China: 京都劳动法专栏 | 雇用外国人不注意这些,当心受重罚

Last Updated: 12 August 2019
Article by Wang Guannan

随着中国开放程度提高以及国际化企业增多,在华就业的外籍人员(包括港澳台地区居民)也越来越多。在聘用外国籍员工时,需要遵守《劳动法》《劳动合同法》。还要遵守《中华人民共和国出入境管理法》、《外国人在中国就业管理规定》、《学校及其他教育机构聘用外籍专业人员管理办法》等特别规定。望本文能为企业规避雇佣外国人过程中的法律风险贡献微薄之力。

劳动关系建立

(一)不能违法雇用外国人,否则会受重罚

橙绿紫幼儿园经营了十多年,受周围居民认可。幼儿园的许园长一直以自己的教学质量为豪。但是许园长最近有点闹心,本该是招生旺季,但来报名的新生数量仅相当于往年的一半。原来就在半年前,在橙绿紫的附近,又开了一家外瑞故德国际双语幼儿园,许多家长都把自己的孩子送到了外瑞故德。这可急坏了许园长,又是降价又是发传单,但都收效甚微。最后,经过许园长和老师们讨论,觉得根本原因是因为橙绿紫缺少外教。小刘老师给许园长出主意,她的男朋友丹尼尔,是英国籍留学生,会中文,可以来当外教。许园长痛快的答应了。因为橙绿紫有多年的好口碑,收费也比外瑞故德低,再加上丹尼尔的加入,橙绿紫的招生数量直线上升。可是,好景不长,两个月后,两名警察造访了橙绿紫,他们称接到举报,橙绿紫非法雇佣外国人。经过民警的现场调查后,对橙绿紫幼儿园做出了罚款一万元的处罚。

那么为什么幼儿园会被处罚呢?原来,我国对外国人在我国就业实行行政许可制度,外国人需要遵守《外国人在中国就业管理规定》。

外国人在中国就业须年满18周岁,身体健康,具有从事其工作所必须的专业技能和相应的工作经历,无犯罪记录,有确定的聘用单位,持有有效护照或能代替护照的其他国际旅行证件。外国人入境前,应由用人单位向地市级劳动行政部门为该外国人申请就业许可,经获准后取得《外国人就业许可证书》。获准来中国工作的外国人,应凭许可证书及本国有效护照或能代替护照的证件,到中国驻外使、领馆处申请Z字签证。外国人入境后十五日内,用人单位应持许可证书、与被聘用的外国人签订的劳动合同及其有效护照或能代替护照的证件到原发证机关为外国人办理就业证。已办理就业证的外国人,应在入境后三十日内,持就业证到公安机关申请办理居留证。上述流程办完后,外国人方可在中国境内就业。未取得居留证件的外国人(即持F、L、C、G字签证者)、在中国留学、实习的外国人及持Z字签证外国人的随行家属不得在中国就业。

符合下列条件之一的外国人可免办许可证书,入境后凭Z字签证及有关证明直接办理就业证:

1、按照我国与外国政府间、国际组织间协议、协定,执行中外合作交流项目受聘来中国工作的外国人;

2、外国企业常驻中国代表机构中的首席代表、代表。

除上述规定外,学校及其他教育机构聘用外籍专业人员还有特殊规定,还需要遵守《学校及其他教育机构聘用外籍专业人员管理办法》,经国家外国专家局批准,取得《聘请外国文教专家单位资格认可证书》。

橙绿紫受到处罚,就是因为违反了相关的法律法规。

在一些特殊情况下,外国人也可免办就业许可证和就业证:

1、由我政府直接出资聘请的外籍专业技术和管理人员,或由国家机关和事业单位出资聘请,具有本国或国际权威技术管理部门或行业协会确认的高级技术职称或特殊技能资格证书的外籍专业技术和管理人员,并持有外国专家局签发的《外国专家证》的外国人;

2、持有《外国人在中华人民共和国从事海上石油作业工作准证》从事海上石油作业、不需登陆、有特殊技能的外籍劳务人员;

3、经文化部批准持《临时营业演出许可证》进行营业性文艺演出的外国人。

(二)接受外籍人员的服务,关系要厘清

相比于上一个问题,这个问题可能更不容易引起注意,更容易造成企业损失。

某科技公司雇佣了6名印度籍咨询项目工程师,并为他们办理了《外国人就业证》,就业证均载明职业或身份为咨询项目工程师,工作单位为某科技公司。2013年6月至2015年5月,6名印度籍人员根据科技公司的指派先后至某汽车公司工作,从事汽车技术工程等方面的技术支持和服务,具体工作内容由某汽车公司安排,工资由某科技公司支付。但该行为引起了宝山公安分局的注意。宝山公安分局在进行了调查取证并举行听证会后认定:某汽车公司于2013年6月至2015年5月13日有非法聘用外国人的违法行为,根据《中华人民共和国出境入境管理法》的规定,决定对某汽车公司罚款人民币6万元。某汽车公司不服,提起行政诉讼。法院最终认定:汽车公司称涉案外籍工作人员是基于服务外包关系而在汽车公司工作,但未提供其与某科技公司之间存在直接的服务外包关系的事实证据。行政机关认定汽车公司实施了非法聘用外国人的违法行为,认定事实清楚。据此作出罚款人民币6万元的处罚,适用法律正确,处罚幅度亦符合法律规定。

造成这结果的原因是因为某汽车公司不注意厘清法律关系导致,虽然某汽车公司被处罚的有些冤,但宝山公安分局的处罚也并无不当。《外国人在中国就业管理规定》规定了外国人就业的用人单位必须与其就业证所注明的单位相一致。因此如果企业需要接受其他企业派来的外国籍员工的长期驻派,为避免类似情况,接受服务的企业应该做到:

1、与提供服务的企业签订好服务协议,约定清楚被派来的员工与提供服务的企业为劳动关系,与接受服务企业无劳动关系。

2、服务费用必须支付给提供服务的企业,不能以劳务报酬、工资等名目,发给外籍员工。

3、接受服务的企业不应对被派来的员工进行直接管理,管理要求可以由接受服务的企业与提供服务的企业签订合同进行约定,但管理工作应当由提供服务企业完成。

 (三)外籍员工不适用无固定期限劳动合同

如果外籍员工要求签订无固定期限劳动合同,企业可以放心大胆的拒绝。

丹·汉森自2013年4月1日至2016年3月31日期间在富润福德公司工作,担任富润福德公司上海分公司总经理,工作期间办理了《外国人就业证》,双方签订了三份劳动合同书,期限分别为2013年4月1日至2014年3月31日、2014年4月1日至2015年3月31日、2015年4月1日至2016年3月31日。富润福德公司于2016年3月1日向丹·汉森发送《劳动合同期满不续签通知书》,该通知书于2016年3月9日送达。

丹·汉森不认可《劳动合同期满不续签通知书》,提起劳动仲裁申请,请求事项包括撤销《劳动合同期满不续签通知书》,恢复劳动合同关系及原工作岗位,确认双方自2016年4月1日起存在无固定期限劳动关系,双方续签劳动合同;裁决富润福德公司支付2016年4月1日至2016年7月31日应签而未签订无固定期限劳动合同的双倍工资差额80000元。后该案件经过劳动仲裁、一审、二审,北京市第一中级人民法院最终判决,驳回了丹·汉森要求确认双方自2016年4月1日起存在无固定期限劳动关系以及支付应签而未签订无固定期限劳动合同工资差额的请求。

那么,为什么在这个问题上法院不支持丹·汉森的请求呢?因为《中华人民共和国劳动合同法》虽规定了签订无固定期限劳动合同的相应条款,但丹·汉森系外国人,应适用《外国人在中国就业管理规定》的特别规定。据《外国人在中国就业管理规定》规定,用人单位与被聘用外国人订立劳动合同,合同期限不得超过五年。富润福德公司与丹·汉森第三次签订的劳动合同终止日期为2016年3月31日,该公司于2016年3月1日作出《劳动合同期满不续签通知书》并于2016年3月9日向丹·汉森进行了送达,根据《外国人在中国就业管理规定》,双方签订的劳动合同期限届满即行终止。

 劳动合同履行

公司需要为外籍员工缴纳社保吗?

根据《中华人民共和国社会保险法》《在中国境内就业的外国人参加社会保险暂行办法》外国人在中国境内就业的,应当参加社会保险。但上述为一般情况,特殊情况是我国与多个国家进行过相应协定,目前,我国与德国、韩国、芬兰、加拿大、荷兰、瑞士等国家签订有社会保险双边互免协议,因此如雇佣上述国籍员工的企业,可以参照下列文件写明的程序,为符合条件的员工,申请免交社保费用。但是在申请获得审批前,企业及外籍员工仍应当正常缴纳社保。

《关于实施中德社会保险协定的通知》

《劳动和社会保障部办公厅关于执行中德协定和中韩协议有关问题的通知》

《人力资源社会保障部办公厅关于实施中韩社会保险协定和议定书的通知》

《人力资源和社会保障部办公厅关于实施中芬社会保障协定的通知》

《人力资源和社会保障部办公厅关于实施中加社会保障协定的通知》

《人力资源和社会保障部办公厅关于实施中国-荷兰社会保障协定的通知》

《人力资源和社会保障部办公厅关于实施中国瑞士社会保障协定的通知》

上述文件具体内容较多,受限篇幅,无法赘述,有需要的读者可按照标题查询。

劳动合同终止的特殊规定

细心读者可能已经发现,雇佣外国人的特殊性主要集中在需要取得行政许可。其他时候与雇佣中国员工差别不大。但是,如果行政许可失效后,双方的劳动关系该怎么处理呢?

在下列情况下,外国人就业许可失效:

(一)劳动合同被解除的(此时用人单位应交还该外国人的就业证和居留证件);

(二)劳动合同期满的;

(三)因违反中国法律被公安机关取消居留资格的。

(四)逾期未办就业证年检手续的(外国人就业每满一年,应在期满前三十日内到劳动行政部门发证机关办理就业证年检手续)。

外国人与企业的劳动合同终止,是否需要支付经济补偿金呢?

劳动合同被解除与劳动合同期满的情形比较好判断,因为劳动合同终止的时间在外国人就业的行政许可失效之前,此时外国人仍具有劳动者主体资格。按照《劳动合同法》第二条规定,该法适用范围仅表述为劳动者,并未区分中国人还是外国人,因此《劳动合同法》关于企业应支付经济补偿金的条款仍适用于外国人。双方按照劳动合同法第四十六条解除或终止劳动合同的,企业应当支付经济补偿金。

但如果是因违反中国法律被公安机关取消居留资格或逾期未办就业证年检手续的,则有些特殊,此时,应当如何处理呢?我认为,此情况下,劳动合同属于因《劳动合同法》第四十四条规定的"(六)法律、行政法规规定的其他情形。"不在第四十六条规定的企业应当支付经济补偿金的范围内。此时,用人单位无需支付经济补偿金。

写了这么多,望各位读者能有一点收获,在企业雇佣外国员工时做到遵纪守法,让外国员工能为企业创造最大的价值。

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