China: 袁方臣律师办理韩某滥伐林木案 当事人无法定情节获缓刑

Last Updated: 29 July 2019
Article by King & Capital Law Firm

近日,京都律师事务所合伙人袁方臣律师办理的韩某某被控滥伐林木一案一审宣判。

韩某某被控在未办理林木采伐许可证的情况下,指使李某砍伐并出售杨树147株,获利4万元。经鉴定,该147株杨树立木蓄积为95.942立方米。公诉机关认为应当以滥伐林木罪追究其刑事责任。袁方臣律师在辩护过程中,根据事实、证据、法律,以专业知识、敬业精神、严谨态度,对滥伐林木罪做了无罪辩护。最终,一审法院以滥伐林木罪判处韩某某有期徒刑三年,缓刑四年,并处罚金人民币六千元。

宣判后,检察院没有抗诉,韩某某没有上诉,判决书已经发生法律效力。

袁方臣律师长期深耕刑事辩护、商事诉讼和法律顾问业务,近年来专注于刑事辩护领域,倡导"锻铸刑辩精品,彰显个案公正"的理念,擅长团队作战、发挥集体智慧,业绩优异。以下是该案的办案手记,一点感触,分享给大家。

案情简介

北京市通州区漷县镇草厂村村东、田南路南侧系吕某某(系韩某某丈夫)的承包地,该片土地上的速生杨树权归其所有。2017年11月,村党支部工作人员张某某分别向吕某某和韩某某送达了承包地腾退通知,且县镇人民政府、草厂村村委会在文件中明确指出"林木自行处理"。2017年12月初,李某(系吕某某的外甥)电话联系韩某某,表示希望将厂子南侧、东侧、北侧的杨树全部砍伐并卖出,韩某某强调李某务必找漷县镇林业工作站站长曹某某办理伐木手续,并提前知会曹某某。后李某并未办理伐木手续,在谭某某的帮助下以4万元的价格将147株杨树卖给收树人张某某并全部砍伐,该部分款项并未交给韩某某。经鉴定,该147株杨树的立木蓄积为95.942立方米。后砍树被举报,韩某某找张某某开了树权证明,并让李某拿到镇里盖章。

曹某某表示,2017年11月下旬,韩某某向其电话咨询是否可以不办采伐手续直接砍树,曹某某明确表示不可以。在案发后,韩某某多次联系曹某某,希望曹某某能够帮自己,其表示自己曾经让李某来办理手续但是李某没来。曹某某表示其并不认识李某;李某表示是韩某某主动联系自己并让自己联系收树人,且韩某某声称手续问题已经和曹某某沟通好。李某表示卖树的4万元现金当时就交给了韩某某。

本案当事人韩某某因涉嫌滥伐林木罪于2018年8月9日被刑事拘留,2019年2月25日由北京市西城区人民检察院以滥伐林木罪向人民法院提起公诉。京都律师事务所合伙人袁方臣律师接受委托,担任韩某某的辩护人。经过详细阅卷、会见当事人、实地调研、组织专家论证会、制定详细辩护方案等精细化、专业化的辩护工作之后,袁律师向法院提交了辩护意见。

控辩双方观点

控方观点

2017年12月初,在未办理林木采伐许可证的情况下,韩某某指使李某找到收树人张某某,协商后将吕某某所有的位于北京市通州区漷县镇草厂村村东、田南路南侧、工业大院院墙外的杨树147株以4万元价格由张某某收购砍伐。经鉴定,该147株杨树立木蓄积为95.942立方米。后韩某某经民警电话通知后于2018年8月9日自行到案。

控方认为,韩某某、张某某、李某违反《中华人民共和国森林法》的规定,滥伐林木,数量巨大,破坏了国家对林业资源的保护制度,其行为触犯了《中华人民共和国刑法》第三百四十五条第二款,犯罪事实清楚,证据确实、充分,均应当以滥伐林木罪追究其刑事责任

辩方观点

1.韩某某没有滥伐林木的主观故意

滥伐林木罪的主观要求必须是故意,行为人明知是滥伐林木的行为,积极追求或者放任结果发生。在本案中,单纯只从韩某某对伐木知情来判断其具有滥伐林木的故意,这种认定并不准确。

