China: 中国法院认定外仲裁决违反公共政策 之标准及实例分析

Last Updated: 18 December 2017
Article by Allbright Law Office

 《承认及执行外国仲裁裁决公约》(《纽约公约》)第五条第一款将"承认或执行裁决有违该国公共政策者"作为拒绝承认与执行仲裁裁决的一项例外规定,但并未对"公共政策"的概念作出明确界定,为各国法院及仲裁机构在实务操作中留下了充足的自由裁量空间。作为《纽约公约》的缔约国之一,我国也未对"公共政策"的含义进行法条解释,但随着近年来中外商业贸易与国际商事仲裁的不断发展,"公共政策"的概念及使用标准也在实务操作中不断精细化、具体化。

中国法下,对于所有拒绝执行涉外或外国仲裁裁决的案件,一审法院须遵照《最高人民法院关于人民法院处理与涉外仲裁及外国仲裁事项有关问题的通知》中规定的逐级上报制度——"在裁定不予执行或者拒绝承认和执行之前,必须报请本辖区所属高级人民法院进行审查;如果高级人民法院同意不予执行或者拒绝承认和执行,应将其审查意见报最高人民法院。待最高人民法院答复后,方可裁定不予执行或者拒绝承认和执行"。

本文基于对多份涉及承认与执行外国仲裁裁决的案例以及最高院复函的分析,对于中国法院认定外国仲裁裁决违反中国公共政策的审查标准做一简析,主要围绕肯定性标准与否定性标准进行探讨。

此处需要注意的是,虽然《纽约公约》下的用词是"公共政策(public policy)",学术界也有对"公共利益(public interest)"与"公共政策"两者间关系的讨论,但是中国法下不论是《仲裁法》还是《民事诉讼法》均使用"公共利益"一词,可以理解为在中国法下,当讨论仲裁裁决的执行问题时将"公共利益"与《纽约公约》下的"公共政策"等同使用,并没有刻意加以区分。这点也体现在最高法院就一些仲裁执行案件的复函中,也经常混合出现"公共利益"与"公共政策"。故而,本文为方便讨论,也不对"公共利益"与"公共政策"加以区分。

一、 标准及实例分析

(一) 肯定性标准

1. 违反我国法律基本原则

1) 一般实体法的基本原则不与公共政策直接挂钩

我国法院认为,国内一般实体法的基本原则不宜被简单地当做社会公共政策。因此,即便一项外国仲裁裁决违反我国一般实体法的基本原则,法院也不会轻易地拒绝承认和执行。

在2003年香港享进粮油公司案 1中,合肥市中级法院和安徽省高院均认为"香港国际仲裁中心的仲裁裁决之任何过错的责任理应由海南高富瑞公司和享进公司承担,由安徽粮油公司承担违约责任有悖于我国民商事法律的立法精神,违反了民商事活动应当遵循的自愿、公平、等价有偿、诚实信用的基本原则。强制执行的结果既侵害了安徽粮油公司的合法权益,又扰乱了社会经济秩序,损害了社会公共利益。"但是,最高院在给安徽省高院的复函中指出不宜援引"公共政策"作为不予执行本案仲裁裁决的法律依据。

2) 根本性的法律原则事关公共政策

具有普遍意义的根本性或基本性的法律原则,尤其是宪法层面的基本原则和制度,应当纳入"公共政策"范畴。违反此类法律原则的外国仲裁裁决,应当不予承认和执行。对于我国来说,这种原则具体指四项基本原则、国家统一和民族团结、和平共处五项基本原则、一国两制原则等。 2

2. 侵犯我国国家主权

在司法实践中,我国法院遇到的主要是外国仲裁裁决是否侵犯我国司法主权的认定问题。

1) 侵犯我国司法管辖权构成对我国公共政策的违反

对于违反我国司法管辖权的仲裁裁决,我国法院倾向于援引公共政策理由不予执行。在2008年Hemofarm案 3中,我国最高院认为"在中国有关法院就济南永宁制药股份有限公司与合资公司济南—海慕法姆制药有限公司之间的租赁合同纠纷裁定对合资公司的财产进行保全并作出判决的情况下,国际商会仲裁院再对济南永宁制药股份有限公司与合资公司济南—海慕法姆制药有限公司之间的租赁合同纠纷进行审理并裁决,侵犯了中国的司法主权和中国法院的司法管辖权",并援引"公共政策/公共利益"为理由,拒绝承认和执行国际商会的该项仲裁裁决。

