China: 京都视点 | 从2019年特赦令看刑事政策导向

Last Updated: 12 August 2019
Article by Meng Fan

  2019年6月29日,十三届全国人大常委会作出决定,国家主席习近平签署发布特赦令,在中华人民共和国成立70周年之际,对部分服刑罪犯予以特赦。特赦令颁布后,中央政法委、最高法、最高检分别就特赦标准、意义及具体实施规范进行了解读与规定。笔者2015年在检察机关工作期间,恰好办理了一批服刑人员的特赦案件,从原副部级的服刑人员到无职务的普通服刑人员,只要符合了2015年的特赦标准,最后都被裁定特赦出狱,特赦的法律效果、政治效果和社会效果实现了很好的统一,整体工作推进集中有序。

  此次逢国家70周年庆典再次特赦,体现了我国遵循宪法精神弘扬法治理念及执政自信,这次扩大了特赦对象,对服刑人员来说是个好消息。2019年特赦与2015年特赦相比,增加了新的特赦对象:九类特赦对象中,第一(参加过解放战争和抗日战争)、二(参加过建国后保卫战争)、六(75周岁以上年高身残)、七类(犯罪时未成年)与2015年特赦对象相同;第三(为国建设重大贡献)、四(立过军功)、五(防卫、避险过当)、八(有不能自理子女的女性罪犯)、九类(正在社区矫正的特定罪犯)是本次特赦新增加的。

  但是2019年特赦令中最后也强调了不能特赦的几类对象包括:一是犯特定重大罪行的,即第二、三、四、七、八、九类对象中,系贪污受贿犯罪,军人违反职责犯罪,故意杀人、强奸、抢劫、绑架、放火、爆炸、投放危险物质或者有组织的暴力性犯罪,黑社会性质的组织犯罪,贩卖毒品犯罪,危害国家安全犯罪,恐怖活动犯罪的罪犯,其他有组织犯罪的主犯、累犯的,不得特赦。二是余刑较长的,即对第二、三、四、九类对象中剩余刑期在十年以上和仍处于无期徒刑、死缓期间的,不得特赦等。

  新增加的特赦对象以及不能特赦的几类情形,反映出国家考虑了当前反腐败斗争形势和刑事犯罪实际情况,同时也预示了最近一段时期我国刑事政策的导向,其中能看到宽严相济刑事政策在实践中落地的角度,当然对于刑辩律师从什么角度做好企业个人的刑事风险防控以及刑事辩护策略会有一定的影响。

  特赦令中对正当防卫的终极认可,体现了宽严相济中的"当宽则宽",以及放宽适用正当防卫的刑事政策

  2019年特赦令中对于第五类特赦对象进行了明确:"因防卫过当或者避险过当,被判处三年以下有期徒刑或者剩余刑期在一年以下的服刑罪犯",对于防卫过当判刑的特赦对象,还不受几类不能特赦的重大罪行和罪名的限制。不仅体现出对现行刑法正当防卫条款放宽适用的刑事政策导向,而且鼓励了公民在紧急情况下的私力救济。

  聊城于欢案以前,司法机关对正当防卫条款适用过于严苛,不鼓励公民私力救济,导致一些现在看来是正当防卫的案件当时没有认定正当防卫而被认定为"防卫过当",甚至对防卫过当的被告人判处了较重的刑罚。所以,张明楷老师指出"对上述人员予以特赦,体现了对基于刑法变化的判决效果的变更,也是对误判的救济。"

  而此条特赦标准也是与近期内各地密集大胆认定正当防卫情节并不予起诉案件进行了呼应,从于欢案开始直至河北反杀案,舆论推动了理论界到司法实务界,对于前一时期我国司法实践中严苛适用正当防卫条款的集体反思和纠正,也激活了刑法中的正当防卫条款,此次对于"判项中认定了具有防卫过当情节但判处了轻刑的"罪犯予以特赦,体现了一种鼓励"公民见义勇为,同违法犯罪作斗争的行为和精神"的价值取向。