草厂村村委会于2017年12月5日向吕某某出具《证明》载明"树木自行处理"。该内容证实草厂村村委会对园区腾退和树木处理具有职权。同时,作为承担管理本村公共事务职能的村委会,其加盖了公章的《证明》,当然具有公信力,足以使本村村民韩某某认为自己有自行处理树木的权利,甚至可以说是遵照村委会的要求,履行处理树木的义务,并不能认识到这样的处理行为是滥伐林木。

虽然《县镇人民政府关于工业大院腾退的情况说明》中载明"区域内的树木、苗木等植被如需伐移,应依据法律法规办理相关行政许可",然而,该文件的落款日期却是2018年9月4日,也就是说这份证据形成于本案发生之后,显然不能以文件中的事后标准要求事先的行为。同理,漷县镇人民政府于2018年9月6日发出《通知》:"根据通州区县镇草厂村腾退指挥部决定,限被腾退人即日起进行搬移、迁移工作,于2017年10月9日至草厂村腾退指挥部签署腾退确认书,于2017年10月12日前完成腾退范围内物品搬移、迁移工作,并签署交房单。......"

据此,一种理解为伐移树木需要取得行政许可,没有取得行政许可不可以采伐树木。然而,如果将句式重心前移,该文应当是行政指导,即国家行政机关在职权范围内,为实现所期待的行政状态,以建议、劝告等非强制措施要求有关当事人作为或不作为的活动。本案中,根据一般理性自然人的理解,漷县镇人民政府及草厂村村委会发出的文件并没有明确要求村民伐移树木或者不伐移树木,村民可以选择伐移树木也可以选择不伐移树木,这是村民个人选择自由,政府对于村民个人选择持尊重态度,即伐移树木和政府的行政指导有直接因果关系,为漷县镇人民政府所允许。

既有公信力的村委会文件,又有镇政府的指导(尽管为事后补发),对于吕某某拥有所有权的杨树,韩某某当然认为在腾退过程中可以自行处理。即便规定腾退区域内的树木如需伐移,应依据法律法规办理相关行政许可,也由于系事后追认,也不应视为具有强制效力。

此外,村委会和郭县镇人民政府仅给村民1个月的腾退时间,在短时间内,要腾退建筑物及其所有附属设施,安顿好家人的生活和工作,并且办理完相关腾退手续,对任何一个家庭来说都是一个体量巨大的工程。在漷县镇人民政府文件中对伐移树木是否属于腾退工作尚不明确的情形下,草厂村除韩某某外的其他村民,均已将个人所有的树木全部伐移,因此,韩某某伐移树木的行为,是履行配合政府腾退整体工作的义务。总而言之,镇政府及村委会的文件导致韩某某对伐树行为产生错误认识。

其次,韩某某没有破坏森林资源和林木管理秩序的主观故意。

滥伐林木的直接故意表现为,滥伐林木行为人明知自己的滥伐行为扰乱国家国家林木管理秩序,滥伐行为会对森林资源和生态环境造成侵害,却仍然故意实施;间接故意表现为,行为人知道自己的滥伐林木行为扰乱国家林木管理秩序,但是主观上并不希望自己滥伐林木的行为对森林资源和生态环境造成侵害,对这种可能发生的侵害和不利后果,放任不加以干预或者制止。

据本案案情及上述文件可知,涉案的树木位于草厂村腾退范围内,在其他村民均已伐移树木的情况下,韩某某误认为涉案树木是限期必须砍伐的树木是在情理之中的。韩某某通过自行伐移树木配合政府整体腾退工作,其没有破坏森林资源的故意,也没有违反国家林木管理秩序的故意。