2) 将纯粹国内争议提交境外仲裁机构裁决的仲裁条款无效

如果存在将国内争议提交外国仲裁机构裁决的仲裁条款,我国法院倾向于援引《纽约公约》第5条第1款第1项的规定,优先以仲裁条款无效为由拒绝承认和执行涉案仲裁裁决,而不是认定该仲裁裁决侵犯我国的司法管辖权。

在北京朝来新生体育休闲有限公司申请承认和执行外国仲裁裁决一案中,最高院认为"我国法律未授权当事人将不具有涉外因素的争议交由境外仲裁机构或者在我国境外临时仲裁,故本案当事人约定将争议提交大韩商事仲裁院仲裁的条款属无效协议......得拒予承认及执行仲裁裁决,故本案所涉仲裁裁决应不予承认,但你院同时认为适用《纽约公约》第5条第2款(乙)项规定的公共政策事由不当,应予纠正。" 4

3) 涉自贸区案件具备涉外要素

2016年12月30日颁布的《最高人民法院关于为自由贸易试验区建设提供司法保障的意见》第9条规定了无涉外因素不得提交域外仲裁的例外——争议各方均为自贸区内注册的外商独资企业,则即使案件无涉外因素,当事人仍可以约定域外仲裁。我国法院倾向于将符合规定的涉自贸区案件认定为特殊的涉外案件,而非纯粹的国内争议案件。因此,将此类案件提交外国仲裁机构解决的仲裁协议是有效的,不构成对我国司法主权的侵犯。

在西门子国际贸易(上海)有限公司申请承认与执行外国仲裁裁决一案 5中,最高院指出虽然涉案双方均为中国法人,所签订的《货物供应合同》不具有典型的涉外因素,但是"本案属于涉自贸区案件,双方当事人均为外资独资子公司",且申请人提起仲裁程序后,被申请人在提出管辖权异议并被仲裁庭驳回后又提出了反请求,双方均实际参与了全部仲裁程序,被申请人在仲裁裁决做出后部分履行了仲裁裁决确定的义务。因此,本案仲裁协议符合《最高人民法院关于适用<中华人民共和国涉外民事关系法律适用法>若干问题的解释(一)》第一条第五项中"可以认定为涉外民事关系的其他情形"。此外,没有证据证明承认与执行该仲裁裁决将违反我国公共政策。

3. 危害我国国家及社会公共安全

从目前的司法实践来看,我国还没有直接以"危害国家及社会公共安全"为由拒绝承认和执行外国仲裁裁决的案例。然而,依据最高院对有关案件的复函,在认定仲裁裁决违反本国公共政策时,国家及社会公共安全是一个很重要的考量因素。

在舟山中粮公司申请不予执行香港国际仲裁中心裁决案 6中,宁波市中院和浙江省高院均认为,来宝公司进口到厦门的该批大豆存在质量瑕疵,会给食用油和豆粕带来严重的安全卫生问题。我国政府出于保护国内食品卫生安全和消费者生命健康为目的发布禁令,符合国际惯例和我国法律。中粮公司遵守政府禁令并无过错,仲裁庭让中国企业来承担所有的责任有失公允。

最高院在给浙江省高院的复函中并未对"危害公共安全和健康是否等同于违反我国社会公共利益"这一问题进行答复,而是重新对案件事实作出认定,认为"该批货物符合进境检验检疫要求,不在禁止入境的货物之列。此外,并无证据表明涉案货物会带来严重的安全卫生问题,也不存在有损公众健康的事实。因此,执行香港国际仲裁中心的仲裁裁决并不违反社会公共利益。"如果在考察外国仲裁裁决是否违反我国公共政策时,"国家和社会安全"是一个无关紧要的因素,那么,最高院也无需重新考察在该案中是否存在危害国家和社会公共安全的情形。

