China: 不动产抵押登记的现实困境及出路

Last Updated: 26 March 2019
Article by DeHeng Law Offices
Most Read Contributor in China, March 2019

不动产抵押一直是各类融资业务中债权人首选的增信措施。抵押登记中的信息错漏将直接导致司法机关对登记背后真实权利信息的误判,并因此损害了抵押权人的利益。而《担保法》第三十五条对不动产抵押做出的禁止超额抵押的限制性规定,直接影响到了各地不动产登记机关的操作,即要求债权人在多重抵押的情况下,在登记时拆分债权以使得登记的债权金额不超过预估的抵押物价值,据此直接导致债权人在实现抵押权时丧失了多重抵押所具有的选择优势,将原本作为备用的抵押物也须列入司法拍卖并因此影响到社会安定。因此,完善不动产抵押登记的登记内容,破除 《担保法》第三十五条所形成的不当限制,改变当前登记机关的做法,从而使债权人与债务人之间合意形成的真实债权与登记债权一致,成为当下不动产登记中亟需解决的一个课题。

土地使用权、在建工程、商品房等不动产具有价值相对稳定、市场认可度高、变现能力强等优势,因此,不动产抵押作为有效增信手段被广泛运用在各种融资交易中,而能否顺利地完成不动产抵押登记,成为金融机构对融资项目可行性的首要考量因素。

应该说,近年来进行的不动产登记改革,已经取得了巨大的成效,各地基本上建立了统一的不动产登记中心,统一的登记机关给统一登记规则、统一操作规范创造了必要的条件。但是,应该看到,目前的抵押登记仍存在诸多问题,在登记操作细则、利害关系人查阅程序、司法查封配合度等方面仍是一城一策,一地一法,不仅给当事人办理抵押登记造成困扰,更因此实质上影响到抵押权人的实体权利。

本文即从目前各地不动产抵押登记的现实操作入手,分析现有登记信息的缺漏给抵押权人造成的实体权利影响,分析部分地方因囿于超额抵押登记的禁止性规定,在同一债权存在多个抵押物的场景下,给抵押权人造成的现实困境;并就前述困境,尝试从规则建设的角度提出解决问题的出路。

一、不动产抵押登记的现状覧信息缺漏

笔者查阅了北京、上海、武汉、重庆等多地的不动产抵押登记申请表,抵押信息部分的内容基本一致,截取表格信息如下:

抵押

情况

被担保债权数额

(最高债权数额)

债务履行期限

(债权确定期间)

X年X月至X年X月

在建建筑物抵押范围

设定抵押的填写,

未设定抵押的填:/

上述抵押登记的内容包括:被担保的债权额(最高债权数额)、债务履行期限、抵押物范围三项。除此之外,部分城市还有抵押类型的选项,但没有担保范围的填写项。

虽然如上所示,抵押登记表中有关抵押登记的信息仅有被担保的债权额(最高债权数额)、债务履行期限、抵押物范围三项,部分机构为方便登记,还以表格内容提示、填写说明等方式对填写的内容进行了提示与指导,但结合笔者亲历的融资项目来看,抵押登记在实际操作环节还是会对当事人造成巨大的困惑,且主要集中在怎么填写"被担保的债权数额(最高债权数额)"上,是按主债权即债权本金填写,还是预估可能发生的最高债权数额并据此填写。

从笔者查找的各地不动产抵押登记表来看,对于"被担保的债权数额(最高债权数额)",有的登记机关解释为"按债权合同金额填写",有的登记机关解释为"指被担保的主债权数额"。由于债权合同中仅可能约定主债权,对于融资期间的利息、罚息、复利、违约金等孳息类债权,一般而言只会约定计算方法,不会约定具体数额,因此,按"债权合同金额"写一般情况下应指合同中约定的融资本金。而"被担保的主债权数额",依据《担保法》第二十一条之规定,保证担保的范围包括主债权及利息、违约金、损害赔偿金和实现债权的费用,可见法律上规定的主债权即是指债权本金,不包括利息、罚息、复利、违约金等孳息类债权。如此看来,二者并没有冲突,如何会有操作上的困惑呢?

