China: 德恒律师为您盘点商家常见刑事法律风险丨3·15商家"防坑"指南

Last Updated: 8 May 2019
Article by Qingjun Kong
Most Read Contributor in China, July 2019

一年一度的"3·15"消费者权益保护日到来,当全社会都在日益重视消费者这一群体权利的同时,作为商家(这里主要讨论销售者而非生产者)除了明确自身在消保法框架下应负的义务,更需要时刻提高法律风险意识,尤其是避免触碰刑法的红线。

德恒合肥办公室刑事业务律师现就商家所可能涉及的刑事法律风险进行类型分析。

商家刑事法律风险来源分析

商家预防刑事风险的建议

1.商家刑事法律风险来源分析

商家常见刑事法律风险来源可以类型化为3种

  1. 因商品本身不合法而产生的刑事风险
  2. 因商家主体未获相应行政机关特别许可而产生的刑事风险
  3. 因销售途径、进货方式引发的刑事风险

商品本身不合法

因商品本身不合法所可能涉及的罪名主要有销售假冒注册商标的商品罪、销售伪劣产品罪、销售假药罪、非法买卖枪支罪和传播淫秽物品牟利罪等。

01.销售假冒注册商标的商品罪

商家如果不择手段"傍名牌"销售商品,直接销售假冒他人注册商标的产品,将触犯销售假冒注册商标的商品罪。这一类罪名与知识产权息息相关,且要求"明知"。

在司法实践中,一般认为如果具有以下几种情形之一,就可以界定行为人为"明知":

一是注册商标被涂改、调换或者覆盖

二是商标注册人授权文件被伪造或涂改

三是进价或售价明显低于正常市场价格

四是商品被发现后转移、销毁物证或提供虚假证明、虚假情况

五是曾因销售假冒注册商标的商品受到过行政处罚或承担过民事责任、又销售同一种假冒注册商标的商品

六是其他知道或应当知道是假冒注册商标的商品的情形

(关联法条:刑法第二百一十四条)

02.销售伪劣产品罪

商家如果以次充好、以假乱真、售卖三无产品等,则将触犯销售伪劣产品罪,这一类也是商家最容易触犯的罪名。

现在市面上货品鱼龙混杂,各种高仿、精仿横行,甚至连"某多多"这一类电商平台都公开售卖,不得不说这是市场监管之殇,背后原因固然有利益驱动,但是"货真价实"才是市场经济的应有之义。

(关联法条:刑法第一百四十条)

03.销售假药罪

商家如果售卖假药,则可能触犯销售假药罪。近些年销售假药的行为主要体现为代购代销所谓"仿制药"以及朋友圈销售"美容针"、"减肥药"等。法律上所说的"假药"并不是单指成分虚假的药品,它的范围更宽一些。

我国药品管理法规定,有下列情形之一的,为假药:

一是药品所含成分与国家药品标准规定的成份不符的

二是以非药品冒充药品或者以他种药品冒充此种药品的

还有一些按"假药"论处的情形:

一是国务院药品监督管理部门规定禁止使用的

二是依照本法必须批准而未经批准生产、进口,或者依照本法必须检验而未经检验即销售的

三是变质的

四是被污染的

五是使用依照本法必须取得批准文号而未取得批准文号的原料药生产的

六是所标明的适应症或者功能主治超出规定范围的

(关联法条:刑法第一百四十一条)

04.非法买卖枪支罪

商家如果随意售卖"玩具枪"、"仿真枪"则可能会产生触犯非法买卖枪支罪的风险。进行军火买卖的商家不在本文的讨论范围,但是近几年发生过不少因玩具枪和仿真枪引发的刑事案件。

根据《枪支致伤力依据》和《仿真枪认定标准》的规定,枪口比动能≥1.8J/cm2的即为枪支。按上述新标准,如果商家卖出的玩具枪、仿真枪打出的"子弹"对皮肤能打出个红点,很可能就被认定为真"枪"。

(关联法条:刑法第一百二十五条)