4. 违反我国社会的善良风俗

在妇女旅行社案7中,北京市一中院认为来华演出的乐队表演内容与样带不符,表演了我国国情不能接受的重金属歌曲,并且演员在演出中有抽烟、洒水、躺在地上唱等行为,对中国社会造成了不良影响,违背了我国社会公共利益,因而决定对本案所涉仲裁裁决不予执行。北京市高院和最高人民法院均同意北京市一中院的意见。

依据本案,如果仲裁裁决的承认和执行会导致损害我国社会的善良风俗,我国法院将会援引公共政策理由对该仲裁裁决不予执行。其次,对"善良风俗"的理解带有很强烈的时代印记,法院在具体认定时会结合社会背景进行把握。在对外国文化演出严格管制的上个世纪90年代里,某一仲裁裁决会被认定为损害中国社会善良风俗,而时至今日,法院很可能会做出不一样的认定。

(二) 否定性标准

1. 推后公共政策的适用顺位

由于"公共政策"的解释空间大,且具有不确定性,因此我国法院不仅对公共政策的适用从严把握,还将其适用顺位推后。如果存在其他拒绝承认和执行仲裁裁决的理由,就不再考虑公共政策的适用问题。

在2007年邦基农贸公司案 8中,当事人的争议焦点之一是"该仲裁裁决是否违反中国社会公共利益",广东省高院认为"不宜认定该仲裁裁决在中国的承认和执行违反了中国社会公共利益"。最高院给广东省高院的复函中援引了《纽约公约》第5条第1款第4项"仲裁机关之组成或仲裁程序与各造间协议不符",拒绝承认和执行该仲裁裁决,而没有对"社会公共利益"的适用问题进行讨论。

此外,存在类似处理情形的案例还包括:不予承认日本商事仲裁协会东京04-05号仲裁裁决案(日本信越公司和江苏中天公司案) 9、不予承认和执行社团法人日本商事仲裁协会东京05-03号仲裁裁决(日本信越公司和天津鑫茂公司案) 10,等等。

2. 违反我国法律、行政法规、部门规章中的强制性规定不能等同于违反我国的公共政策

对我国法律、行政法规、部门规章中强制性规定的违反不能等同于对"公共政策"的违反,以下举两例说明。

1) 违反限制期货交易的强制性规定

在曼氏公司案中,最高院指出"依照我国有关法律法规的规定,境内企业未经批准不得擅自从事境外期货交易。中国糖业酒类集团公司未经批准擅自从事境外期货交易的行为,依照中国法律无疑应认定为无效。但违反我国法律的强制性规定不能完全等同于违反我国的公共政策。" 11

2) 违反外汇管制的强制性规定

在三井物产公司案中,最高院指出"海南省纺织工业总公司作为国有企业,在未经国家外汇管理部门批准并办理外债登记手续的情况下,对日本三井物产株式会社直接承担债务,违反了我国有关外债审批及登记的法律规定和国家的外汇管理政策。但是,对于行政法规和部门规章中强制性规定的违反,并不当然构成对我国公共政策的违反。" 12

3. 仲裁结果有失公平不能等同于违反我国的公共政策

在CRD Minproc有限公司案中,最高院指出"在飞轮公司根据合同中有效的仲裁条款就设备质量问题提请仲裁的情况下,仲裁庭对设备质量作出了评判,这是仲裁庭的权力,也是当事人通过仲裁解决纠纷所应当承受的结果。不能以仲裁实体结果是否公平合理作为认定承认和执行仲裁裁决是否违反我国公共政策的标准。" 13

4. 错误理解我国法律不能等同于违反我国的公共政策

在路易达孚公司案中,广东省高院合议庭多数意见认为"涉案仲裁裁决对我国的法律作出否定性评价和曲解,损害了我国法律法规的权威性,违背了我国的公共政策",但是最高院的复函中指出"本案仲裁员认为中国的法律法规的规定与实践中的适用存在明显差距,但该错误认识并不会导致承认与执行该仲裁裁决违反我国公共政策。因此,本案适用公共政策为由拒绝承认与执行该仲裁裁决缺乏足够依据。" 14