2.韩某某的行为未侵害滥伐林木罪的保护法益,仅违反了行政法规

法律体系中,刑法是保护法益最严厉的手段,应秉持谦抑性原则。换言之,只有在其它手段不起作用的情况下,才应适用刑法。

滥伐林木罪要求违反《森林法》,而根据《森林法》第1条,为了保护、培育和合理利用森林资源,加快国土绿化,发挥森林蓄水保土、调节气候、改善环境和提供林产品的作用,适应社会主义建设和人民生活的需要,特制定本法之规定,森林资源是其保护法益的首位。据此,滥伐林木罪保护的实质性法益是森林资源,程序性法益是国家林木管理秩序,程序性法益林木管理秩序旨在更好地保护实质性法益森林资源。换言之,政府林业部门应当从砍伐动机、目的、所处环境等多方面对伐木许可进行实质审查。本案中,县镇人民政府、草厂村村委会在上述文件中明确指出"林木自行处理",这表明政府和村委会已经对林木的采伐行为进行了实质性审核,符合砍伐规定,没有破坏森林资源。因此,韩某某的行为并没有侵害滥伐林木罪的实质法益,之后未按要求办理行政许可的行为仅侵害了程序性法益,属于违反行政法规。

需要指出的是,韩某某未按要求办理行政许可,也是基于对政府文件的错误认识,宽宥该行为情有可原,认定为犯罪,则有违刑法谦抑性原则,非但不能达到震慑、预防犯罪的目的,反而让百姓心生恐慌,影响政府的公信力。

3.认定韩某某指使李某伐木存在问题,无法排除韩某某不知情的合理怀疑,达不到确实充分的证据标准

现有证据表明,韩某某对在腾退过程中自行处理树木需要办理相应行政许可手续的事实有一定认识,李某告知韩某某"不少人想买你们家周围的树",此时韩某某并未表示愿意伐树获利,但明确对李某说:"不管谁买树,都得先办手续。"之后李某让韩某某和砍树人曹某某联系,"打个电话说一下砍树办手续的事",韩某某向曹某某表示"让我外甥(指李某)找他(曹某某)办理砍树手续","具体的事已都交给李某负责"说明韩某某将办理伐木行政许可手续事宜委托代理给李某办理,而李某通过向韩某某介绍砍树人,汇报砍树价格等一系列实际行动对这段代理关系予以默示同意。

关键问题是,韩某某明确授权李某代理其办理伐木行政许可手续,但并未授权其砍树,是"李某自己找人把树砍了"。根据《民法总则》第一百七十一条规定,行为人没有代理权、超越代理权或者代理权终止后,仍然实施代理行为,未经被代理人追认的,对被代理人不发生效力。李某未经被代理人韩某某同意,超出代理权限对韩某某家的树砍伐处理而并没有办手续,其行政违法行为结果不能归因于韩某某。

另外,韩某某自始至终对于滥伐树木的行为都是否认的,除李某供述系在韩某某指使下无证砍伐树外,其余证人均不能直接证实韩某某指使李某无证砍树。至于张某某、李某、牛某某、谭某某等四人,对砍伐现场李某打电话的对象和内容的口供并不一致且有多处矛盾,无法相互印证,更加无法证实韩某某指使李某无证砍树。又如,韩某某是否因滥伐树木而获益等事实也不清晰。韩某某和李某对款项的数额和性质的供述存在矛盾。韩某某认为李某代草厂村交给自己3万元拆房款,其并未收到砍树款项,李某表示明确给了韩某某4万元砍树款。

因此,现有证据无法排除这样一个合理怀疑:韩某某对李某未办理行政许可砍树并不知情,也未在现场指使李某无证砍树。该部分证据未达到确实充分的证据标准。

4.即便韩某某构成犯罪,恳请法院依法判处缓刑

根据《中华人民共和国刑法》第七十二条之规定,对于被判处拘役、三年以下有期徒刑的犯罪分子,同时符合下列条件的,可以宣告缓刑:(一)犯罪情节较轻;(二)有悔罪表现;(三)没有再犯罪的危险;(四)宣告缓刑对所居住社区没有重大不良影响。

即便韩某某构成犯罪,考虑到滥伐林木并非是具有较大人身危险性和社会危害性的行为,且韩某某砍伐的是自家厂房内的树木,刚刚达到数量巨大的标准,实质上亦得到了当地政府的许可(只是形式上没有办理许可证),属于犯罪情节较轻;树木已被全部砍伐,没有再犯可能。因此,即便韩某某构成犯罪,恳请法院依法对其判处缓刑。