为理解操作上的困惑,我们来看一则案例:四川省高级人民法院就四川省国信融资担保有限公司、眉山市青华商贸有限公司追偿权纠纷作出的二审民事判决书【案号:(2017)川民终70号】。四川省国信融资担保有限公司因为眉山市青华商贸有限公司本金490万元和垫付贷款期间利息123,700.59元承担了担保代偿责任,请求法院判令青华公司向国信担保公司支付代偿的借款,四川省国信融资担保有限公司对反担保人袁礼萍等三人抵押的房产享有优先受偿权;经一、二审审判后,四川高院判定:四川省国信融资担保有限公司对抵押房产享有优先受偿权,优先权范围应以抵押登记记载的债权数额264万元为准。理由如下:

《反担保抵押合同》均约定反担保范围为《保证合同》项下国信担保公司对借款人青华公司所作的保证金额500万元以及代偿之日的利息、罚息、违约金、赔偿金、实现债权的所有费用等,而前述他项权证以及《房屋信息摘要》均未记载担保范围,仅载明被担保债权数额为264万元,即合同约定内容与登记记载内容并不一致。对此,本院认为,建立不动产抵押登记制度,意在以可识别的外在形式向社会公众显示特定不动产上设立的权利负担信息及其具体情况,使物权在当事人之间设定的同时,对第三人产生公示的作用和对社会公众产生公信的效力,以实现相关物权法律关系的明晰和交易秩序的稳定。 《中华人民共和国物权法》第十六条第一款规定:不动产登记簿是物权归属和内容的依据;最高人民法院 《关于适用〈中华人民共和国担保法〉若干问题的解释》第六十一条也明确规定:抵押物登记记载的内容与抵押合同约定的内容不一致的,以登记记载的内容为准。因此,未经登记公示的事项,因形式要件的欠缺,不产生对抗性的物权效力。本案中,相关房屋抵押登记仅记载被担保的债权数额各为264万元,该数额与合同约定的债权本金数额也不一致。虽然形成该登记内容的原因并不明确,但就本案的抵押权人国信担保公司而言,其仅得在抵押登记记载的债权数额内享有优先受偿权。

从上述判决可以看出,司法实践中,抵押登记中的"被担保的债权数额"被司法认定为担保范围,亦即抵押权人的权利范围!至此,我们就理解了债权人的困惑覧不在于将合同中约定的"主债权数额"即债务本金填写在"被担保的债权数额(最高债权数额)"栏中,而是因为司法实践中将该数额认定为担保范围,并因此限定了其实现抵押权的效力范围!

为了规避这一风险,抵押权人一般会在登记时将"被担保的主债权数额"加入融资期间的利息、罚息、复利、违约金等孳息。但这一操作方式,一方面可能导致登记机关在核对主债权合同时不能通过(要求依据主合同金额填写),另一方面抵押人对可能发生的违约行为以及因此引发的违约金则难以预估;对融资期间可以精准估算,对融资期间之后到实现权利期间的各种孳息,就更难以估算了,因此才出现了抵押权人在抵押登记时的现实困惑。

