律上有缺陷的。

(来源:美国联邦贸易委员会)

5. 在线酒店预订平台涉嫌滥用市场支配地位,印度启动反垄断调查

当地时间2019年10月28日,印度竞争委员会CCI就印度酒店饭店协会联合会(酒店联合会)提起的针对印度国内在线旅游巨头(OTA),具体而言MakeMyTrip (MakeMyTrip India Pvt. Ltd.,简称MMT)以及旗下(Ibibo(Ibibo Group Private Limited),及另一巨头OYO(Oravel Stays Private Limited)涉在合同中实行价格平价、从事掠夺性定价、向酒店收取高额佣金等嫌滥用市场支配地位案件,最终决定启动反垄断调查。

市场界定。CCI将MMT-Go(MMT和GoIbibo的合并实体)的相关市场定义为"印度酒店预订在线中介服务市场",将OYO定义为"印度经济型酒店特许经营服务市场"。

支配地位认定。CCI认为, MMT-Go占有63%的市场份额,因此具有市场支配地位。CCI指出,虽然OYO在其相关市场中似乎扮演着重要角色,但鉴于市场动态的变化,目前尚无法就其是否具有市场支配地位做出"明确"的结论。

行为分析。 CCI指出,MMT-Go与酒店经营者存在纵向关系,MMT-Go在其合同中规定了广泛的平价条款,该条款可能会降低平台之间就在向酒店经营者收取的佣金上互相竞争的动机,可能会增加佣金和消费者支付的最终价格,还可能阻止新的低成本平台进入市场。

CCI认为,由于两家公司都是各自市场的主要参与者,对OYO的优惠待遇以及排除其他连锁酒店对竞争的影响"值得调查"。

CCI指出,深度折扣是市场通常用来构建其网络效应的一种做法。但是由于MMT-Go已经具有支配地位,因此深度折扣并不在于建立其网络。关于深度折扣,CCI认为与其他问题一起"值得调查"。

CCI认为,在当前阶段,因为市场结构、进入条件、成本结构和其他因素尚待评估,因此就不公平/过高佣金无法得出结论,尚需进一步调查。CCI还指出,就MMT-Go在其平台上人为地造成了供需缺口并导致价格波动的指控,此类问题具有潜在的滥用性。

同时,MMT歧视性行为收取某些酒店的服务费,同时豁免某些连锁店也值得调查。

(来源:印度竞争委员会)

The content of this article is intended to provide a general guide to the subject matter. Specialist advice should be sought about your specific circumstances.

To print this article, all you need is to be registered on Mondaq.com.

Click to Login as an existing user or Register so you can print this article.

Authors
 
Some comments from our readers…
“The articles are extremely timely and highly applicable”
“I often find critical information not available elsewhere”
“As in-house counsel, Mondaq’s service is of great value”

Related Topics
 
Related Articles
 
Up-coming Events Search
Tools
Print
Font Size:
Translation
Channels
Mondaq on Twitter
 
Mondaq Free Registration
Gain access to Mondaq global archive of over 375,000 articles covering 200 countries with a personalised News Alert and automatic login on this device.
Mondaq News Alert (some suggested topics and region)
Select Topics
Registration (please scroll down to set your data preferences)

Mondaq Ltd requires you to register and provide information that personally identifies you, including your content preferences, for three primary purposes (full details of Mondaq’s use of your personal data can be found in our Privacy and Cookies Notice):

  • To allow you to personalize the Mondaq websites you are visiting to show content ("Content") relevant to your interests.
  • To enable features such as password reminder, news alerts, email a colleague, and linking from Mondaq (and its affiliate sites) to your website.
  • To produce demographic feedback for our content providers ("Contributors") who contribute Content for free for your use.

Mondaq hopes that our registered users will support us in maintaining our free to view business model by consenting to our use of your personal data as described below.

Mondaq has a "free to view" business model. Our services are paid for by Contributors in exchange for Mondaq providing them with access to information about who accesses their content. Once personal data is transferred to our Contributors they become a data controller of this personal data. They use it to measure the response that their articles are receiving, as a form of market research. They may also use it to provide Mondaq users with information about their products and services.

Details of each Contributor to which your personal data will be transferred is clearly stated within the Content that you access. For full details of how this Contributor will use your personal data, you should review the Contributor’s own Privacy Notice.

Please indicate your preference below:

Yes, I am happy to support Mondaq in maintaining its free to view business model by agreeing to allow Mondaq to share my personal data with Contributors whose Content I access
No, I do not want Mondaq to share my personal data with Contributors

Also please let us know whether you are happy to receive communications promoting products and services offered by Mondaq:

Yes, I am happy to received promotional communications from Mondaq
No, please do not send me promotional communications from Mondaq
Terms & Conditions

Mondaq.com (the Website) is owned and managed by Mondaq Ltd (Mondaq). Mondaq grants you a non-exclusive, revocable licence to access the Website and associated services, such as the Mondaq News Alerts (Services), subject to and in consideration of your compliance with the following terms and conditions of use (Terms). Your use of the Website and/or Services constitutes your agreement to the Terms. Mondaq may terminate your use of the Website and Services if you are in breach of these Terms or if Mondaq decides to terminate the licence granted hereunder for any reason whatsoever.