判决结果

2019年5月17日,北京市西城区人民法院以(2019)京0102刑初207号刑事判决书认定:韩某某、张某某、李某违反国家法律规定,滥伐林木,数量巨大的行为,均侵犯了国家对林木资源的管理制度,均已构成滥伐林木罪,且系共同犯罪,依法均应予以惩处,指控成立。鉴于被告人韩某某当庭能认罪悔罪,可酌情从轻处罚并适用缓刑。判处有期徒刑三年,缓刑四年,并处罚金人民币六千元。

该判决虽未完全采纳辩护人提出的无罪辩护意见,却在认定韩某某滥伐林木数量巨大(法定刑为三年以上至七年以下有期徒刑)的前提下,判处缓刑,基本做到了罚当其罪,使被告人能够回归家庭,重获自由,辩护效果显著。

案件体会

1.行政违法不等于刑事犯罪

我国目前尚不存在规范意义上的附属刑法,在民法、行政法等非刑事法律中出现的以"......构成犯罪的,依法追究刑事责任"为标志的法律规范并不一定等同于刑事犯罪,切记考察行为的实质内容而非表现形式,明确行为是否侵犯法益以及侵犯何种法益,否则会盲目扩大刑法的打击面。本案中,县镇人民政府、草厂村村委会在文件中明确指出"林木自行处理",这表明政府和村委会已经对林木的采伐行为进行了实质性审核,符合砍伐规定,没有破坏森林资源。因此,韩某某的行为并没有侵害滥伐林木罪的实质法益,之后未按要求办理行政许可的行为仅侵害了程序性法益,仅属于违反行政法规。

2.积极沟通寻求最优辩护策略

积极沟通包括与当事人沟通和与司法机关沟通两方面。与当事人沟通不仅能了解案卷上没有但可能影响定罪量刑的线索和事实,同时能够与当事人商定最优的辩护策略,如本案中韩某某当庭认罪悔罪是其获缓刑判决的法律前提。与司法机关沟通能够及时向其表达辩方意见,将部分工作做在庭前,增强有效辩护。

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Mondaq.com (the Website) is owned and managed by Mondaq Ltd (Mondaq). Mondaq grants you a non-exclusive, revocable licence to access the Website and associated services, such as the Mondaq News Alerts (Services), subject to and in consideration of your compliance with the following terms and conditions of use (Terms). Your use of the Website and/or Services constitutes your agreement to the Terms. Mondaq may terminate your use of the Website and Services if you are in breach of these Terms or if Mondaq decides to terminate the licence granted hereunder for any reason whatsoever.

Use of www.mondaq.com

To Use Mondaq.com you must be: eighteen (18) years old or over; legally capable of entering into binding contracts; and not in any way prohibited by the applicable law to enter into these Terms in the jurisdiction which you are currently located.

You may use the Website as an unregistered user, however, you are required to register as a user if you wish to read the full text of the Content or to receive the Services.

You may not modify, publish, transmit, transfer or sell, reproduce, create derivative works from, distribute, perform, link, display, or in any way exploit any of the Content, in whole or in part, except as expressly permitted in these Terms or with the prior written consent of Mondaq. You may not use electronic or other means to extract details or information from the Content. Nor shall you extract information about users or Contributors in order to offer them any services or products.

In your use of the Website and/or Services you shall: comply with all applicable laws, regulations, directives and legislations which apply to your Use of the Website and/or Services in whatever country you are physically located including without limitation any and all consumer law, export control laws and regulations; provide to us true, correct and accurate information and promptly inform us in the event that any information that you have provided to us changes or becomes inaccurate; notify Mondaq immediately of any circumstances where you have reason to believe that any Intellectual Property Rights or any other rights of any third party may have been infringed; co-operate with reasonable security or other checks or requests for information made by Mondaq from time to time; and at all times be fully liable for the breach of any of these Terms by a third party using your login details to access the Website and/or Services

however, you shall not: do anything likely to impair, interfere with or damage or cause harm or distress to any persons, or the network; do anything that will infringe any Intellectual Property Rights or other rights of Mondaq or any third party; or use the Website, Services and/or Content otherwise than in accordance with these Terms; use any trade marks or service marks of Mondaq or the Contributors, or do anything which may be seen to take unfair advantage of the reputation and goodwill of Mondaq or the Contributors, or the Website, Services and/or Content.