二、不动产抵押登记的现状覧债权分拆

不动产抵押登记中另外一个现实的困境即是"被担保的债权数额(最高债权数额)"是否需要与抵押物价值匹配,在同一债权存在多个抵押物的情景下,如何匹配的问题。

据笔者了解,目前除北京、杭州、宁波等部分行政区的不动产登记中心外,包括成都、合肥、芜湖、三亚、南京、上海、深圳、温州、乌鲁木齐等在内的多地不动产登记机关均不允许不动产抵押物的超额抵押,甚至部分地区要求土地使用权抵押所担保的债权本金不得超过土地评估价值的一定比例!应该说,各金融机构内部一般都会有抵押率的限制,所以在单一抵押物的情况下,一般不会出现债权金额大于抵押物价值的情况,但是,理论有多骨感,现实有就多丰满!融资交易可能会基于不同的信用评价基准进行,可能在于融资方的成长性,可能在于抵押物的开发价值(而不是现有价值),也可能在于多个抵押物的集合价值,因此,不排除被担保的主债权金额会大于抵押登记时抵押物的价值,特别是在同一债权存在多个抵押物的情景下,债权金额一般会大于每个抵押物的价值,而小于各个抵押物的合计价值。这种情况下,前述登记机关会要求将一个整体的债权拆分为多个小金额的债权,以使得每个抵押物的被担保的债权数额皆不超过抵押物价值。这就为抵押权人实现抵押权造成了如下困境:

抵押物的价值是动态的,在抵押权人实现抵押权时方可确定。因此,抵押权人在实现抵押权时,可视届时各个抵押物的价值状况、变现难易程度等,选择性地行使抵押权,以有效配合其处置目标。在部分抵押物的处置价款即足以实现抵押权的情况下,抵押权人即可以单就该部分抵押物采取执行措施,并因此支出评估、拍卖费用。可是,如果依据登记机关的要求对被担保的债权数额进行了拆分,且依据如上司法判例,被担保的债权数额即是抵押权的效力范围,则抵押权人只能就全部抵押物采取司法措施,因此不仅增加了操作的时间成本、费用成本,而且会因此影响到了抵押人对每个抵押物的正常使用与经营,造成了不必要的社会资源浪费,更不利于落实金融支持实体经济的政策要求。

三、不动产抵押登记困境的出路

上述困境的问题在于:将抵押登记的"被担保的债权数额"与"担保范围"等同,二是囿于《担保法》第35条对超额抵押的禁止性规定,即抵押人所担保的债权不得超出其抵押物的价值,财产抵押后,该财产的价值大于所担保债权的余额部分,可以再次抵押,但不得超出其余额部分。为解决前述问题,笔者认为,首先,解决抵押权登记的规则体系,其次,统一具体登记机关的登记规则。

(一)规则体系建设覧有关登记事项

《物权法》《担保法》中皆没有规定抵押登记的具体事项。但对抵押合同应包括的条款作了规定:即(一)被担保债权的种类和数额;(二)债务人履行债务的期限;(三)抵押财产的名称、数量、质量、状况、所在地、所有权归属或者使用权归属;(四)担保的范围。

《不动产登记暂行条例》及《不动产登记暂行条例实施细则》亦未直接规定应予登记的抵押事项。但《不动产登记暂行条例实施细则》第二十六条有关权利变更登记的规定中,规定抵押担保的范围、主债权数额、债务履行期限、抵押权顺位发生变化的,不动产权利人可以向不动产登记机构申请变更登记;《不动产登记暂行条例实施细则》第六十八条规定,应予申请变更登记的情形包括:(一)抵押人、抵押权人的姓名或者名称变更的;(二)被担保的主债权数额变更的;(三)债务履行期限变更的;(四)抵押权顺位变更的;(五)法律、行政法规规定的其他情形。因被担保债权主债权的种类及数额、担保范围、债务履行期限、抵押权顺位发生变更申请抵押权变更登记时,如果该抵押权的变更将对其他抵押权人产生不利影响的,还应当提交其他抵押权人书面同意的材料与身份证或者户口簿等材料。据此反推,抵押登记事项应包括:被担保债权主债权的种类及数额、担保范围、债务履行期限、抵押权顺位。

笔者在检索各地不动产抵押登记信息时看到了南京市的《不动产抵押登记申请表》,抵押登记直接相关的信息截取如下:

抵押权情况

□ 被担保主债权数额

□ 最高债权数额

万元(小写)

□ 债务履行期限

□ 债权确定期间

(大写)

在建建筑物抵押范围

担保范围

□主债权及其利息 □违约金 □损害赔偿金 □实现抵押权的费用

□其他

最高额抵押担保的债权确定的情形

□约定的债权确定期间届满 □新的债权不可能发生 □抵押财产被查封、扣押

□没有约定债权确定期间或者约定不明确,抵押权人或者抵押人自最高额抵押权设立之日起满二年后请求确定债权

□债务人、抵押人被宣告破产或者被撤销

□法律规定债权确定的其他情形

南京的抵押登记信息与北京、上海、武汉、重庆等地的抵押登记信息相比,不同之处在于:

1.明确登记的是"被担保的主债权数额",而不是"被担保的债权数额";

2."最高债权数额"未列示为"被担保的债权数额"的括弧内,而是专栏填写;

3.增加了"担保范围"一栏,且增加的内容是列示内容的勾选式,而非金额填写式。

应该说,南京的登记信息不仅包括了上述必要登记事项,而且在"担保范围"一栏中列示了担保的范围,而不是要求填写金额,不仅解决了"被担保的主债权数额"与"担保范围"之间的区别,从而避免了司法实践中将登记的"被担保的债权数额"认定为"担保范围"给抵押权人造成的困境,而且兼顾了抵押设定时,仅能确定本金的实际情况。笔者认为,南京的登记信息可以作为各地不动产抵押登记的范式表格推行,从而解决因目前登记信息缺漏造成的问题。

(二)规则体系建设覧有关被担保的主债权数额与抵押物价值的匹配

如前所述,造成登记机关要求被担保的主债权数额不超过抵押物价值的原因在于《担保法》第35条有关禁止超额抵押的规定,即抵押人所担保的债权不得超出其抵押物的价值,财产抵押后,该财产的价值大于所担保债权的余额部分,可以再次抵押,但不得超出其余额部分。

《最高人民法院关于适用〈中华人民共和国担保法〉若干问题的解释》第五十一条规定,抵押人所担保的债权超出其抵押物价值的,超出的部分不具有优先受偿的效力。据此即以规定超额抵押效力的方式间接否定了担保法对超额抵押的禁止规定。《物权法》没有就超额抵押再作出规定,依据 《物权法》第一百七十八条规定的担保法与本法的规定不一致的适用本法之规定, 《担保法》第三十五条规定的禁止超额抵押已经被《物权法》所废弃。

据此可见,现行法律层面的规则体系中,已经不存在超额抵押的禁止性规定了。

(三)规则体系建设覧登记操作细则

如前所述,实践中出现的因抵押登记信息缺漏以及应登记机关要求进行的分拆债权并非法律体系本身的问题,而是登记的实施性规则不明确所致。据此,笔者建议通过修订或者补充《不动产登记暂行条例实施细则》,在如下环节对不动产抵押登记的具体操作进行规范:

1.明确不动产抵押登记的必要内容,将担保范围列入登记内容;

2.规范登记用语,将"被担保的债权数额"规范为"被担保的主债权数额";

3.统一操作规则,破除法律误解,不再要求登记申请人对登记的"被担保的主债权数额"限定在抵押物价值范围内。

四、结语

物权始终贯彻着有形化的思路,让抽象无形的物权权利在变动时穿上具体可视的外衣0。根据物权的基本制度设计,抵押权因不动产抵押登记行为而获取物权决定力并在此基础上形成物权公信力,从而使抵押权人在动态的交易过程中获得权益保障,因此,登记行为是物权权利从当事人之间的意思合致走向社会公众并具有对世效力的关键连接点。

各地登记机关在不动产抵押登记时秉持不同的操作标准,在登记信息中缺漏必要信息,也由于多数登记机关囿于 《担保法》第三十五条的束缚,迫使债权人不得不采取拆分债权抵押的方式,以实现不动产抵押权登记,这就造成了债权人真实债权与登记债权的分离,从而在发生司法争议时,债权人的真实债权无法获得足额保障。

基于上述,在我国正在编纂民法典的大背景下,期待立法者审视抵押登记的具体规则,破除《担保法》第三十五条的规则枷锁,完善不动产抵押登记相关要求,统一登记规则,以破除不动产抵押登记中的现实困境。

[1]【德】曼弗雷德"沃尔夫:《物权法》,吴越等译,法律出版社2002年版,第15-16页。

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