China: China's New Anti-Unfair Competition Law - More Extensive And Detailed Protection (Chinese)

2017年11月4日,中国全国人大常委会通过了新修订的《中华人民共和国反不正当竞争法》(简称"新《反不正当竞争法》"),此次修订是反不正当竞争法(简称"旧《反不正当竞争法》")自1993年施行以来的第一次重大修订,于2018年1月1日起施行。

本文主要针对此次修订中的一些重要的变化和亮点进行介绍,提示市场主体在中国市场经营中可能存在的不正当竞争的风险并维护自身合法权益。

此次修订的目的

根据《反不正当竞争法(修订草案)》的说明,此次修订的主要目的在于(一):对实践中新出现的扰乱竞争秩序、具有明显不正当竞争性质的行为,现行法未作列举;现行法列举的不正当竞争行为,其特征发生变化,反不正当竞争的执法依据不够充分。(二)是对不正当竞争行为的规制和治理机制还不够完善。民事损害赔偿制度在治理不正当竞争行为中的作用有待进一步加强,行政查处措施有待进一步创新,需要根据加强事中事后监管的要求,完善民事责任和行政处罚有机联系,并以刑事责任为最后惩戒手段的法律责任体系。(三)是现行法施行以后,又制定了反垄断法、招标投标法等法律,现行法与这些法律存在交叉重叠甚至不一致的内容,需要修改现行法,以保持法律规定的协调一致。

修订后的主要变化

适用范围的延伸

新《反不正当竞争法》的第二条进一步明确并适当延伸了反不正当竞争法的规制范围,适用范围从"市场交易"修改为"生产经营活动",并经营者的定义从"从事商品经营或者营利性服务"的主体修改为"从事商品生产、经营或者提供服务"的主体,从而将反不正当竞争法的适用范围从流通领域延伸到生产领域。

加强了对于各类商业标识的保护

此次修订了删除旧《反不正当竞争法》第五条关于混淆行为中关于侵犯注册商标和虚假宣传的内容,厘清了和其他相关法以及反不正当竞争法关于虚假宣传部分的关系,同时增加了企业简称、字号、社会组织名称(包括简称等)、自然人姓名(包括笔名、艺名、译名等)、域名主体部分、网站名称、网页作为保护对象,并增加了"其他足以引人误认为是他人商品或者与他人存在特定联系的混淆行为"的兜底条款。

明确界定了商业贿赂的行贿和受贿主体

旧《反不正当竞争法》第八条对于商业贿赂的规定比较原则,对于可以构成商业贿赂的主体并未进行明确界定。此次修改中,将行贿主体明确为三类:(一)交易相对方的工作人员;(二)受交易相对方委托办理相关事务的单位或者个人;(三)利用职权或者影响力影响交易的单位或者个人。且必须以谋取交易机会或竞争优势为前提条件。于此同时新《反不正当竞争法》明确规定,商业贿赂一般应视为经营者的整体行为,除非经营者有证据证明行贿行为系工作人员个人行为与为经营者谋取交易机会或者竞争优势无关。

新增虚假宣传(刷单)的不正当竞争行为

为了适应目前不正当竞争行为的发展趋势,尤其是电子商务平台的蓬勃发展,此次修订明确将虚假的"用户评价"以及"组织虚假交易"作为不正当竞争行为的一种,予以禁止。并且将此类"刷单"行为的受益方和帮助者都作为规制的对象。

增加了经营者员工和离职员工侵犯商业秘密的规定

此次修订在商业秘密部分除适当放宽商业秘密的认定条件(取消了实用性的要求)外,更为适应商业秘密侵权的实际情况,规定"第三人明知或者应知商业秘密权利人的员工、前员工或者其他单位、个人实施前款所列违法行为,仍获取、披露、使用或者允许他人使用该商业秘密的,视为侵犯商业秘密。"

增加了利用互联网技术进行不正当竞争行为的条款

新《反不正当竞争法》第十二条对利用技术手段在互联网领域,通过影响用户选择或者其他方式,实施下列妨碍、破坏其他经营者合法提供的网络产品或者服务正常运行的行为进行了明确禁止。包括 :(一)未经其他经营者同意,在其合法提供的网络产品或者服务中,插入链接、强制进行目标跳转;(二)误导、欺骗、强迫用户修改、关闭、卸载其他经营者合法提供的网络产品或者服务;(三)恶意对其他经营者合法提供的网络产品或者服务实施不兼容;(四)其他妨碍、破坏其他经营者合法提供的网络产品或者服务正常运行的行为。该条款将为行政部门未来的行政执法以及法院在具体案件中的裁量提供法律依据并统一标准。

加强行政执法权限,增加违法成本

新《反不正当竞争法》第13条对于行政执法部门在调查不正当竞争行为时可以采取的措施进行了比较细致的规定,包括进入相关经营场所,要求提供资料,查封扣押财物以及查询经营者银行账户等。同时要求行政执法部门应当根据《行政强制法》的规定履行职责并承担责任。

对于构成不正当竞争行为的,新法大大提高了行政处罚的力度,对于混淆行为可以处违法经营额五倍以下、或并处二十五万以下罚款,对于其他不正当经营行为最高可处三百万元罚款并吊销营业执照,大大提高了行政处罚的威慑力。

企业名称变更可作为处罚措施,并对混淆行为和侵犯商业秘密的行为可适用法定赔偿

考虑到对于企业名称本身可以构成混淆的不正当竞争行为并且在实际执行中存在难度,本次修改明确"经营者登记的企业名称违反本法第六条规定的,应当及时办理名称变更登记;名称变更前,由原企业登记机关以统一社会信用代码代替其名称。"使行政机关自行变更其企业名称有法可依。

此外,由于混淆的不正当竞争行为和侵犯商业秘密行为中证明权利人损失或侵权方所得的实际困难,此次修订对这两种行为增加了法定赔偿的选择,并将最高额设置为三百万元。

2018年1月《中国法律快讯》的完整链接和其他文章的链接如下:

The content of this article is intended to provide a general guide to the subject matter. Specialist advice should be sought about your specific circumstances.

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