Mondaq reserves the right, in its sole discretion, to take any action that it deems necessary and appropriate in the event it considers that there is a breach or threatened breach of the Terms.

Mondaq’s Rights and Obligations

Unless otherwise expressly set out to the contrary, nothing in these Terms shall serve to transfer from Mondaq to you, any Intellectual Property Rights owned by and/or licensed to Mondaq and all rights, title and interest in and to such Intellectual Property Rights will remain exclusively with Mondaq and/or its licensors.

Mondaq shall use its reasonable endeavours to make the Website and Services available to you at all times, but we cannot guarantee an uninterrupted and fault free service.

Mondaq reserves the right to make changes to the services and/or the Website or part thereof, from time to time, and we may add, remove, modify and/or vary any elements of features and functionalities of the Website or the services.

Mondaq also reserves the right from time to time to monitor your Use of the Website and/or services.

Disclaimer

The Content is general information only. It is not intended to constitute legal advice or seek to be the complete and comprehensive statement of the law, nor is it intended to address your specific requirements or provide advice on which reliance should be placed. Mondaq and/or its Contributors and other suppliers make no representations about the suitability of the information contained in the Content for any purpose. All Content provided "as is" without warranty of any kind. Mondaq and/or its Contributors and other suppliers hereby exclude and disclaim all representations, warranties or guarantees with regard to the Content, including all implied warranties and conditions of merchantability, fitness for a particular purpose, title and non-infringement. To the maximum extent permitted by law, Mondaq expressly excludes all representations, warranties, obligations, and liabilities arising out of or in connection with all Content. In no event shall Mondaq and/or its respective suppliers be liable for any special, indirect or consequential damages or any damages whatsoever resulting from loss of use, data or profits, whether in an action of contract, negligence or other tortious action, arising out of or in connection with the use of the Content or performance of Mondaq’s Services.

General

Mondaq may alter or amend these Terms by amending them on the Website. By continuing to Use the Services and/or the Website after such amendment, you will be deemed to have accepted any amendment to these Terms.

These Terms shall be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws of England and Wales and you irrevocably submit to the exclusive jurisdiction of the courts of England and Wales to settle any dispute which may arise out of or in connection with these Terms. If you live outside the United Kingdom, English law shall apply only to the extent that English law shall not deprive you of any legal protection accorded in accordance with the law of the place where you are habitually resident ("Local Law"). In the event English law deprives you of any legal protection which is accorded to you under Local Law, then these terms shall be governed by Local Law and any dispute or claim arising out of or in connection with these Terms shall be subject to the non-exclusive jurisdiction of the courts where you are habitually resident.

You may print and keep a copy of these Terms, which form the entire agreement between you and Mondaq and supersede any other communications or advertising in respect of the Service and/or the Website.

No delay in exercising or non-exercise by you and/or Mondaq of any of its rights under or in connection with these Terms shall operate as a waiver or release of each of your or Mondaq’s right. Rather, any such waiver or release must be specifically granted in writing signed by the party granting it.

If any part of these Terms is held unenforceable, that part shall be enforced to the maximum extent permissible so as to give effect to the intent of the parties, and the Terms shall continue in full force and effect.

Mondaq shall not incur any liability to you on account of any loss or damage resulting from any delay or failure to perform all or any part of these Terms if such delay or failure is caused, in whole or in part, by events, occurrences, or causes beyond the control of Mondaq. Such events, occurrences or causes will include, without limitation, acts of God, strikes, lockouts, server and network failure, riots, acts of war, earthquakes, fire and explosions.

By clicking Register you state you have read and agree to our Terms and Conditions