  不能特赦的特定重大罪行和罪名,反映出我国对贪腐犯罪、涉黑犯罪一贯从严的刑事政策导向

  2015年以来国家通过文件下发了对"职务犯罪、破坏金融管理秩序和金融诈骗类犯罪、黑社会性质组织犯罪"简称为"三类罪犯"的从严减刑模式。一直持续至今,职务罪犯和涉黑罪犯都是从严减刑的对象。2019年4月最高人民法院又下发了《关于办理减刑、假释案件具体应用法律的补充规定》,该规定对刑法分则第八章贪污贿赂罪判处刑罚的原具有国家工作人员身份罪犯的减刑、假释如何从严进行了详细规定:普通罪犯被判处十年以上徒刑的,执行两年以上就可以开始减刑,而且每次可以减刑9个月;但是贪污受贿罪犯被判处十年以上有期徒刑的,执行三年以上方可减刑,且每次不超过6个月。从严体现在:减刑起始时间拉长、减刑间隔拉长,每次减刑的时间减少。从此次特赦对象来看,特赦令也延续了一贯对贪污受贿、涉黑犯罪的从严适用政策。

  而涉黑罪犯也是在刑罚执行领域从严适用的对象,尤其目前我国的扫黑除恶专项斗争还在深入进行,按照此态势,无论从现在开始的辩护还是将来服刑后的减刑抑或未来的再次特赦,摘不掉"涉黑"的帽子,当事人就进入了从重从严打击的轨道,减刑也会更难,因此刑事诉讼程序中摘掉黑恶的帽子是刑事辩护的重中之重。

  这两类犯罪目前在实践中刑事辩护的空间被急剧压缩,难度大大增加,如果一些企业或者个人意识到自己将面临刑事风险时,尽快寻找经验丰富的刑辩律师帮助他们避免被归拢到"黑恶"罪名中去,不失为从源头处避免落入从严从重轨道的一个方法。

  特赦对象的从宽政策还体现在对女性服刑罪犯的特殊关怀

  第八条规定的特赦对象是"丧偶且有未成年子女或者有身体严重残疾、生活不能自理的子女,确需本人抚养的女性,被判处三年以下有期徒刑或者剩余刑期在一年以下的"。笔者办理的案件中有相当一部分女性被告人,通过办理案件发现,由于女性内敛和细腻的心理结构,多数女性罪犯都具有"事出有因"的被动型和依附性特点,特别是轻罪轻刑的女性罪犯,其社会危害性和再犯可能性小于同类别男性。通常具体到个案中女性犯罪动机的产生往往起因于感情因素,共同犯罪中居于从犯地位的居多。比如笔者在办理一个公司涉嫌走私犯罪中,女性被告人责任心较强,在公司里认真完成老板下达的本职工作任务,其本人并不了解公司整个业务模式,也不具有专业甄别公司行为是否涉嫌走私犯罪的能力,更无和公司负责人预先共谋的行为,对这样的女性犯罪人员,她的社会危害性和再犯可能性明显低于同类罪行的男性被告人。此次特赦对于家庭生活陷入困境的女性服刑人员给与一定的关怀,帮助其家庭纾解特殊困难,体现了法律的区别对待和温情,笔者认为这个特赦对象的设置非常人性化,体现了当宽则宽的刑事政策。

  刑事辩护最终目的是从轻、减轻甚至免除当事人的罪过和刑罚,所以刑事辩护效力最终会落在刑罚上。特赦,是刑罚执行领域特殊的法律制度,我们可以通过研究特赦乃至刑罚执行中的其他法律制度,研判司法实践中今后乃至将来一个时期的刑事政策导向,来推理判断哪种辩护方案对当事人来说是性价比最高的优质方案,这也是我们研究当下特赦的意义所在。

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