二、 趋势分析及实务建议

《纽约公约》及我国《仲裁法》、《民事诉讼法》下虽然都对不予承认与执行仲裁裁决的理由进行了罗列,但是这些条款的本意是支持仲裁裁决(特别是外国仲裁裁决)的承认与执行,并且将不予执行的情形限缩到相关条款所罗列的几种情形之内。在这些罗列的事项中,虽然"公共政策/公共利益"看似是一个兜底条款,实则相反——依据公共政策/利益不予执行外国仲裁裁决的可适用范围是很狭窄的。

从以上实例与复函中可以看出,我国法院对于"公共政策"这一例外使用非常谨慎,除去仅有几例以公共政策条款拒绝承认与执行外国仲裁裁决的案件外,绝大多数相关仲裁裁决均在中国得以承认与执行。我国就承认与执行涉外及外国仲裁裁决的问题,在立法层面也对不予承认与执行的情形进行了较为严格的限定,并且通过司法实践中强调法院的逐级上报制度来进一步限制不予承认与执行涉外及外国仲裁裁决的发生。

因此,对于当事人而言,在国际商事纠纷中,应当尽可能以其他更为明晰的例外条款替代公共政策条款作为提请法院拒绝承认与执行外国仲裁裁决的依据。此外,在仅能以公共政策条款为申请依据的情况下,也应特别注意本文中列举的否定性标准。

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Footnotes

1《最高人民法院关于香港享进粮油食品有限公司申请执行香港国际仲裁中心仲裁裁决案的复函》,([2003]民四他字第9号)。

2 这一点尚没有具体立法和司法实践支撑,主要参见何其生教授在《国际商事仲裁司法审查中的公共政策》一文中的观点。

3《最高人民法院关于不予承认和执行国际商会仲裁院仲裁裁决的请示的复函》,([2008]民四他字第11号)。

4《最高人民法院关于北京朝来新生体育休闲有限公司申请承认大韩商事仲裁院作出的第12113-0011号、第12112-0012号仲裁裁决案件请示的复函》,([2013]民四他字第64号)。

5《最高人民法院关于西门子国际贸易(上海)有限公司申请承认与执行外国仲裁裁决一案的请示的复函》,([2015]民四他字第5号)。

6《最高人民法院关于舟山中海粮油工业有限公司申请不予执行香港国际仲裁中心仲裁裁决一案的请示报告的复函》,([2009]民四他字第2号)。

7美国制作公司、汤姆"胡莱特公司与中国妇女旅行社演出合同纠纷仲裁裁决不予执行案。

8《最高人民法院关于邦基农贸新加坡私人有限公司申请承认和执行英国仲裁裁决一案的请示的复函》,([2006]民四他字第41号)。

9《最高人民法院关于不予承认日本商事仲裁协会东京04-05号仲裁裁决的报告的复函》,([2007]民四他字第26号)。

10《最高人民法院关于裁定不予承认和执行社团法人日本商事仲裁协会东京05-03号仲裁裁决的报告的答复》,([2008]民四他字第18号)。

11《最高人民法院关于ED&F曼氏(香港)有限公司申请承认和执行伦敦糖业协会仲裁裁决案的复函》,([2003]民四他字第3号)。

12《最高人民法院关于对海口中院不予承认和执行瑞典斯德哥尔摩商会仲裁院仲裁裁决请示的复函》,([2001]民四他字第12号)。

13《最高人民法院关于GRD Minproc有限公司申请承认并执行瑞典斯德哥尔摩商会仲裁院仲裁裁决一案的请示的复函》,([2008]民四他字第48号)。

14《最高人民法院关于路易孚达商品亚洲有限公司申请承认和执行国际油、种子和脂肪协会作出的第3980号仲裁裁决请示一案的复函》,([2010]民四他字第48号)。

Originally published by Lexology, November 24 2017

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