China: 评张扣扣案 | 辩护词并非煽情演讲稿 血亲复仇不是法治精神

Last Updated: 7 August 2019
Article by Jiuchuan Wang

在张扣扣被执行死刑消息发布的同时,有一篇辩护词被再次推送出来,广泛流转。这个案子经过两审,共有两位律师的四篇辩护词及一份公诉意见发出,其中多具有相当的专业水准,而有一篇非专业辩护的文字则获得公众强烈反响,好评如潮,几乎淹没批评的口水。

一个争议最大的问题:这篇激动人心的文字究竟是不是辩护词?

  在法律专业人士甚至部分法律界外人士看,这本不该成为一个问题。法律当然没有规定辩护词怎么写,但刑事诉讼法的相关规定很明确,辩护是围绕事实、证据和法律适用展开,实践中律师往往从实体、证据、程序几个角度来梳理自己的辩护观点,没人会去写一篇几乎不谈法律的辩护词。就这个案件辩护看,几乎无人否认该作者的常规辩护能力,发出这篇另类的辩护词,当然是策略之选,是反常打法。

  "如果我们认为,正式的国家法仍然能够为民间法预留某些空间,或者仍然与民间法保留着某些对话、融合的可能通道,那么张扣扣应该能有生的希望。" 这一表白集中体现了这篇辩护词的定位:背对法官,面向庭外公众,期待以民间回声促使法官让步。

  对于不少辩护律师而言,的确佩服这种施展非常策略的勇气,也赞赏同仁的博识和文采,但这篇辩护词在立意、说理和文风上都有令人失望之处,所呈现的理念也颇让人意外,这种风格注定无法实现其辩护策略。因为这篇辩护词形成广泛影响,可能还会给今后的刑事辩护带来某种流弊,所以有必要在此作几点提示,以供探讨。

首先,从这篇文字的体裁看,是以讲故事为主线,以道德辩护为基调的煽情式演讲稿。

  法庭上发表辩护意见,一般不需要这样大段叙事,即便讲,也要尊重基本事实,于辩护方不利的事实,你不提公诉人也会说,完全回避并非上策。显然,这篇文字不是这样定位,以唤起同情为目的,法律案件事实被剪裁成一个传奇性故事,文中第一部分即明确宣告:"这是一个血亲复仇的故事"。

  于是,我们看到一个童年受到暴力刺激后立志为母复仇,艰难成长,在历经挫折、对法律公义和人生前途绝望后暴力复仇,然后主动投案的故事,这些情节我们似曾相识,其中包含此类传统故事的基本道德要素覧以孝为大、以正义之名行暴力、敢于担当覧这很容易直触国人痛点,唤起悲悯,尤其是弱势群体。

  然而,这里回避了故事本该有的其他情节:当年张父将幼小的扣扣带到王家家停留,将张母的尸体停放对方家中数天;张扣扣以残忍的手段杀死王家三人(目标为四人,生者在法庭上受到扣扣的威胁)、烧毁汽车,以几十刀还当年的一记棍击。当然,这里没有描述张母当年经常责骂王家、当天使用铁器打伤王家人的场面,因为这些会影响主人公带给读者、听者的"正义感"。

事实有事实的逻辑,故事有故事的技巧,辩护词可以另类,要否尊重事实?

 其次,这篇辩护词采用很多文学手法,其修辞风格有点类似一个以讲堂为名的电视法律节目。

  对残酷场景的生动描写类似于电影蒙太奇镜头,这种手法的确有效,留在我脑海中的是血光、头骨、利刃和"仰天长啸"的身影。为了突出心理问题,从主人公的现场视角出发,结合其人生经历来刻画其心路历程,将其描绘成一个令人同情的弱者、受害者,而对其残忍、精明的一面则不予描述。

  关于事实有这样的描述:"时间必须回到1996年。这一年,张扣扣年仅13岁......张扣扣眼睁睁的看着母亲在自己的怀里断气、死去。"......类似的通俗文学语言风格,与文中其他精彩段句部分有些违和。

  使用文学经典作品、名言警句,也是该文的一个技巧,《哈姆雷特》、《基督山伯爵》、《赵氏孤儿》中的经典硬汉,鲁迅的名言,《罪与罚》中的诗性哲理名句,无疑在烘托对 "复仇"的美化,尽管辩护词中声明被告人不是"大英雄",其行为"在整体上"应被法律否定,但全文仍给人留下一个绝地反击英雄的形象,公众的某些反馈,似乎证明了这种手法的成功。