05.传播淫秽物品牟利罪

如果销售的商品属于具体描绘性行为或者露骨宣扬色情的诲淫性的书刊、影片、录像带、录音带、图片、音频及其他淫秽物品则会触犯传播淫秽物品牟利罪。但是应当注意,有关人体生理、医学知识的科学著作不是淫秽物品,另外包含有色情内容的有艺术价值的文学、艺术作品也不视为淫秽物品。

(关联法条:刑法第三百六十三条)

商家主体未获相应行政机关特别许可

在我国,有些行业的销售主体是要取得相应的特别行政部门许可的,如果没有,则可能构成非法经营罪。

最为典型的就是卷烟产品,未经烟草专卖行政部门许可、无烟草专卖生产企业许可证、无烟草专卖批发企业许可证、无烟草专卖零售许可证,都属于违反国家烟草专卖管理法律法规,将涉嫌非法经营罪。

此外还有药品、彩票等,商家需要经过特殊审批手续才能销售的,否则都将涉嫌非法经营罪。

(关联法条:刑法第二百二十五条)

因销售途径、进货方式引发

这一条主要是针对许多微商、代购而言的,此类商家通过邮寄、随身携带或者雇佣他人等方式从海外代购化妆品、名牌箱包、外国奶粉等。但是,这种经营方式时刻都在面临刑事风险。

根据《海关总署关于进境旅客所携行李物品验放标准有关事宜(2010年第54号)公告》第1条规定:进境居民旅客携带在境外获取的个人自用进境物品,超出5000元人民币、经海关审核确属自用的,海关仅对超出部分的个人自用进境物品征税,对不可分割的单件物品,全额征税。需要注意的是,这里的"自用"指旅客本人自用、馈赠亲友而非为出租或出售;"合理数量"指海关根据旅客旅行目的和居留时间所规定的正常数量。

另根据《关于跨境贸易电子商务进出境货物、物品有关监管事宜的公告》(2014年第56号公告)的规定:不管是个人到国外购物,还是电商企业做跨境电商进出口业务,都必须接受海关监管,提交相应的货物清单,办理报关手续。未以《货物清单》、《物品清单》方式办理报关手续的跨境电商和海外代购等行为,将都涉嫌走私。

因此,从事海外代购的微商、电商进货未提交相应的货物清单,办理报关手续,则不符合海关的相关规定,可能面临走私普通货物物品罪。

此外,商家在进货的时候应该审慎上游供货商本身的货品来源是否合法、货品本身有无质量问题,因为在很多情形下,本罪的构成是以上游犯罪的成立为前提的。

(关联法条:刑法第一百五十三条)

2.商家预防刑事风险的建议

刑法是商家经营的红线,它与其他法律不同,处罚不是简单的罚款或吊销经营资格,而是要商家用人身自由来反思自己的所作所为,这种沉重代价,让商家的损失更大。

德恒律师建议:

商家要具备法律意识

商家可以没有法律知识,但是必须有法律意识。商家擅长的是经营,可以没有具体的、广博的法律知识,但是不可没有法律意识。商家可以经常向专业的律师了解法律知识,熟悉法律风险,定期对销售行为的法律风险进行评估。

商家处理好与顾客、执法者关系

"钱是万能的、用钱可以消灾"的思想需要改变,出了事想着用钱解决问题只会让隐患越藏越深。无论是市场监管部门的执法者、商家甚至消费者的行为都必须受法律约束。商家更不可以暴力、蛮横解决纠纷,以免摊上更大的麻烦。

商家需学会危机公关

这里的危机公关,我们更倾向于定义为诸如商家被调查时如何应对,进入刑事司法程序后如何主张自己的合法权利,以及如何灵活应对办案人员的违法行为和判决生效后如何进行自我保护等。

了解各个程序可能面临的情况,学会危机公关,避免事态的恶化并最大程度减小损害是商家应该具有的忧患意识。但是最为关键的,还是希望所有的商家都能遵纪守法、良性竞争、和气生财!

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