Use of www.mondaq.com

To Use Mondaq.com you must be: eighteen (18) years old or over; legally capable of entering into binding contracts; and not in any way prohibited by the applicable law to enter into these Terms in the jurisdiction which you are currently located.

You may use the Website as an unregistered user, however, you are required to register as a user if you wish to read the full text of the Content or to receive the Services.

You may not modify, publish, transmit, transfer or sell, reproduce, create derivative works from, distribute, perform, link, display, or in any way exploit any of the Content, in whole or in part, except as expressly permitted in these Terms or with the prior written consent of Mondaq. You may not use electronic or other means to extract details or information from the Content. Nor shall you extract information about users or Contributors in order to offer them any services or products.

In your use of the Website and/or Services you shall: comply with all applicable laws, regulations, directives and legislations which apply to your Use of the Website and/or Services in whatever country you are physically located including without limitation any and all consumer law, export control laws and regulations; provide to us true, correct and accurate information and promptly inform us in the event that any information that you have provided to us changes or becomes inaccurate; notify Mondaq immediately of any circumstances where you have reason to believe that any Intellectual Property Rights or any other rights of any third party may have been infringed; co-operate with reasonable security or other checks or requests for information made by Mondaq from time to time; and at all times be fully liable for the breach of any of these Terms by a third party using your login details to access the Website and/or Services

however, you shall not: do anything likely to impair, interfere with or damage or cause harm or distress to any persons, or the network; do anything that will infringe any Intellectual Property Rights or other rights of Mondaq or any third party; or use the Website, Services and/or Content otherwise than in accordance with these Terms; use any trade marks or service marks of Mondaq or the Contributors, or do anything which may be seen to take unfair advantage of the reputation and goodwill of Mondaq or the Contributors, or the Website, Services and/or Content.

Mondaq reserves the right, in its sole discretion, to take any action that it deems necessary and appropriate in the event it considers that there is a breach or threatened breach of the Terms.

Mondaq’s Rights and Obligations

Unless otherwise expressly set out to the contrary, nothing in these Terms shall serve to transfer from Mondaq to you, any Intellectual Property Rights owned by and/or licensed to Mondaq and all rights, title and interest in and to such Intellectual Property Rights will remain exclusively with Mondaq and/or its licensors.

Mondaq shall use its reasonable endeavours to make the Website and Services available to you at all times, but we cannot guarantee an uninterrupted and fault free service.

Mondaq reserves the right to make changes to the services and/or the Website or part thereof, from time to time, and we may add, remove, modify and/or vary any elements of features and functionalities of the Website or the services.

Mondaq also reserves the right from time to time to monitor your Use of the Website and/or services.

Disclaimer

The Content is general information only. It is not intended to constitute legal advice or seek to be the complete and comprehensive statement of the law, nor is it intended to address your specific requirements or provide advice on which reliance should be placed. Mondaq and/or its Contributors and other suppliers make no representations about the suitability of the information contained in the Content for any purpose. All Content provided "as is" without warranty of any kind. Mondaq and/or its Contributors and other suppliers hereby exclude and disclaim all representations, warranties or guarantees with regard to the Content, including all implied warranties and conditions of merchantability, fitness for a particular purpose, title and non-infringement. To the maximum extent permitted by law, Mondaq expressly excludes all representations, warranties, obligations, and liabilities arising out of or in connection with all Content. In no event shall Mondaq and/or its respective suppliers be liable for any special, indirect or consequential damages or any damages whatsoever resulting from loss of use, data or profits, whether in an action of contract, negligence or other tortious action, arising out of or in connection with the use of the Content or performance of Mondaq’s Services.

General

Mondaq may alter or amend these Terms by amending them on the Website. By continuing to Use the Services and/or the Website after such amendment, you will be deemed to have accepted any amendment to these Terms.

These Terms shall be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws of England and Wales and you irrevocably submit to the exclusive jurisdiction of the courts of England and Wales to settle any dispute which may arise out of or in connection with these Terms. If you live outside the United Kingdom, English law shall apply only to the extent that English law shall not deprive you of any legal protection accorded in accordance with the law of the place where you are habitually resident ("Local Law"). In the event English law deprives you of any legal protection which is accorded to you under Local Law, then these terms shall be governed by Local Law and any dispute or claim arising out of or in connection with these Terms shall be subject to the non-exclusive jurisdiction of the courts where you are habitually resident.

You may print and keep a copy of these Terms, which form the entire agreement between you and Mondaq and supersede any other communications or advertising in respect of the Service and/or the Website.

No delay in exercising or non-exercise by you and/or Mondaq of any of its rights under or in connection with these Terms shall operate as a waiver or release of each of your or Mondaq’s right. Rather, any such waiver or release must be specifically granted in writing signed by the party granting it.

If any part of these Terms is held unenforceable, that part shall be enforced to the maximum extent permissible so as to give effect to the intent of the parties, and the Terms shall continue in full force and effect.

Mondaq shall not incur any liability to you on account of any loss or damage resulting from any delay or failure to perform all or any part of these Terms if such delay or failure is caused, in whole or in part, by events, occurrences, or causes beyond the control of Mondaq. Such events, occurrences or causes will include, without limitation, acts of God, strikes, lockouts, server and network failure, riots, acts of war, earthquakes, fire and explosions.

By clicking Register you state you have read and agree to our Terms and Conditions