  第三,在说故事中谈专业问题,并揉以情理,也是该辩护词的一个特色,但抒情有些过度,缺少说理。

  在引入弗洛伊德观点后关于创伤应急障碍的文字,主在抒情,有些可惜了。"长大后是几乎不可能成为一个健全的正常人的",这样的观点难有说服力。关于精神鉴定作这样的表述:"张扣扣被仇恨的欲望所裹挟,被复仇的情绪所支配。而这仇恨的种子,却是别人播下的。张扣扣本人也是受害者,也是牺牲品。庭前会议上,我们曾申请对张扣扣进行精神鉴定,遗憾没有获得法庭许可。"精神鉴定是本案的一个重要辩点,为什么要对一个仇恨别人的人进行精神鉴定,在这里有必要给予解释,抒情部分和法律诉求之间的过度,显得突兀。

 第四,文中亦存在法律概念和逻辑问题。

  关于被告人精神状态、责任能力的分类,有法定标准,如有争议,可以通过鉴定程序解决,本案辩护人已向合议庭提出精神鉴定申请,但在这里对于审判又提出另一种判断标准:"意志自由"的 "正常人的标准"、"局外人的理性",对这些含混的概念可以有一千种解释,法律原则被作出情理化、通俗化的解读了。

  文中多次强调张扣扣对行凶对象有明确、严格的限定,有节制的一面,不伤害无辜,既然如此有节制,行为能力似乎正常,再提出精神鉴定申请,会被对手攻击,这需要自圆其说。

  上述言论更倾向于人格分析,从犯罪心理学的角度看,犯罪行为的实施者普遍具有人格缺陷,而刑事责任的评价是另一个角度的问题。就本案件看,张扣扣存在偏执人格倾向,因为人命关天,我支持作精神鉴定,但从其对侵害对象的理性选择及对实施的手法、步骤的周密安排看,的确难以说服司法机关启动鉴定。

最后,我们不能不关注这篇辩护词中最为严重的两个问题。

 其一,对同态复仇、血亲复仇的认同倾向。

  在这一点上,全文的逻辑结构是清楚的:这是一个血亲复仇的故事覧张扣扣没有更好的仇恨排遣通道覧复仇有着深刻的人性和社会基础覧国家法应该适当吸纳民间正义情感覧张扣扣是一个什么样的人,期间除了抒情,还引用大量中外名言、律令和案例,层层铺垫,留给读者的逻辑是:复仇合理不合法,复仇具有民间正义性。

  这种理念把我们至少要带回到中世纪去。即便是同态复仇,也要讲"罪刑相当" ,所谓"以眼还眼,以牙还牙",张扣扣的行为后果严重,已远远超过"同态",何况王家涉案人员已受到刑事处罚,对这样的行为赋予正义上的解读,已远离法治原则。不过,因为被告人的行为过于残忍,公众的整体反应似乎趋于理性。

 其二,以犯罪原因在于社会之辞作为降低个人行为责任的理由。

  辩护词中一再指责全社会没有帮助张扣扣,"任由一颗复仇的种子生根发芽。"犯罪的社会成因与犯罪责任不能混同,社会问题不能成为具体案件中从轻量刑的理由,按照前面的逻辑,绝大多数犯罪都是可以宽恕的、原谅的,法律将失去应有的尊严。辩护词中给予张扣扣的路只有两条:做一个畏畏缩缩、逆来顺受的木偶,或者走向极端,在那个木偶和杀人犯之间,难道没有其他选择?张扣扣自己并非无路可走,他的人生经历足以证明。道德说理,也不能极端化。

  尽管一再强调不否认对被告人的有罪法律评价,这篇"输出温情"的文字仍给不少人留下这样的印象:以过时的道德辩护代替法律辩护,以中世纪的民间正义代替现代国家正义。

  所以,我在欣赏这篇文字的同时,也深为之遗憾,可谓剑走偏锋,用力过猛,救人心切,有违常识,建议在读后击掌之余,多一些反思,留一点借鉴,少一些模仿。如果本案真有陪审团,我祈求不要马上投票。

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